Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The course explores the evolutionary basis for human variability. For this purpose, the course will deal with a review of principles of human evolution, fossil evidence, relationship among human and non-human primates in behavioral and morphological characteristics, human inter-population differences, and environmental factors that account for these differences. (Frisancho)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology and must be dispensed with before we can make sense out of the very real aspects of human biological variation. This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These will be contrasted with the biological traits that show regional clustering but which have no adaptive value and cannot therefore be hierarchically arranged. (2) If the common concept of race has an inadequate biological base, how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that they owe more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept. All the material covered by the course will be dealt with in lecture. Supplementary readings will be suggested from time to time, along with specific sections in the assigned texts. Texts: A.R. Frisancho, Human Adaptation; C.L. Brace, The Stages of Human Evolution. Lecture outlines (syllabus) and C.L. Brace, Race is a Four Letter Word will be available at Kinko's copying. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Brace)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology and Anthropology/ Zoology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors advisor for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the College Honors Program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program.

565. Evolution of Genus Homo. Anthro. 365 or 466 or the equivalent. Primarily for students concentrating in biological anthropology or vertebrate evolution. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Evolution of Homo Sapiens from its Australopithecine ancestor, and the appearance of modern humans and their races are the focus of this course. Topics include the hunter/gather adaptation and the late Pliocene origin of Homo sapiens, habitation of the world and the origin of races; the "Eve" theory of modern human origins; the fate of the European Neanderthals. Three hours of lecture, two hours of scheduled laboratory, and a third unscheduled hour required weekly. There is a midterm, final, and term paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Wolpoff)

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This is an advanced course examining the ecology and behavior of the nonhuman primates. We will employ evolutionary theory to describe and interpret patterns of behavioral diversity as shown by primates living in the wild. Topics include: the evolution of sociality, feeding ecology, reproductive strategies, competition, and cooperation. Grades will be based on midterms and a paper. There is a limited enrollment. Cost:2 (Mitani)

570. Biological Anthropology: An Overview. An undergraduate concentration in anthropology or its equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Human evolution is treated using the perspective of evolutionary theory and taking into account both classical and molecular genetics. The contributions made by the study of both living and fossil non-human primates is also included. The course of human evolution is illustrated by a consideration of the human fossil record in light of how human activities changed the nature of selective forces and contributed to the development of the biological changes visible through time. The emergence of modern "racial" differences is treated in terms of both adaptive and non-adaptive aspects of biological variation. The historical background for the genesis of both biological and social misconceptions concerning the "race" concept constitutes the conclusion of the course. In addition to written midterm and final exams, a term paper is required on a topic to be set in consultation with the instructor. (Brace)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).
Section 001.
This course will introduce students to the four major subfields of anthropology: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and biological anthropology. In the process, we will focus on how each of these subfields helps to explain the cultural, social, and physical aspects of human diversity. An explicit part of this process is exploring how sociocultural differences like gender, and racial and ethnic identity are constructed, and the roles these differences may play in our lives. The first part of the course is devoted to outlining some basic questions that will be addressed throughout the term: What is "culture"? Is there a distinctively human nature? What is the basis of human social groupings, such as culture, race, ethnicity, and class? What kinds of evidence are useful in addressing issues involving human diversity? The subsequent parts of the course will approach specific topics within the discipline both as subjects in their own right and as means to getting answers to these questions. Cost:3 WL:4 (Brawn)

Section 026. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps, a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Peters-Golden)

Section 200 Honors Introduction to Anthropology. This seminar introduces anthropology's modes of inquiry and its four subfields (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), through the examination of subjects which have been central to the discipline's development, such as race, gender, sexuality, and conflict. The course seeks to develop the capacity for informed and critical thinking about evolution and adaptation, human nature and cultural diversity, and to suggest how anthropology can help us understand contemporary issues. It presents students with unifying principles of analysis which link the subfields, as well as with debates through which Anthropology continues to change. The course allows students to explore certain subjects in greater depth. We will use a variety of materials and activities, and students are expected to participate actively in class. There will be an exam and two papers, supplemented by short writing exercises. (Skurski)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

What place does language have in everyday life? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, class, and gender, lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? These are a few of the questions that will be raised in this course, which is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and contributes to social life. Topics covered include: (1) the ways in which languages differ, the ways in which they change, and the reasons for differences and change; (2) the relationships between speech, social class, race, and gender; and (3) the politics of language use in society, including language policy toward issues perceived to be "problems," both in the United States and in other countries. The course has no prerequisites except curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. There will be a required text and a course pack. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ahearn)

285. Cult Archaeology. (4). (SS).

Cult archaeology examines claims in the press and on television that cultural achievements by American Indian people are a consequence of contact with superior beings. The examples will be drawn from the prehistory and contact periods in the New World and the approach will be a case study using critical thinking as an analytical method. Claims of contact with beings from outer space, diffusion of ideas and methods across the Pacific, and pre-Columbian appearance of Europeans and Africans will be examined. The subjects discussed include art, architecture, agriculture, social change and cultural evolution. The goal is for students to learn critical thinking, to understand professional ethics, to appreciate cultural racism and the harm that it does, and to analyze popular beliefs in an imperfect knowledge arena. The course format is lecture and discussion sections. Evaluations are based on section exercises, two exams, and participation. The text is Williams, Fantastic Archaeology; Feder, Myths and Frauds; and a course pack. Slides, videos, and museum specimens supplement the course. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ford)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

403. Japanese Society and Culture. Anthro. 101, 222, or any Japan course. (4). (Excl).

This is a multi-media lecture course designed to introduce and explore salient and inter-related themes, patterns, and practices in post-WW II Japanese society and culture. Our overall aim is to explore the ways in which Japanese women and men, girls and boys (from punks and theater fans to police officers and office workers) learn, unlearn, reproduce, and resist everyday practices and state policies. We will examine critically parochial stereotypes of Japan of both Japanese and non-Japanese invention. There will be about five required texts, a reading packet, two short papers, and an essay final exam. Cost:3 WL:4 (Robertson)

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the basic economic, social, and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic, and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on INSTITUTIONAL characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and slides. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)


447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of Homo sapiens. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to economic anthropology and development in rural, village-based, tribal, peasant, urbanizing and industrializing societies and cultures of the Third World: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Middle East. The FIRST PART reviews the nature of economic anthropology, its scope, objectives, basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation. It discusses economic anthropology as it relates to conventional/development economics. The SECOND PART examines anthropological (social science) perspectives on development and underdevelopment: progress, modernization, acculturation, socioeconomic growth, etc. The THIRD PART is concerned with specific case studies of problems of Third World development and underdevelopment: rural/urban poverty and inequality; women and development; international migration; etc. The course CONCLUDES with an overview of global issues in Third World development and underdevelopment in a post-cold war environment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators and all students with serious interest in comparative cultures and Third World development and underdevelopment. Lecture/discussion format. Films shown in class when available. Final grades based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussion. Basic texts: Lucy Mair, Anthropology and Development; Polly Hill, Development Economics on Trial. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Responses to Personal and Cultural Crisis.
Wherever individuals or whole cultures have faced extreme crisis, extraordinary religious responses have occurred. We will examine such phenomena as ecstatic religion (shamanism, spirit possession, mysticism), and revitalization movements (nativism, cargo cults, fundamentalism, mass conversion), and the anthropological theories which have been advanced to explain them. Can these theories help us to understand the current world religious climate as we approach the second millennium? Grades will be assigned based on a midterm and a final paper. The course is geared toward upper level and graduate students, and a high degree of class participation is expected. Cost:2 WL:1 (Caldwell)

450/Relig. 404. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Williams)

453/CAAS 454. African-American Culture. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to examine the African American as one example of how humans live. It will place distinctive Black behavior within its social context and its history. Because the focus of the course will be distinctive Black behavioral styles our attention will be directed toward the poor urban African American. But that attention requires a discussion of American society and the history of human development. This lecture-seminar course will have one take-home examination and one project for each student and presentations of their findings. The course will suggest some solutions to some African American dilemmas the underclass, urban gangs, addictions, unemployment, and single-parent families. Those suggestions will require a serious examination of contemporary American society and the nature of modern man (humans). How did we become this and how can we change? WL:3 (Williams)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Research Methods.
Mainly for graduate students. This course, conducted as a seminar, examines the expectations of cultural anthropology (academic and applied) as a profession, including the relation between theory and practice in several contexts: Choosing a research area and problem; Grant application strategies; Different kinds of field work (e.g., ethnography, survey research, rapid assessment, team research, longitudinal research); Units of analysis (traditional, transnational, people in motion); Research design, sampling surveys, data coding and entry, scale construction; Data analysis (including statistical) and interpretation. Also considered are forms of anthropological writing, including the evolution of ethnography, professional articles and books, and publications aimed at wider audiences. Course requirements include various written and oral assignments, including a paper or grant proposal based on each student's career/research interests. Cost:2 WL:1 (Kottak)

543. Demographic Approaches in Anthropology. Senior or graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Concept and Method of Cultural and Quantitative Studies.
This course is designed as a survey of anthropological approaches to demographic research. Demography here is the study of life course transitions and familial relationships revolving around events as varied as birth, marriage, the establishment of households, aging, and death. This course is concerned with conceptual assumptions and methods brought to bear on the understanding of these phenomena. It is designed to explore and develop mixed method approaches which give balanced attention to cultural and quantitative analysis in social research. The course is theoretically and practically driven and is divided into three segments. Part one explores the conceptual assumptions of demography and anthropological demography. Part two is designed to develop models of anthropological demography through the examination of concrete case studies. Part three is concerned with the justification and procedures for mixed method research. Students will be exposed to a variety of literatures: philosophy of social science, ethnography, and methodological materials for conducting research. These last include approaches to survey design in ethnographic context and ethnographic field techniques such as oral history, discursive interviews, and the writing of ethnographic fieldnotes. Although demography as defined above provides the substantive examples, this course should appeal to all students interested in combining cultural and behavioral analysis in their work. Coursework will involve lecture, discussion, brief essays, and help on proposal development. Enrollment is limited to 15. (Fricke)


577. Language as Social Action. Anthro. 576, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Language is normally understood as a closed, formal system. As such, it is relatively autonomous from culture, social relations, and vectors of power. The purpose of this course is to develop a framework for viewing language as a social, cultural, and political matrix, a form of action through which social relations, cultural forms, ideology, and consciousness are constituted. Topics covered include: models of language as action; why language and culture can't be viewed as shared systems of meaning; the gendered aspects of language across cultures; the sociolinguistic division of labor; the interactional construction of social actors and of reference; meaning and intentionality; cultural inference and presupposition; language and reproduction of ideology; linguistic hegemony; the reproduction of interactional style; linguistic and cultural polyphony; metalanguage, consciousness, and forms of social authority. Class time will be divided between lecture and discussion. It assumes some background in social anthropology or a related discipline and in formal linguistics. Requirements include: leading a class discussion, a prospectus for a final paper, and a final paper. WL:1 (Ahearn)


380/Class. Arch. 380/Hist. of Art 380. Minoan and Mycenaean Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 and 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Classical Archaeology 380. (Cherry)

386. Early New World Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

The earliest civilizations in both Eastern and Western hemispheres are the focus of this course. The civilizations of most ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Mexico, and Peru will be emphasized. The course begins with brief discussions of the evolution of complex cultural organizations, of the spread of human populations in the planet's many environments, and the beginnings of our agricultural systems. We then consider the geography, economic and political development, and ideologies of each early civilization, based on archaeology and the evidence of the earliest written texts. No special background is assumed. There are two lectures and one discussion section per week. The textbook is Patterns in Prehistory, by Robert Wenke, Oxford University Press. Accomplishment is evaluated on the basis of two in-class short answer and short essay examinations. A research paper is also an option. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wright)

394. Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology. Anthro. 282 and concentration in anthropology; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Maya and Aztec Hieroglyphic Writing.
Undeciphered hieroglyphic writing systems continue to fascinate laymen, students, and professors. Although the Old World produced its share of ancient writing systems (Chinese, Sumerian, Hittite, Egyptian), the focus of this course will be on the New World writing systems. These writing systems were created by the ancient civilizations of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The four main writing systems we will study are those of the Maya, Aztec, Mixtec, and Zapotec. We will also compare those New World writing systems to those of the Old World, particularly to Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. The course has two principal goals: (1) to discuss the content of the ancient Maya, Aztec, Mixtec, and Zapotec texts, and (2) to assess their function in ancient political systems. In-class presentations will constitute the grade. Cost:2 WL:4 (Marcus)

489. Maya and Central American Archaeology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes the cultural evolution of the ancient Maya, whose civilization once extended from eastern Mexico through Guatemala and Belize into El Salvador and Honduras. Stages of development include hunters and gatherers, egalitarian villagers, emerging rank, and the state. Topics include religion, social organization, architecture, political hierarchies, subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, exchange systems, and hieroglyphic writing. The last part of the class covers other tribes and chiefdoms that occupied lower Central America. The grade is based on a paper (midterm) and on the in-class final exam. Cost:1 WL:4 (Marcus)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 001 Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and readers. By midterm, each student should have completed the research and a draft of their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects.

Section 002 Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to review the intellectual history of American archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. WL:1 (Ford)

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