Courses in Geological Sciences (Division 377)

A. Introductory Courses and Courses for Non-concentrators

G.S. 100-115 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Time Schedule for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Time Schedule. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. G.S. 100-115 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

102. Energy from the Earth. (1). (NS). (BS).

A survey of the principle energy resources from the Earth; hydrocarbon (oil and natural gas), coal, tar sand, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal. Discussions will cover the geology of these resources (e.g., composition, setting, and nature of deposits), recovery technology, use, and the impact of energy resources on social, political and ecological policies. No prerequisites; a course in elementary chemistry (high school or university) would be helpful. Lecture only. Grade is based on one short assignment or quiz and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:4 (Nolen-Hoeksema)

103. Dinosaurs and Other Failures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 273. (1). (NS). (BS).

This course will provide an introduction to our current understanding of dinosaurs and certain other reptilian groups of the Mesozoic Era. It is intended for students with an interest in geology, paleontology, or evolution, but does not require prior training in these fields. The course will deal with broad features of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, methods of reconstructing dinosaur behavior and ecology, new developments in our interpretation of the biology of dinosaurs, and possible causes for the extinction of dinosaurs. There will be two lectures each week and a single exam at the end of the course. Cost:1 WL:3 or 4 (McShea)

106. Fossils, Primates, and Human Evolution. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 125. (1). (NS). (BS).

Anatomical and behavioral characteristics of living primates are reviewed, and the fossil record is used to document the course of human evolution through the past 60 million years. No special background is required. Students seeking a more detailed course with laboratory exercises may follow this with Geology 438 (Evolution of the Primates). Course consists of 12 lectures, and a one-hour final examination. Cost:1 WL:4 (Gingerich)

107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205, 270, or 271. (1). (NS). (BS).

The course is a study of the earth in action and includes the following topics: geography of earthquakes and volcanoes; catastrophic events in historic times; size and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; the products of volcanism; volcanic rocks; volcanic activity through geologic time; volcanic exhalations and the evolution of the earth's atmosphere and oceans; relationship of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics and the internal dynamics of the earth; volcanism and geothermal energy; manmade earthquakes; and earthquake prediction and control. Instruction by lecture, evaluation on basis of final exam. Cost:1 WL:3

113. Planets and Moons. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 204 or 278. (1). (NS). (BS).

This lecture course provides a current survey of the geology and climates of the various bodies of the solar system in light of the extraordinary advances in planetary exploration during the past two decades. Topics treated include historical development of geological ideas about the solar system, planetary evolution, variability of geological processes throughout the solar system, and individual portraits of the principal members of the solar system family. No previous geological background is required. Course grade will be determined from a single objective-type final examination. (Pollack)

114. The Elements. High School math, physics, and chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Geology 266. (1). (NS). (BS).

This lecture course introduces the origin, abundance and distribution of the elements in the solar system. It is intended for students with an interest in science. The topics include: a review of the periodic table of the elements; stellar evolution and synthesis of the elements; nuclear properties and their relation to the abundance of the elements and their isotopes; chemical properties and their relation to the distribution of the elements in planets and in different reservoirs of a planet. Great pictures of the planets; formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Evaluation on the basis of a final exam. Cost:1 WL:4 (Zhang)

115. Geologic Time. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 135. (1). (NS). (BS).

Until the middle of the 18th Century the Earth was generally thought to be less then 10,000 years old, and according to many, close to its apocolyptic end. We now know that the Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago and that the entire history of mankind is nothing but the latest tiny fraction of Earth history. This course explains the formation of rocks, continental drift, volcanoes and earthquakes. It will discuss the discovery of time from the Renaissance to the latest high tech developments in radioactive dating. Finally the history of planet Earth will be described including its accretion out of dust and giant impacts, the origin of the Moon, the formation of the atmosphere and oceans, the development of life and the building of continents. The course will draw upon examples meaningful to the student to illustrate the principles. Lectures twice weekly for half the term. Course pack provides most of the diagrams. A final one hour examination. Cost:1 WL:3 (Halliday)

117. Introduction to Geology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 119, or 120. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 117 for 4 credits. (5). (NS). (BS).

A basic single-term course in introductory geology concentrating on the evolution of the Earth in physical and chemical terms with particular reference to modern plate tectonic theory, and to the interaction of the external biosphere-atmosphere-hydrosphere with the Earth's interior. The laboratory provides a practical study of minerals, rocks, and geologic maps. One hour each week is scheduled for review and discussion of topics covered in class. Lectures, laboratory, and discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa, Pollack)

118. Introductory Geology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in GS 119, or 205 and 206, or 135. Credit is not granted for GS 118 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 117, 121, 122, or 218). (1). (NS). (BS).

The laboratory provides hands-on experience with minerals, rocks, and maps. Participants will learn to identify common minerals and rocks, use topographic and geologic maps, and draw and interpret geologic cross sections. Examples will be drawn from areas of recent glaciation, volcanism and earthquakes to show how these features are depicted in maps. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa)

119. Introductory Geology Lectures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 117, 120. No credit granted to those who have completed both 205 and 206. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 119 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course consists of lectures shared with Geology 117 but does not include the laboratory section. A separate discussion section is also scheduled to insure continuity with class material and student-teacher contact. Students interested in ONE-TERM laboratory introductory science course should elect Geology 117. Lectures and discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mukasa, Pollack)

120. Geology of National Parks and Monuments. Credit is not granted for GS 120 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (116, 117, 119). No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 205 and 206. (4). (NS). (BS).
Geology of National Parks and Monuments
approaches Earth history by examining the geology of places rather than by taking a process approach. It is designed for all interested undergraduates at the University of Michigan. The course format consists of three lectures each week and one two-hour demonstration-laboratory period, for four credits. Lecture material deals with the geologic history of selected National Parks and Monuments, which are chosen (largely by enrolled students) and scheduled so that those in which the oldest rocks are exposed (thus relating to the earliest portions of Earth history) are covered first. In so doing, we cover Earth history in a temporal progression, but do so by discussing different geographic areas. The demonstration-laboratory portion of the course will give you first-hand experience with rocks, minerals, and fossils; and an opportunity to discuss these in small groups. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wilkinson)

123/AOSS 123/Environ. Stud. 123. Life and the Global Environment. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 277. (2). (NS). (BS).

See Environmental Studies 123. (Walker)

125. Evolution and Extinction. Those with credit for GS 106 may only elect GS 125 for 2 credits. May not be included in a concentration plan in geological sciences. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course is a survey of the topics of evolution and extinction for non-concentrators. We will examine these topics in two contexts: (1) the historical development of scientific ideas about evolution and extinction; and (2) current scientific theories and controversies in the field. The influence of evolutionary thought on other areas of science and society (as well as the reverse) will be a major undercurrent in the subject matter. This year, as part of the Winter Term 1996 Theme Semester on Death, Extinction, and the Future of Humanity, we will also examine the thoughts of scientists past and present on what the implications of evolution and extinction are for humans. There will be two midterm exams, one final, and one research paper required for the course, which consists of two one-hour lectures and one one-hour discussion section per week. Readings for the class consist of a course reader, the text Evolution: the History of an Idea by P.J. Bowler, and The Neanderthals: Changing the Image of Mankind by E. Trinkhaus and P. Shipman. Cost:2 WL:3 (Polly)

130. The Physical World. High-school algebra. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

The physics, chemistry, and pre-calculus (algebraic) concepts of comprehensive Earth and planetary science will be covered for those students who feel less than fully prepared for existing college level science classes. The course is aimed at students in need of a science course, particularly those who will not readily select more than one physical science course as undergraduates at UM. Weekly discussions by a TA will complement the lectures and amplify on them. Extensive weekly homework (quantitative exercises) will form 40% of the grade, with the remaining 60% based on two in-class exams and one final exam. Textbook: K.B. Krauskopf and A. Beiser, The Physical Universe, McGraw Hill, 7th ed. 1993. Cost:2 WL:1 (Van der Voo)

135. History of the Earth. High school chemistry, physics and mathematics recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 269. Those with credit for GS 115 may only elect GS 135 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course provides a broad and fundamental introduction to the Earth and explains the formation of rocks and the major geological features, as well as the changes that have occurred over the 4.5 billion years of Earth history. The course is intended for students considering a Geological Sciences concentration, as well as for students interested in studying Earth sciences as part of their general educational background. Topics include minerals and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, fossils and the evolution of life, the interior of the Earth, the measurement of time, continental drift, and the effect of the Earth's atmosphere, climate, oceans and rivers on shaping the surface of the Earth. The history of the planet will be followed from Earth's accretion from dust, through the origin of life, the building of the current continents and ocean basins, and the origin of humankind. Lectures three times a week for the full term. Textbook and course pack required. Evaluation will be based on four exams. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Halliday, Smith)

201/Geography 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 268. Those with credit for GS 111 may only elect GS 201 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course is a basic introduction to physical geography which emphasizes many topics including maps, seasons, the atmosphere, greenhouse gasses, radiation and heat balance, the dangers of global warming, circulation, moisture and precipitation, air masses, and water supply. Students also study climate classification, and geologic and historical climate changes, and landforms and their formation. Students in this lecture-lab course are evaluated by hourly and final examinations with satisfactory completion of the lab work a prerequisite to the final course evaluation. Cost:2 WL:3 (Stearns)

205. How the Earth Works: the Dynamic Planet. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117, 119, or 270. No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 105 and 107. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 205 for 1 credit. (2). (NS). (BS).

The dynamic Earth has given us oceans, continents and an atmosphere. Its continuing activity is manifested today by the destructive powers of such natural phenomena as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and mountain building. The unifying concept of plate tectonics contains the clue to the shape and changes in the physical environment of the Earth from its initial formation to today. Our goal is to present a fully integrated approach to the evolving Earth's unique features in our solar system and explain its physical and chemical principles using conceptual and factual material. Extensive use is made of videos, slides and classroom demonstrations. Two lectures/week; evaluation based on midterm and final exam. No special background required. Course reading: Earth's Dynamic Systems by W.K. Hamblin and a course pack. This course can be taken singly or concurrently with its companion course (GS 206); together they constitute a balanced introduction to modern earth sciences. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lange)

206. How the Earth Works: the Water Cycle and Environment. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 206 for 1 credit. (2). (NS). (BS).

This course describes behavior of earth materials in the surficial environment. Water is the main transport agent in the geological cycle; its unique properties and exchange rates among oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater are one focus. Interaction between water reservoirs and physical and chemical weathering of soils, sediments and rocks also are discussed. Impact of humans on the surficial environment is a unifying theme because we can affect hydrologic and geochemical cycles. No special background required. Two lectures per week. Several field sessions are planned to collect water and sediment samples for follow-up lab analyses. Evaluation based on exams and participation. This course, and its companion course (GS 205), may be taken singly or concurrently and together constitute a balanced introduction to modern earth science. Cost:2 WL:4 (Meyers)

222. Introductory Oceanography. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

This course introduces students to the scientific study of the oceans. Contents include the shape, structure, and origin of the ocean basins; the sedimentary record of oceanic life and conditions in the past; the composition of seawater and its influence on life and climate; waves and currents; the life of the oceans and how it depends upon the marine environment; the resources of the ocean and their wise use by society. The course format consists of lectures and readings from an assigned textbook. The course grade will be based on three one-hour exams and a two-hour final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Owen)

223. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in G.S. 222. (1). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

This course is an optional laboratory intended to provide students with opportunities to explore further various oceanography topics presented in the GS 222 lectures. Laboratory sessions will include sampling procedures, use of equipment, discussions, and demonstrations of how data are generated. The course grade will be based on written laboratory exercises and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:4

265. How to Build a Habitable Planet. (3). (NS).

Formation of the Universe, Sun, and Earth, and societal interactions with our planet form the basis of this course that is primarily aimed at first-year students who wish to explore a scientific perspective to our physical world and examine humankind's role. Topics including the Big Bang, formation of stars and planets, the Earth's age and its structure, continents and oceans, Ice Ages, resources, and human impact will be discussed. Throughout the course you will learn several fundamental scientific discoveries. We make use of multimedia resources (e.g., CD-ROM) and access the Internet for latest data and information on scientific events. Grades are based on classroom participation, and a presentation and paper on a topic that contributes to the goals of the course. Students of all backgrounds are encouraged to take this class. Text: How to Build a Habitable Planet by W.C. Broecker (Eldigio Press). (van der Pluijm)

266. From Stars to Stones. High school math and science. Those with credit for GS 114 may only elect GS 266 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).
From Stars to Stones
starts from stellar evolution and the formation of the elements in stars, and ends at the formation of terrestrial planets (especially our Earth) from these elements and the early evolution of these planets. Students will learn cosmochemical and geochemical concepts and methods, and apply them to study several theme topics. The theme topics may include: origin of the elements, lifetime of the sun, abundance of the elements, age of the Earth and solar system, origin of the Earth, internal structure of the Earth, planetary atmospheres, and meteorites. Though factual knowledge is an important part of the course, emphasis is on how scientists study and solve problems and how science progresses using historical examples. (Quantitative reasoning will be an important part of the course.) (Zhang)

271. Natural Hazards. Those with credit for GS 107 or 205 may only elect GS 271 for 2 credits. Those who have credit for both GS 107 and 205 may only elect 271 for 1 credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

This freshman/sophomore seminar examines various types of natural hazard such as earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes and tornadoes. We make case studies, explore geological and geophysical background, and discuss the social aspects of natural hazards. Each student is given a project, which will be presented in a class and reported as an essay. Evaluation is based on an exam, the presentation and essay. No science background is required, but active participation of students is expected. Cost:1 WL:4 (Goes)

275. The Ice Ages: Past and Present. Those with credit for GS 104 may only elect GS 275 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

Characteristics of the Earth's climate system and how various components of that system operate to produce times when extensive ice sheets covered large parts of the Earth's surface. The role in climate change of the oceans, the atmosphere, the ice sheets themselves, orbital variations, and the movement of the continental and ocean boundaries are presented and discussed. Cost:1 WL:1 (Moore)

276. Coastal Systems and Human Settlements. Those with credit for GS 101 may only elect GS 276 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).
Coastal Systems and Human Settlements
is a freshman-level, seminar-format course directed toward an introduction to the importance of natural processes in and consequences of human development along various coastal settings. Study of the ramifications of short-term settlement in areas of long-term subsidence and/or coastal erosion will be used as a means to better comprehend the various repercussions of human interaction with natural systems. In a small class setting the course will introduce students to those geologic processes which have given rise to coastlines of the world, will establish a basis for understanding why these regions have been in a state of rapid change for thousands of years, will examine the reasons why human modification of coasts and adjacent rivers has commonly exacerbated this situation, and will explore the ramifications of anticipated global warming and attendant global sea level rise in the coming decades. Cost:1 WL:4 (Wilkinson)

277/Environ. Stud. 361. Humans and the Natural World. Those with credit for GS 123 may only elect GS 277 for 1 credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

See Environmental Studies 361. (Walker)

279/Environ. Stud. 359. Ocean Resources. High school science and math recommended. (3). (NS). (BS).

The ocean has provided many resources to humans, and the availability of these resources rests on scientific principles. This course will address a number of equivocal issues facing ocean scientists and makers of marine policies. Students will be asked to examine critically some of the conflicting demands being placed on the resources of the oceans by modern societies. Some examples are the conflicts that emerge from protection of natural beaches and wetlands as opposed to the economic benefits of coastal developments such as marinas and harbors, and from protection of endangered species as opposed to the undeniable need for more food for more people. Each student will select one of the weekly topics and lead class discussions on this topic. A major whole-class topic will involve all students. Two written papers and one written exam will be required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Meyers)

283. Evolution of North America. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 411. (3). (NS). (BS).

This is a seminar course that will provide an introduction of the geological history of the earth using North America as an example. An introduction to the geological history of the earth will comprise the first third of the course. The students will then lead discussions on specific topics related to the geological history of the earth through time for two-thirds of the course, and each student will prepare a 9-10 page term paper on their topic. A required four-day field trip will be conducted after the end of classes of the term. It will involve camping out as well as short hikes to examine various rock outcrops. The trip will encircle Lake Huron from Ann Arbor to Sault Ste. Marie to Sudbury to Parry Sound and back to Ann Arbor, examining rocks that range in age from Precambrian to the Pleistocene. (Essene)

B. Primarily for Concentrators

310. Petrology. G.S. 231 and either an introductory geological sciences course or G.S. 351 to be elected prior to or concurrently with G.S. 310. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is focused on the origin and evolution of igneous and metamorphic rocks, and their relationship to plate tectonic processes. The igneous petrology section will examine why magmatism and volcanism occurs at mid-ocean spreading centers, at hot spots like Hawaii, and along subduction zones. Mechanisms for the evolution of igneous rocks will be evaluated, utilizing petrography, geochemistry, and chemical thermodynamics. The metamorphic petrology part will cover the evolution of continental crust and mountain building events through detailed examination of metamorphic rocks. The response of rocks to changes in pressure, temperature and fluid composition will be studied, primarily using petrographic microscope and hand samples. The grade is determined through a combination of midterms, problem sets, laboratory exercises, and a final exam. (Lange)

351. Structural Geology. G.S. 117 or 119 or the equivalent; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

The description and analysis of geological structures in the Earth's crust and an introduction to global tectonics. Three lectures and one laboratory session weekly. The following topics are covered: the description of geological structures; the kinematics and dynamics of folding and faulting; stress, strain, deformation and rheology; introduction to dislocation theory; micro-structural analysis; principles of plate tectonics; selected orogenic systems of the world. This is a core course for concentrators, but is open to all who want to have a basic knowledge of geology. Evaluation is based on graded lab assignments, a lab test, a midterm and a final exam. Textbooks: Foundations of Structural Geology, 2nd ed., by R.G. Park (lectures) and Basic Methods of Structural Geology by S. Marshak and G. Mitra (labs). In addition, hand-outs and preprints of a new text are used throughout the course. Cost:2 WL:4 (van der Pluijm)

415. Introductory Economic Geology (Metals). G.S. 310, 351, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course deals with the range of geologic processes that concentrate metallic and some non-metallic elements to form ore deposits. Although some attention is given to the economic, engineering and exploration aspects of economic geology, the course concentrates on the geology and geochemistry of ore deposits. Most attention is given to hydrothermal ore deposits, including the solution and isotopic geochemistry of these ore-forming systems. Hydrothermal deposits associated with sedimentary basins, metamorphic terranes, submarine and continental volcanic areas, and deeper intrusive zones are discussed in detail. Deposits formed by other processes such as magmatic differentiation and immiscibility, weathering, and stream action, are given less attention. A laboratory associated with the course deals with geochemical calculations, examination of representative suites of ore samples in transmitted and reflected light, and study of fluid inclusions. A textbook, The Geology of Ore Deposits by Guilbert and Park, is strongly recommended. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kesler)

422. Principles of Geochemistry. G.S. 231, 305, 310 and Chem. 125/130. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The course is designed to provide a quantitative introduction to geochemical aspects of the rock cycle. Topics which will be covered include: thermodynamic and kinetic controls on the distribution of the elements, trace element and isotope geochemistry, geochemistry of the oceans and atmosphere, environmental geochemistry, and geochemical cycles. Instruction will consist of lectures and discussion of homework problems. The course is intended primarily for seniors concentrating in the geological sciences, but is also open to graduate students with advisor approval. Evaluation will be based on homework problems, a short term paper, a midterm examination, and a final comprehensive examination. Required text: Faure, Principles and Applications of Inorganic Geochemistry, (1991). Cost:3 WL:4 (O'Neil)

425. Environmental Geochemistry. Introductory chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course deals with the geochemistry of Earth's environment. The intended audience for the course includes advanced undergraduates and graduate students in Geological Sciences, as well as students at a similar level in related departments such as Chemistry, Natural Resources, Public Health and Engineering. The course begins with a review of geochemical fundamentals and goes on to a review of the composition of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere and the ways that they are related to the composition of the biosphere. Special attention is given to naturally-occurring elements and compounds of environmental interest and to geochemical processes of environmental significance. Lecture material is supplemented by problem sets and discussions. Evaluation is based on these assignments, as well as a midterm and a final exam. Reading comes largely from a course pack, class handouts, and research papers. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kelser, Meyers, O'Neil)

438. Evolution of the Primates. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Anatomical and behavioral characteristics of living primates are reviewed and the fossil record of primates is covered in detail, illustrating how fossils document the history of primates and the tempo and mode of primate evolution. This course includes three lectures and a laboratory each week, one midterm exam, a research paper, and a final exam. Introductory geology and biology are recommended as background. Cost:3 WL:3, but normally never closes. (Gingerich)

447. Archaeological Geology. G.S. 442 or 448, or equivalent, or permission of instructor; and one 300-level (or higher) course in anthropological or classical archaeology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course concentrates on selected geologic topics that are especially pertinent to archaeological studies, such as geological raw materials (flint, obsidian, building stone, clay), soils and paleosols, cave sediments, stratigraphy, dating methods, and paleoclimatology. Lectures are in-depth treatments assuming some prior geologic and archaeologic knowledge and are commonly based on case histories of actual archaeological studies. The emphasis is on answering questions of an archaeological nature by means of geologic studies. Course consists of lectures and discussions, and is graded on the basis of one or two hour exams and a term project. Cost:2 WL:4 (Farrand)

449. Marine Geology. G.S. 222/223 or introductory physical geology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is an examination of the geology of the ocean basins and the adjacent continental margins. Topics covered include methods of marine data collection, geologic structure of the ocean floor and margins, sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics, the processes of terrigenous, biogenous and chemical sedimentation, and the interpretation of the sedimentary record in terms of past ocean circulation and global climate history. Grades are based on a midterm and final examination and a term project designed to reveal the geologic history of one of the major ocean basins to be selected each year by the class. The class is given in a lecture format, class discussions are encouraged. The textbook is Marine Geology by J.P. Kennett. Cost:3 WL:4 (Rea)

455. Determinative Methods in Mineralogical and Inorganic Materials. One term of elementary chemistry and physics. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Determinative methods is a course in techniques of analysis of inorganic materials with lectures aimed at providing theoretical background for understanding of the techniques as practiced in laboratory exercises. The major emphasis is placed on X- ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, X- ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption. Although silicate and mineralogical analysis is emphasized, no background in geology is required. Entrance to the course is by permission of the instructors. The grade is determined by laboratory grades, three midterms, and a final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Peacor, Essene, Owen, Lange)

458. X-ray Analysis of Crystalline Materials. G.S. 455 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is an introduction to single-crystal diffraction (principally X- ray) theory and techniques through the basics of crystal structure analyses. In the first three weeks, symmetry theory is covered, emphasizing space groups. In the following six weeks the theory and techniques (rotating crystal, Weissenberg, precession) of X- ray diffraction are developed. In succeeding weeks general diffraction relations are developed into the techniques of crystal structure analyses. Students are encouraged to provide their own original research materials (or they are provided) to serve as a vehicle for learning the techniques of determination of unit cell and space group parameters in the laboratory, but this is not required. Cost:2 WL:3 (Peacor)

468. Introduction to Signal and Image Processing in the Earth Sciences. Math. 116. Prior or concurrent enrollment in a structured computer language such as "C" or Pascal. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Students use image processing software to manipulate topographic elevation images developing contour maps, block diagrams and shadow images. The fractal geometry of space and time series are explored. Topics include: (1) Frequency domain transforms; (2) Calculation of the "fractal dimension" using both the Variogram and Hurst Exponent methods; (3) Kernel operator design for image processing; (4) Conversion of numerical data to images; and (5) The map as a matrix. Grades are based on problem sets and a term project. Several "problem oriented" take home examinations employed to evaluate student performance. Readings: Image Lab, T. Wegner (Waite Group, 1993), as a text which will be augmented by photocopied articles. Cost:3 (Outcalt)

478. Aqueous Geochemistry. Chem. 365 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Solution-mineral-gas equilibrium and mass transfer in geochemical environments ranging from near surface to deeper crustal temperature/pressure regimes. Models for ion activity/concentration relations, reaction path for rock/water interactions, mineral dissolution and precipitation mechanisms and reaction kinetics, adsorption and incorporation of ions. Geochemical links between atmosphere, ocean, and crustal reservoirs will be quantified in light of equilibrium and kinetic constraints. Examples focus on surface waters, oceans, and crustal fluids. Integrated lecture, laboratory, and problem solving to relate chemical concepts to actual field and laboratory measurement of natural water chemistries. Computer modeling of activity-concentration and mineral equilibria. Two hours of lecture and two hours of practicum per week. Evaluation based on weekly problem sets and a focused research project. Cost:2 WL:4 (Walter)

486. Geodynamics. G.S. 420 and prior or concurrent election of Math. 215 and Physics 240 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course introduces the student to the analysis of dynamic problems in geology and to the mathematical and physical tools by which they are solved. The basic principles of continuum and thermal physics are derived and applied to both small and large scale geological processes with principal emphasis on global processes. Four major topics in continuum physics will be considered in geological context: stress, strain, and elasticity; heat conduction, fluid flow, and advection of heat. The results of simple physical models allow us to explain a range of geophysical observations, including oceanic bathymetry and heat flow, plate kinematics, and the stress within plates. The student should take from the class an understanding of the physical causes of plate tectonics. (van Keken)

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