Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to the field of evolutionary biology. We will consider: (1) the evidence for evolution; (2) comparative methods for inferring evolutionary history; (3) an overview of the evolution of cells, organisms and viruses; (4) evolutionary themes such as natural selection, chance, and cooperation; and (5) the consequences of an evolutionary world view for understanding disease, the value of biological diversity, and aspects of human culture. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. The course is designed for students with minimal background in the biological sciences; however, some exposure to biology at the high school level is assumed. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1, you must attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course. (Mindell)

102. Practical Botany. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

Biology 102 is an introductory course about plants: how they are grown and used by people. Each week there are two one-hour lectures and one all afternoon lab at the Botanical Gardens. Lecture topics include: what plants look like; how plants work; how they make their living in nature; using this knowledge to landscape your house, caring for your house plants, and growing your gardens; medicinal plants; plant breeding; agriculture and food; environmental and psychological importance of plants. In the lab, each student has his/her own personal space in a greenhouse to grow plants that can be taken home during the term. Lab activities include: looking at plants; planting seeds; growing plants; rooting cuttings; making medicinal salve; testing soil; preserving garden produce; making hanging baskets; using plant dyes; making bonsai; grafting plants; making wine; and forcing bulbs to flower. The text, An Illustrated Guide to Gardening, will be useful throughout your life. Only prerequisite is your interest in plants. You MUST attend the first lecture and first lab for which you are registered to retain your place; your attendance throughout the term determines part of your grade. Cost: text is about $30, course pack is $5. A special section for first-year students will be opened during the last days of early registration. WL:Sign waitlist near 2111 Natural Science Building. (Estabrook)

106. Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. Open only to freshmen and sophomores, juniors and seniors by permission only. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (3). (NS). (BS).

Biology 106 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible plants, pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, poisonous, medicinal, and psychoactive plants, organic gardening and alternative means of pest control, energy conservation and alternative energy sources, recycling, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, endangered plant and animal species, and economic uses of plants by humans. The course includes two field trips on urban restoration, and organic gardening in practice at the Kaufman farm. Students, either individually or in teams, carry out an Environmental Action Project (EAP). We also have a natural/wild edible foods dinner (prepared by the students). Grade is based on three midterms and the EAP. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kaufman)

108. Introduction to Animal Diversity. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The goal of this course is to describe the diversity of animals. Students will learn about the diversity of animal life, accumulate information and experience that will enhance their appreciation of the natural world, and gain background to enable them to better understand current issues concerning biodiversity and conservation. Lectures will be presented by faculty who work with the animals being considered. Topics for each group of animals studied will include a description of diversity, evolutionary background, natural history, and issues concerning conservation or biodiversity. Students will attend three lectures and one discussion section per week. Participants will read and discuss The Diversity of Life by E.O. Wilson. They will also have available an electronic database of images and text that show and describe the organisms treated in lecture. Grades for the course will be based on two midterms and one final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Myers)

150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Freshman or sophomore standing. Recommended for students considering a concentration in Biology. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Small groups of students meet weekly with a faculty member for group discussions on topics selected by the faculty member. Topics may include biological issues in the news, history of biological ideas, and ethical issues in biological sciences. Students will be introduced to biological research through discussion of faculty research projects and tours of active research laboratories and museum collections. Such tours will be coupled with discussion of scientific questions being pursued in the laboratories visited. Introductory students will have the opportunity to interact directly with a faculty member who will introduce them not only to the basic areas of scientific research but also to the structure and opportunities available in Biology concentration programs. Evaluation of students will be through class participation and short written assignments.

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. Those with credit for Biol. 100 are advised to elect Biol. 195. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs or preprofessional studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are: (1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, (2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, (3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology and (4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (1) cellular and molecular biology, (2) genetics, (3) evolution, and (4) ecology.

Students MUST: (1) attend three lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule ) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought.

For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture/lab course. The first part of the course will deal with the nature of science and the scientific method. Science will be viewed as an approach to viewing the universe. Subjects that will be covered are the scientific method, hypothesis testing, the roles of logic, creativity, and serendipity in scientific discoveries. From a more practical point of view, the structure of a scientific paper will be analyzed. The topics covered in the second part of the course will vary depending on the instructor. Topics which may be covered are the genetic code and information theory, the revolution of molecular biology, genetic engineering and its ethical and social implications, the evolution of biochemical pathways, the properties of life and the search for life on other planets, the issue of gender, race, and intelligence. Cost:2 WL:1

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (1) plant biology; (2) development; (3) animal structure and function; and (4) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152.

Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought.

For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Evolution, as the study of origins and change in life forms, is a unifying theme in biology. This readings and discussion course will focus initially on the development of evolutionary thought and its basis in evidence. From there we will consider the importance of an evolutionary approach in understanding topics as diverse as, the relative age and distributions of life forms, animal behavior and culture, and the origins and persistence of diseases. In doing so we will discuss the roles of natural selection, chance, and self-organization. Writing, speaking, and critical thinking skills will be honed throughout the term. Weekly reading assignments will provide the basis for discussions.

195. Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 130, or equivalent. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (6). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required.

Biology 195 is a one-term alternative to the Biology 152-154 sequence. It differs from 152-154 in the accelerated pace of study and emphasis on the laboratory. Students who enroll in the course should be aware of the intense nature of the course and the need for self-discipline and effective writing skills. Biology 195 is divided into four units (Biology of Cells, Genetics and Development, Biology of Organisms, and Biology of Populations). Unit examinations test both factual recall and analytical and integrative abilities. Lectures in Biology 195 reinforce key topics from the reading assignments and laboratory work and provide in-depth perspectives in several subdisciplines of biology. The laboratory, which is central to the course, provides the opportunity to make observations and perform experiments; these are discussed weekly in recitations. The course grade is based on examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and the student's participation in the course. Students are required to purchase the textbook Campbell's Biology (2nd ed.), a course pack, a laboratory kit (at Chem Stores), and a quadrille notebook. For more information concerning the course or registration, call 763-0495. Attend both first lecture and first recitation. DO NOT CRISP INTO A SECTION YOU CANNOT ATTEND. Cost:3 WL:1 (Ikuma)

252. Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course teaches the comparative method, using the "three-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, and paleontology. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections, preparation of cleared and stained materials, and examination of fossils. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used, with supplementary texts on reserve. Cost:1 WL:1 (Fink)

255. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (5). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

An introductory botany course covering a broad spectrum of topics including principles of plant systematics, evolution, development, and biogeography. The lectures and laboratories concentrate on a group-by-group treatment of plant diversity, ranging from algae and fungi through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. The approach is an evolutionary perspective, treating plants as organisms and emphasizing the innovations and structural adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. Such topics as pollination biology, plant speciation, and vegetational biomes are included. The course also includes plant growth and structure. Two field trips are scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Text: Raven et al., Biology of Plants, 5th edition. Cost:2 WL:3 (Wynne)

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 154 or 195, or the equivalent. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life including the anticipated advances in plant biotechnology. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. Cost:2 WL:3 (Noodén)

301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. Competence in writing in biology requires critical evaluation of one's work. In order to encourage the development of critical thinking, students critique published work as well as write essays, reviews, and reports. The heart of the course lies in the weekly interaction between staff and student through discussion both in class sections and one-on-one. A weekly lecture provides structure and continuity and allows consideration of other topics such as interviewing and resume writing, ethics in biology, and the nature of science and creativity. Cost:1 WL:1 (Martin)

304. The Gene Concept. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305, and admission to the College Honors Program. (2). (Excl). (BS).

Designed for Honors' students concurrently enrolled in Biology 305, or those with a particular interest in genetics. The students will be exposed to the theoretical basis of genetics in a discussion format. "Classical" articles that contributed to our understanding of gene transmission, structure, and function will be read and discussed with the students. The instructor will provide background for each grouping of articles. Students will be responsible for leading discussion of assigned articles. Active participation of all students is expected. In addition, time will be set aside for discussion of relevant current topics from the media, ethical considerations, and other issues bearing on the process of genetic research. A term paper on The Gene Concept will be required a preliminary draft by the 10th week and a revised draft by the last day of classes. A course pack will need to be purchased. Cost:1 WL:1 (Pichersky)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Open to students concentrating in the natural sciences or intending to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biology. This introduction to genetics includes the following sections: DNA and chromosomes; gene transmission in Eukaryotes; linkage and recombination; genes and enzymes, the genetic code, and mutation; recombinant DNA, RFLP mapping, the Human Genome Project, and transposons; gene regulation; and population genetics. There are three hours of lecture each week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections expand on and review lecture material, and discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on three exams and a final covering lectures, discussions and reading assignments; exams include new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. A practice problem set is available and is covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Study Center. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. Films, review sessions, and the three "hour" exams are given Monday nights. A CSP section is available. Biology 304 is available for those with a special interest in Genetics, including Honors students. Cost:2,3 WL:1 (S. Allen)

307. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course introduces students to the basic principles of developmental biology. We will emphasize the continuity of developmental processes by examining the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult, and by examining several levels of control from the selective expression of genetic information to the orchestrated generation of complex tissues and organs. We will cover basic developmental events such as production of sperm and eggs, fertilization, development of the early embryo, and genesis of organs. We will cover basic developmental processes such as nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction, morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions, and morphogenesis. We will also evaluate the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental processes. This course is open to sophomores and above. Three one-hour lectures are given each week. Grades are based on three evening exams given during the term and the final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Tosney, Kuwada)

308. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($40) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with the opportunity to study first hand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, induction, determination and differentiation of various tissues, metamorphosis and regeneration. In addition to one hour lecture and one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three to four additional hours in the laboratory each week. Of the three to four additional lab hours, students should sign up for at least two hours under TA supervision. Short lectures are presented to introduce aspects of basic morphological areas of investigation. Formal reports on two exercises are required. There are three laboratory tests. Maintenance of a lab notebook for a complete and accurate record of observations and experimental results is required. There is a required lab manual. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)

311(411). Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol 310 or Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TAs. The student takes both a written and an oral quiz for each of 12 units which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed and performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TAs are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Cost:3 WL:1 (Osgood)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215 or equivalent. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 427 or 428. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This lecture course provides: (1) understanding of basic functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; (2) detailed appreciation of the evidence that has established our current understanding; (3) through study of how evidence is used, inferences about how science works; and (4) awareness of how cellular and molecular biology contribute to human affairs. Interdependence of intracellular structure and function is stressed, along with efforts to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms. Course content includes: introduction to cell functions and diversity; membrane structure and function; organelle function and biogenesis; properties of cell surfaces; intracellular transport; secretion; cell cycle and division; cytoskeleton; and methods for study of cell function. The aim is to provide a selected background in cellular and molecular biology for biology concentrators and others. Most students enrolling have a strong foundation in biology, and have completed either genetics or biochemistry. For more detailed treatment, students should take Biology 427 or 428. There is a textbook; purchase is optional, but recommended. Recommended readings are on reserve in UGL. Exams include questions which require interpretation of data, formulation or test of hypotheses, and interpretation of experiments. Students whose introductory biology course lacked contents of Biol. 152 or 195 may have greater difficulty with this course, but any difficulty can be overcome via prior study of biochemistry and genetics. Cost:3 WL:1 (Shappirio, 764-1491)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 420. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, nervous and endocrine system controls and integration, respiration and circulation, water and ion balance, excretion, and digestion. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. This course may NOT be elected by students who have already taken Biology 420. Cost:3 WL:1

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. (2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($40) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The laboratory exercises explore basic physiological phenomena experimentally and observationally emphasizing the use of the scientific method and the development of creative and critical reasoning skills. Students have several opportunities to design and implement their own experiments. The laboratory meets for one 4-hr. session/wk. Small groups present material for each exercise, collate class data, and perform analyses. A term paper and oral presentation are required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Quigley)

390. Evolution. Biol. 152-154 or the equivalent. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). (Excl). (BS).

This lecture course covers the fundamentals of evolutionary biology with a focus on living organisms. It includes a historical survey of the development of evolutionary theory from ancient philosophers to the present, and critical examination of phylogenetic systematics, natural selection, population genetics, molecular evolution, microevolution, and macroevolution. Weekly discussions will focus on primary literature. Two midterm tests and one cumulative final exam will test students' knowledge of lecture material. Writing assignment(s) based on readings from the primary scientific literature will be required. WL:1 (Hazlett)

401. Special Topics in Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Marine Mammals.
This course will survey our current understanding of the biology of cetaceans (dolphins and whales), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (dugongs and manatees) and sea otters. We will use fossil, anatomical, physiological, life-history, behavioral and ecological evidence to explore marine mammals adaptations for reproducing, feeding, locomotion, diving, thermoregulation, etc. The ecology and sociobiology of marine mammal mating system and social systems will be evaluated in a comparative framework. The course assumes a knowledge of introductory biology and a solid understanding of natural selection. (Connor)

405. Molecular Basis of Development. Biol. 152-154 and 305. A course in molecular and developmental biology is helpful but not required. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The fundamental question of how asymmetry and diversity is generated during development of an organism will be explored in this course at the molecular level. The way by which form is created such as head and tail, limbs and eyes, flowers and roots will be presented in terms of actions and interactions of identified proteins and genes. These questions will be explored in considerable detail in selected eukaryotic systems. For example, we will discuss how the mating type in yeast is specified, how the body axes of the fruit fly Drosophila are determined, how segmentation and segment identity is generated in the fly and the mouse, how certain molecules induce germ layers and tissue types in frogs and chicken, and how developmental patterns are generated in plants. Emphasis will be placed on how experiments have been designed and how conclusions have been reached. Students are expected to read critically primary research literature related to the lecture material and participate actively in class discussions. Three hours of lecture a week. Student evaluation is based on one midterm and one final exam, as well as written and oral critiques of primary research articles and participation in discussions during lectures. Cost:1 WL:1 (Bodmer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TAs for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 311). TAs meet with the instructor for a two-hour class each week for lectures, presentations, and discussions of teaching and biochemistry. TAs also prepare a report on a recent advance in biochemistry which they present to their peers and the instructor. The major roles of the TAs are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the students with explanations supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TAs learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Osgood)

413. Introduction to Plant Biotechnology. Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415; at least junior standing. (5). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Biology 413 LECTURES cover such topics as: (1) how plant cells, tissues, and organs are cultured, (2) role of plant hormones in control of plant development, (3) regeneration of whole plants from single cells, (4) basic techniques of plant macropropagation and micropropagation, (5) protoplast isolation and fusion, (6) basic concepts in plant molecular biology, (7) production of secondary compounds of economic importance from plant cell cultures, (8) bioreactor design and operation, (9) transformation of plant cells and tissues using electroporation, plasmids, microinjection, and direct injection of DNA, and (10) applications of plant cell and tissue culture/plant biotechnology in germplasm preservation, in the production of medicinal and other economically useful compounds, life-support systems in outer space, and the production of trees, crop plants, and horticultural plants with new germplasm and resistance to stresses of all types. The LAB demonstrates the current techniques of plant macro- and micro-propagation, tissue printing, scanning electron microscopy of plant cells and tissues, isolation of DNA and proteins from plants, and a field trip to Warner-Lambert/ Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Company, and a field trip to the Kaufman farm to see demonstrations of low input agricultural biotechnology. The lab also includes an independent project. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kaufman)

423. Introduction to Research in Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 422; or completion of Biol. 222 or 422, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This lab course provides an introduction to experimental approaches in neurobiology. Emphasis is on molecular, anatomical, and physiological approaches for studying neuronal function. Among the molecular topics to be covered are analysis of cDNA clones, PCR amplification of DNA, and expression of genes in foreign tissues. Among the anatomical topics to be covered are gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous systems, axonal pathway tracing, and immunocytochemical localization of specific neuronal proteins. Among the physiological topics to be covered are intracellular, extracellular and patch clamp recording, as well as the use of computers in the acquisition and analysis of data. This course is intended for students who plan to engage in research in neurobiology. Cost:2 WL:3 (Hume)

428. Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 428 is designed to provide students with a comprehensive overview of the biology of eukaryotes at the cellular and molecular level. This course is intended for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The information is presented at a level that requires students to integrate information from their other biology, chemistry, and biochemistry courses. Topics include: cell structure and function; cell membranes; intracellular organelles and cytoskeleton; inter- and intra-cellular signaling; cell development and cell cycle. Students will be expected to integrate the scientific data presented in class as well as to read and interpret basic research drawn from the current scientific literature. Grades will be based on two in-class exams, the final exam, and the discussion section. Cost:3 WL:1 (Olsen, Ocorr)

429. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.

The course consists of one lecture and one four-hour laboratory session each week. Additional time outside of scheduled lab sessions will be required. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, cell fractionation, electrophoresis, and tissue culture. Mammalian systems are given emphasis. The lectures trace the history of cell biology but emphasize the background of techniques used in the laboratory. Grades are based on two lecture exams and a lab grant proposal. The course is required in the Cell and Molecular Biology concentration and is appropriate for concentrations in Biology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)

430(515). Molecular Biology of Plants. Biol. 305, and 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Recent advances in the study of molecular processes and genetic engineering of plants are the topics of this course. The course is specifically designed for advanced undergraduates, though beginning graduate students will be permitted. There will be two 1- 1/2 hour lectures per week. The course will begin with an overview of basic techniques of plant molecular biology, including cloning and sequencing DNA, plant transformation, and analysis of gene expression. The overall structure of plant genomes will be examined, and the activity of specific genes will be discussed in detail (i.e., function/structure relationships). In the second part of the course, molecular aspects of plant growth and development will be examined. This will include the analysis of genes and gene products that control the development of plant cells, tissues, and organs. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the plant's response to various environmental factors (e.g., gravity, light, pathogens) will be examined. Grades will be based on two take-home exams, a critical review paper, and short presentations by the student. Cost:1 WL:3 (Schiefelbein)

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Animal diversity is reviewed with emphasis on all but vertebrate animals (most animals are invertebrates; the vertebrates account for only a part of one of the animal phyla). The distinctions between the animal phyla and theories regarding their geological history and evolution are emphasized. A phylogenetic perspective is presented for a better understanding of animal architecture, patterns of development, and adaptations to the environment. The basic life functions that all animals share are also emphasized. The course consists of lectures and laboratory (practical, i.e., hands-on ) sessions. The laboratory emphasizes the study of living animals, but supportive preserved material is also included. Evaluation of student accomplishment is by written and practical laboratory examination. (Burch)

444. Fish Behavior. Biol. 440. (4). (Excl). (BS).

We explore principles and current topics in fish neuroanatomy, diverse sensory systems, learning, feeding, locomotion, schooling, communication, homing, mating systems, and parental care. Background in introductory ichthyology, anatomy, and evolution is important. Lectures and labs will provide information, discussion, and experience with live fishes. Evaluation will be based on two exams, lab reports, and one term paper. Readings will include published research papers. Cost:2 WL:4 (Smith)

450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (5). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize identification, life history, adaptations, and field methods. (Nussbaum)

468. Mushrooms and Molds: Biology and Use. Biol. 154 or equivalent. (5). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The mushrooms and molds have changed the course of human history and continue to have a profound impact on man and the global ecosystem as important plant, insect and human pathogens and as important nutrient recyclers. Their increasing importance in biotechnology has brought new recognition to these fascinating and unique organisms. This course surveys the members of the Kingdom Fungi, provides an introduction to their ecology, physiology, genetics, and importance in biotechnology, medical mycology, and plant pathology through lectures, laboratories and field trips. This course is important for students interested in careers in biotechnology, medical mycology, biodiversity, plant pathology, forest pathology, systematics, and ecology. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a term paper on a topic of the students' choice. General Biology (Biol 154), or equivalent, is a recommended prerequisite. Cost:2 WL:3 (Fogel)

478. Advanced Ecology. A general ecology course (Biol. 381 or equivalent); or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course will cover current ecological topics, including effects of changing environments. The development of these topics will be placed in a historical perspective of how ideas and research develop. The philosophy of science, hypothesis testing, and the development of critical thinking will be emphasized. Students will lead discussions. Readings will be from the primary literature. Assignments will include written critiques, a research proposal, and a peer review of proposals. Cost:1 WL:1 (Rathcke)

483. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course (Biology 484) described below. Cost:2 WL:3,4 (Lehman)

484. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483 and permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Field and laboratory techniques in aquatic science. The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes during both ice cover and open water conditions will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, use of automated data acquisition technology, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. Cost:2 WL:3,4 (Lehman)

490. Population and Quantitative Genetics. Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The purpose of this course is to introduce population genetics as it relates to all branches of modern biology. Emphasis will be place on contrasting empirical and experimental approaches with comparative and statistical methods. The theoretical foundation for such processes as drift, mutation, migration and selection will be built in the first half of the course, and used to address the mechanisms for the maintenance of variation and to consider the neutral theory of evolution. We will then focus on the dynamics of specific genes in natural populations, by studying recent applications of population genetics to evolution, development, ecology, mapping of quantitative trait loci, and human biology. Evaluation will be by two exams, an essay, and a seminar presentation. There will be two lectures and one student-led discussion of the current literature per week. (Gibson)

497. Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

An examination of current theory and empirical research on ecological communities. Emphasis is on the analyses of patterns in community structure and species diversity, and the mechanisms responsible for generating and maintaining these patterns. Specific topics include the roles of species interactions such as competition, predation, and mutualisms, environmental variation, and biogeography, in community processes. A background in ecology is required. Readings are from the original literature. There are two one-hour lectures and one two-hour discussion per week. Cost:1 WL:1 (Goldberg, Werner)

513. Microbial Genetics. Genetics; and microbiology or biochemistry or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Lecture and discussion focus on analysis of original papers dealing with the genetics of E. coli and other prokaryotes. Topics include mutation and repair, transposition and rearrangement, chromosome maintenance, gene-transfer and acceptance, regulation, and variation and evolution. Paper and oral report. (Maddock)

532. Birds of the World. Sixteen credits of biology and permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is a comparative survey of avian systematics and the world avifauna. It provides systematic training in ornithology, particularly at the species and family level, and utilizes the research collections of birds (study skins and anatomical materials) of the Museum of Zoology. It highlights problems for research in the evolutionary systematics of birds. Testable objectives include an ability to identify birds to family or lower level and discuss their systematic relationships. Methods include lectures, demonstrations of avian diversity with the museum collections, bioacoustic analysis, library readings, and experience in independent research in systematic ornithology. Student evaluations are based on exams and papers. Cost:3 WL:3 (Payne)

534. Developmental Neurobiology. Previous courses in neurobiology and development; and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This is a course intended for graduate students who have had previous coursework in neurobiology and developmental biology. Well prepared undergraduates may also be admitted. Admission for all students is by permission of the instructor. Enrollment will be kept low, preferably around ten. The time and place of the meeting will be arranged to suit the participants' schedules. The course is conducted as a discussion. The students systematically read a text (M. Jacobson, Developmental Neurobiology, 3rd edition, Plenum, 1991), a chapter per week, with weekly quizzes. The chapters are then discussed. In addition, recent papers from the primary research literature that are pertinent to the chapter are also read and presented in class by individual students with attendant discussion. Finally, the students write a research proposal. Cost:3 WL:3 (Easter)

541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

The course provides an overview of the hormonal regulation of mammalian reproduction at the system, cellular, and molecular levels. Topics include basic and clinically-orientated material related to properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex steroids, the neural control of reproduction, anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, endocrine control of menstrual and estrous cycles, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. Primarily for upper-level undergraduates or graduate students with a strong background in biology. Permission of instructor is required. Evaluation is by written examinations and presentation of a poster. The course is team taught by several members of the multi-departmental Reproductive Sciences Program. Cost:2 WL:4 (Foster)

589. Mechanisms of Microbial Evolution. Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is designed to introduce students to the processes of evolution in the context of microbes. The course will focus on the forces which promote variation and change in microbial populations. Among the topics covered during the term will be: structure of microbial populations and measures of genetic variation; evolution of community structure including predatory/prey interactions; roles of mutator genes and transposable elements in evolution; evolution of plasmids and their interaction with the host genome; enzyme evolution; evolution of the E. coli genome. The course is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in evolutionary biology, and/or molecular biology and/or microbiology. In addition, the course is one of the electives for the undergraduate concentration in microbiology. The course will meet twice a week 1-1/2 hour/lecture). Course requirements are two term papers plus a mini-seminar presentation and participation in discussions; no exams. Cost:1 WL:1 (Adams)

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