Classical Studies

The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisor of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.

Courses in Classical Archaeology (Division 342)

222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

Anyone who has watched Ben-Hur, Spartacus, or Life of Brian has an image of Rome and the Romans. But just how accurate is that image? This course will introduce the archaeology and art of the Roman empire, a vast and diverse society that stretched from modern day Britain to Egypt and beyond, and whose inhabitants ranged from divine emperors to beggars and slaves. The course will examine a variety of themes (economics, religion, entertainment), as well as the art and architecture of the imperial power; both the imperial capital of Rome itself and the provinces will be explored. At the end of the course, current images of Rome, including its cinematic representation, will be considered and criticized. Lectures will provide general coverage, with weekly discussion sections organized to explore specific issues in detail. There are no prerequisites for the course; requirements consist of two hour exams and a final exam. Cost:2/3 WL:1 (Alcock)

380/Hist. of Art 380/Anthro. 380. Minoan and Mycenaean Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 and 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A survey of the archaeology of the Aegean world in the Bronze Age, this course is intended mainly for undergraduates with some relevant archaeological or art historical background (Class. Arch. 221 or 222). The course will begin by considering what is known about the rise of complex societies in the prehistoric Aegean (the Minoans in Crete and Mycenaeans on the Greek mainland). The main focus will be on the social, economic, and administrative structures of these states, seen in their wider Mediterranean and Near Eastern context, but artistic, architectural, and religious traditions will also be reviewed in some detail, together with the evidence of contemporary written documents and later traditions. The course will conclude with a consideration of the collapse and aftermath of these civilizations. There will be a midterm, a final, and one short term paper. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cherry)

428/Hist. of Art 428. The Public Spaces of Imperial Rome. Hist. of Art 101 or Class. Arch. 222. (3). (Excl).

The ruins that now stand as silent testimony to ancient Rome formerly housed impressive displays of sculpture, paintings, and mosaics. Through illustrated lectures and in class discussion, students will examine the functional, aesthetic, and didactic relationships between art and architecture in the city of Rome from the reign of the emperor Augustus (27 B.C. A.D. 14) to the Severans in the early third century A.D. Particular emphasis will be placed upon the public displays of historical reliefs within the urban landscape. The focus on architectural atmospheres and visual narratives will be supplemented by reading the ancient texts (in translation) which describe the activities that occurred in the urban environments of the capital city. Also covered will be relevant late Republican precedents and the influence of Imperial architectural design and decor upon the city in the late Roman Empire. Two examinations and one research paper. Cost:2 (Conlin)

433/Hist. of Art 433. Greek Sculpture. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course follows the development of Greek sculpture, both in the round and relief, from the renaissance in the late 8th century B.C. through the various phases of experimentation in the 7th and 6th centuries to the high points in the 5th and 4th centuries. Standing male and female figures are the principal types followed, with increasing attention given to architectural sculpture culminating in the majestic programs decorating the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and the Parthenon in Athens. Stylistic analysis, formal development, interpretation of social and artistic documents. There will be a midterm hour exam and a final; students will also be expected to write a paper of intermediate length (10-15 pages). Cost:2 WL:1 (Pedley)

451/Class. Civ. 451. Death in the Ancient World. (3). (HU).

What do you do with a dead body? How does a family mourn its loss? How does a community commemorate its dead? These are universal questions, yet the attitudes brought to death and burial vary tremendously from culture to culture. This course will examine death rituals in Greek and Roman society, using a combination of sources ranging from poetry to dental remains, from funerary orations to grave monuments. Such evidence can reveal much about the dead and their world: who believed in a "hereafter," how the age, status, and gender of the deceased affected their funeral, what actually killed people in the ancient world. To introduce the course, students will be encouraged to analyze death rituals in their own contemporary society. The course will be lecture-oriented, with time allowed for discussion and demonstration. There are no prerequisites for this course; requirements consist of two projects/papers and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Alcock)

Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as a general introduction to the history, literature, life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome - that is, to Roman civilization. In order to achieve some focus, we will consider in detail four periods of change or crisis: the founding of the Republic (509 BC); the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 BC); the Augustan "peace"; and the established principate of Nero. We will thus be able to follow the development and failure of institutions of government and society, and to trace the changing attitudes and values of the major writers of each period as they tried to give shape and meaning to their world and times and searched for order and consolation in times of civil war and the collapse of the social structure. We will read historians (Livy, Sallust, Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, Horace) and other writers (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common ideas and themes, with occasional presentations of special topics (e.g., Roman law; slavery; the ancient book; gladiators). Attention will be given to daily life through slide lectures. There will be two short papers (50% of the final grade), and a midterm (15%) and final (35%) exam. Cost:2 WL:3 (D.O. Ross)

120. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Humanities). (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Uses of Mythology in Greece and Rome.
Why do some myths occur repeatedly in Greek and Roman culture? Why does Hercules appear so often? How can he be both the strongest mortal and a drunkard? Why do we sympathize with Odysseus in one version of the myth and blame him in another? Which facts does the author change and why? These and other questions will be the basis for our seminar as we consider how the Greeks and Romans used their own mythology. We will read, discuss, and write about the myths of the Trojan War, the Argonauts, and Hercules in literature, art, and architecture. By the end of the course, I hope we will see that myths are more than names and events to be memorized and recited. Course requirements are to read the assigned works with attention, and to write two short papers (3-4pp. each) and one long paper (6-8pp.). Cost:2 WL:1 (Davies)

121. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Composition). (4). (Introductory Composition).
Section 001 Ancient Narratives and the Study of Storytelling.
This seminar will use selections from the Hebrew Bible and Homer's Odyssey (both in English translation), along with one or two modern short stories, to examine how ancient storytellers created meaning. We will look at the basic choices all storytellers must make, and the strategies all storytellers have, along with some features unique to narratives that have passed from oral tradition to a written text. Writing assignments will include both formal essays and in-class exercises. There will be some group work, as well as opportunities for students to create their own versions of stories. Grading will be based on written assignments and class participation (no exam). Cost:1 WL:1 (Scodel)

375. War in Greek and Roman Civilization. (4). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to trace the evolution of different ideologies connected with war in the Greco-Roman world. It will begin with the link between war and the state in early Greece that appears in Herodotus' Histories, and move on to Thucydides' analysis of the effect of war on civil society in his history of the Peloponnesian war. The third section of the course will be devoted to war and Roman imperial ideology, as seen through the work of Rome's most successful imperialist, Julius Caesar. The next part of the course will be concerned with civil war and rebellion in the Roman empire (comparing and contrasting Tacitus' Histories and Josephus' Jewish War ), and it will conclude with an analysis of war as experience and ideal in Ammianus Marcellinus' The Later Roman Empire. Consideration will also be given to the tension between ideas and the actual practise of war. Course requirements will include two take-home writing assignments, a midterm, and a final exam. (Potter)

451/Class. Arch. 451. Death in the Ancient World. (3). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 451. (Alcock)

453. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to the world of Greco-Roman magic, from the fifth century BC to the fourth century AD. We will examine a wide range of sources from literary descriptions of magicians to the magicians' own tool-boxes, with their recipe-books, voodoo-dolls, lions' hearts, and snakes' blood. We will also survey the different spheres of life in which magic had a role to play in the courtroom and assembly hall, where speakers tried to outwit their rivals by "binding" their tongues, in the theater and the hippodrome, where magical skills could ensure a competitor's victory, in the realm of love and sex, in the worlds of business, agriculture, medicine, and divination. Finally, we will look at the actual practitioners exorcists, rain-makers, priests, sages, and frauds. The student workload will be moderate. Cost:2 WL:1 (Bohak)

462. Greek Mythology. (4). (HU).

Greek Mythology is designed to acquaint the student with the major myths and epic cycles of ancient Greece from the creation myths and their Near Eastern prototypes through the Trojan War and the wanderings of Odysseus. The development of various myths will be illustrated through Greek literature and art. We will also discuss the use and treatment of Greek myths in English literature, modern psychoanalytical theory, and comparative anthropology. Required texts will include M. Morford and R. Lenardon Classical Mythology and selections from Homer, Hesiod, and Greek tragedy. An additional course pack will provide readings for discussion sections which will meet once a week to consider a variety of theoretical approaches to mythology, and other critical questions. Course requirements include two hour tests and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Dobrov)

467. The Good Life. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of ethical philosophy in Ancient Greece from the fifth to second centuries B.C., beginning with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and ending with the dominant Hellenistic schools, viz. the Stoics and the Epicureans. We also meet up with a variety of Cynics, Cyrenaics, and Skeptics along the way. The course acquaints the student with a wide range of ancient philosophical texts and provides a framework for their critical assessment. It also provokes reflection about how moral philosophy interacts with society. Finally, it seeks to assess the evolution of moral discourse within the early Western tradition. The course will proceed by tracing a number of themes throughout the period we are studying, both theoretical issues such as, e.g., the nature of eudaimonism, and specific topics, such as feminism in ancient thought. Readings include primary sources and modern moral theorists. The requirements are one quiz, one paper, a midterm, and a final. (Rappe)

472. Roman Law. Not open to freshmen. (3). (HU).

This course acquaints students with the fundamental concepts of Roman private law, with their origin in the society and government of the High Roman Empire, and with their all-important influence in the development of Western European legal theory and institutions. The course aims primarily to meet the interests of undergraduates with a bent toward law as a profession, but it is open to all students (except freshmen). We will use a direct application of the American case-law method to the teaching of Roman law. Our basic text will be a series of actual problems from the Roman jurists, which we will discuss in class; only as the occasion demands will the instructor "fill in the gaps" with short lectures on other relevant legal material. Thus students should develop a feel for legal analysis and for the contribution made through such analysis by the Roman jurists; at the same time, students will learn Roman law in a form that will be directly relevant to future legal studies. Besides the handouts, one general introduction to Roman law (ca. 250 pages) will be required reading. There will be one hour test on material covered in class, in addition to the final examination; one paper (10 pages) will allow the student to analyze in detail a particular legal problem. Cost:2 WL:1 (Frier)

476/Hist. 405/Rel. 476. Pagans and Christians in the Roman World. (4). (HU).

The course, tracing the formation of Christian identity in the Roman empire, examines religion as a form of cultural and political expression, and as a method of imagining a supernatural world. We thus begin with what at the time was meant by culture and politics, and with ancient concepts of the supernatural. The period covered, from the mid-first century BCE to the later 6th century CE, may be subdivided into three phases. (1) The formation of diverse Christian collective identities will be contextualized by also studying the membership and opinions of other religious groups. These include devotees of heroic founders, of civic and agricultural deities and of personal saviours such as Isis, as well as adherents of gnostic and philosophical sects. (2) By the end of the second phase, in the late 4th century CE, non-Christian worship had been officially banned, and Christian groups had formed into an empire-wide organization. Non-Christians now tended to be described by the blanket term "pagan," even though their beliefs and forms of worship were and had always been very diverse. Simultaneously, monotheistic ideas became more prevalent in "pagan" thought. We will ask why this was so, while also studying pagan and Christian concepts of holiness and political identity. (3) Finally, we will study the transformation of "paganism" into a cultural tradition, and the evolution of a Christian power structure spanning the entire mediterranean world, and reaching beyond it into Northern Europe and the Middle East. We will conclude by asking to what extent and why Christians succeeded in becoming the exclusive bearers of religious authority. Reading will be mainly from original sources, e.g., Cicero, On the Nature of the Gods; the first Book of Maccabees; Acts; The Letter to the Romans; Lucian, Peregrinus; Acts of Perpetua and Felicity; Porphyry, Life of Plotinus; Julian, Caesars; Symmachus, Third Relatio; Augustine, Confessions; John Lydus, Magistracies; John of Ephesus, Lives of the Eastern Saints. Cost:2 WL:1 (MacCormack)

480. Studying Antiquity. Class. Civ. 101 or 102 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Death and Memory in the Ancient World.
This course will focus on death as an occasion for the various processes of memory and memorialization in ancient Greece and Rome. Topics ranging from the worship of noteworthy forbearers (hero cult), to the ideology of death in war (grave inscriptions, funeral speeches), to notions of the afterlife will be considered, among others. The course will feature lectures by a number of experts; professor Dillery will act as supervisor and regular lecturer. A variety of evidence will be examined from the material record (archaeological), as well as the textual (literature, inscriptions); all texts will be read in translation. This course is REQUIRED for all those intending to graduate with a concentration in Classical Civilization. Seminar format; requirements discussion, short presentations, and two papers. Special consideration will be given for those needing the course to graduate in May '96. Cost: 2 (Dillery)

Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 310, or 503. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 503. (4). (LR).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. There will be a series of quizzes and hourly exams in addition to a final exam. Cost:1 WL:3 (Dobrov)

302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent. The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion of Greek 301 and 302. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss passages from the Odyssey. There will be quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:3 (Cameron)

Intermediate Courses

402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

In this course we will read two plays of Euripides, The Bacchae and the Helen. We will emphasize translation, both prepared and sight. There will also be a review of grammar, an introduction to meter, and work on the interpretation of Euripides, with attention to historical issues as well as modern literary criticism. Requirements include in-class translations, bi-weekly quizzes, two midterms, one final, and one short essay. Cost:2 (Rappe)

405. Intermediate Greek. Three terms of Greek. (3). (LR). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

The course will concentrate on prose writers of Later Greek, with emphasis on those valuable for an understanding of archaeology and history. Readings in Pausanias and Strabo will form the nucleus; and other authors, Dionysios of Halikarnassos, for example, may be consulted from time to time. Greek grammar and syntax will be the focus of attention along with the comprehension of the topographical and historical information the authors offer. There will be a midterm hour exam, and a final; and students will be expected to write a paper of about ten pages length. Cost:1 WL:1 (Pedley)

Modern Greek (Division 433)

102. Elementary Modern Greek, II. Modern Greek 101 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 502. (4). (LR).

The course follows the same paidagogical scheme as MGr101, with class room dialogues, non-competitive group games and improvised scenarios. Instruction in more advanced grammar and syntax is effected through both formal methods and drills. By the end of the term students are exposed to approximately four-fifths of modern Greek grammar and syntax and are expected to be linguistically competent in a variety of everyday contexts. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, a one hour midterm exam, and a final. Cost:1 WL:1 (Michelaki)

202. Second Year Modern Greek, II. Modern Greek 201 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 504. (4). (LR).

This is the final term of the Modern Greek language sequence and students will be able to fulfill their language requirement. The course focuses on expanding vocabulary through reading more complex journalistic prose and literary texts (20th century poetry and prose) and discussion of those texts. Special attention is paid to the historical depth of the language through instruction in etymology. The proficiency gained by the end of Modern Greek 202 should enable students to express themselves in Modern Greek on topics of interest; students ought to be able to read, with dictionary help, all writings in Standard Modern Greek. Class participation, comprehensive tests, one midterm and a final examination will determine the final grade. Cost:1 WL:1 (Gagos)

Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential facts of morphology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, history and culture are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English vocabulary improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with little or no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit Professor Knudsvig in Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar and the development of basic reading skills. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin 193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. Graduate students should elect 503. (4). (Excl). This course does not satisfy the language requirement.

This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose. The second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include one of the first six books of Vergil's Aeneid. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. The Aeneid has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such not simply as an exercise in translation. Cost:2 WL:3 (001:Davies; 002:D.O. Ross)

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from several authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D., but primarily from Pliny the Younger. Class discussions center upon the readings. Some course materials require the use of a computer. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This class will ask you to bring together and apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired in studying Latin to the reading of the greatest work of Latin literature. We will work closely with the text, slowly and methodically learning techniques of translating Vergil's poetry into clear and precise English prose. We will review grammar as necessary. We will also study Vergil's epic in English translation. By term's end we should have both a good understanding and appreciation of what the Aeneid is all about and an ability to confront a Latin passage of the poem with some skill and comprehension. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wallin)

Sections 002-005. The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's Aeneid, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. Cost:2 WL:1

Intermediate Courses

302. Intermediate Latin II. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the prose and poetry of the early Roman Empire (First Century B.C.). Class time will be spent primarily in translation and discussion of Livy's History of Rome and a selection of the poems of Ovid. Emphasis will be placed on a further mastery of Latin grammar and translation skills. There will be several hour exams and a final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

402. Imperial Prose. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Petronius and Tacitus.
The prescribed texts are Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis and selections from Tacitus. In the translation of the texts grammar and style will be emphasized. The interpretation will embrace matters literary, social, and historical. A written assignment will be set on one of the authors. There will also be quizzes, a mid-term, and a final exam. Cost: 3-4 (Garbrah)

410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Virgil, Aeneid 7-12.
Reading, translating, discussing the text. Hour exam, final exam. Cost:minimal. (Witke)

Advanced Courses

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

490. Martial and Roman Epigram. Latin 301 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Problems in Martial.
Problems of text and interpretation will be assigned individually and then discussed in class. Participants will need a critical edition of Martial's text. I have some available. Any enquiries: telephone 665-8062. (D.R. Shackleton Bailey)

551. Elegiac Poets. Latin 401 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course will focus on the Latin Elegiac Poetry of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid. We shall aim to read selections from these poets very closely (translation and literary analysis). The elegies will be considered individually and as parts of collections. Intertextual connections between the three poets will be traced. We will also consider the tradition of this genre and its extreme generic self-consciousness. We will explore the poets' negotiations with the various ideologies and cultural discourses of Augustan Rome, literary, political, social, and sexual. Class time will be divided between translation and discussion. This is an advanced course, aimed at graduates, and at undergraduates who have already taken one or two courses at the 400 level and have acquired some confidence in both supervised and unsupervised translation. Students will be required to present short in-class reports on selected poems and secondary materials. Final exam (translation) and term paper. Cost:2-3 (Myers)

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