Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This introductory course will address critical issues in the history of modern Europe from the Scientific Revolution to the present. Topics will include: the replacement of "religion" by "science" as the common metaphor for understanding the world, the emergence of the industrial market economy, the making of modern gender and racial differences, the position of women in European society, the emergence of democratic and working class movements, the revolutions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, war and society, and cultural inventions of the past and future. We shall examine closely as well the ways that people in the past invented their worlds, their sensibility, and their sexuality. Students will be encouraged to develop critical historical analyses of their own, with particular focus upon the creation of historical arguments. Readings include a basic text, along with several novels and secondary works. (Frost)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

This course is an introduction to modern China, Korea, and Japan from 1800 to the present. It covers the following topics: (1) China's progressive decline and rejuvenation, the impact of imperialism, the rise and development of the People's Republic; (2) the struggles of Korea, its colonization by Japan, liberation, division into two Koreas, and the rising economic status of the South; and (3) the end of feudalism in Japan, the building of a modern state and economy, Japanese imperialism, postwar recovery, and rise to super-power status. Taking a broad comparative perspective on East Asia, the course explores the interrelations between political economy, society, and culture in each country within an emerging modern world system. This is a continuation of Asian Studies 121; however, that course is not a prerequisite and no previous background on the subject is required. Two lectures and one discussion section each week. A midterm and a final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Pincus)

130/ACABS 181. The First States and Civilizations: Introduction to the History of the Ancient Near East. (4). (HU).

See Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies 160. (Beckman)

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

Southeast Asia is one of the world's most culturally diverse regions, home to Buddhist, Muslim, Confucian, and Christian civilizations. It boasts ancient monuments of surpassing grandeur and symbolic complexity. It was the scene of the bloodiest conflict since 1945, the Vietnam War. Today it has the world's fastest growing regional economy and is an area of mounting importance to Japan as well as the United States. This course offers an introduction (and thus assumes no prior knowledge) to Southeast Asian history from the earliest civilizations, through the colonial conquest, the indigenous political reaction of which Vietnamese Communism and the Vietnam Wars were one expression and the contemporary economic explosion. The course seeks to define Southeast Asia's uniqueness as well as its evolving ties to the rest of the world. Midterm, final, and optional paper. Two lectures, one discussion section per week. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lieberman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This lecture/discussion course will examine central issues and events in the history of the territories that became the United States, and the peoples who lived there, from the late 16th to the middle of the 19th centuries. Among the topics that will be considered are the territorial expansions of Europeans into the Americas; the creation of Anglo-American colonies; the social, political, and cultural orders of British North America; the creation of an independent American republic in the Revolution, and the destruction of that first republic in the War Between the States. The required readings will include both primary and secondary sources, and will be examined in weekly discussion sections. There will be both a midterm and a final examination, and active class participation will be expected in the sections. (Burke)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 surveys the lives and experiences of Americans after 1850. Through a combination of lectures, books, class presentations, and other sources students will explore the development of the nation's political economy. As a result, we will take a close look at the ways in which leaders and average citizens directed the nation during the last 150 years. Chronologically the course spans from the 1850s through the 1990s. Thematically, we will examine the Civil War and its causes, postemancipation, the expansion of industrial America, immigration and migration, the World Wars, social protest, Cold War policy, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the enduring tension between consent and dissent. More than most survey courses, students will take an active role in the course and its presentations. (Lewis)

170/Amer. Cult. 170/UC 170/Women's Studies 210. New Worlds: Colonialism and Cultural Encounters. First-year students only. (4). (Introductory Composition).

See American Culture 170. (Karlsen)

196. Freshman Seminar. (3). (SS).
Section 002 History of the Cold War.
This course will examine episodes and themes in the history of the Cold War, with chronological coverage extending from 1941 to the present. Primary emphasis, in class discussions and in written work, will be placed upon conflicting interpretations of events and developments. Participation in weekly discussions and the preparation of a major paper are required. The textbook is Walter LaFeber, America, Russia and the Cold War (6th ed.). (Perkins)

Section 003 Analyzing the American Civil War. (Honors) Although much has been written about the political and military aspects of the Civil War, scholars have almost completely ignored the social history of that conflict. This freshman seminar will read about and discuss the social, political, and military issues surrounding the Civil War. Students will be expected to read the assigned primary and secondary readings, participate very actively in class discussions, and write a 10-page paper. There will be two essay examinations in the course as well. (Vinovskis)

Section 004 Culture and Politics in Britain, 1901-1945. This course will examine the changes and continuities in British culture and politics from the death of Queen Victoria through the second world war, with particular attention to the election of 1906; the constitutional debates about the House of Lords; the expansion of the "interventionist state" and the development of policies and practices around social welfare and debates about economic planning; the expansion of political participation especially the enfranchisement of women and working-class people and changes in the definitions of citizenship and the political sphere; the social and cultural impacts of the first world war and the long processes through which the war experience of mass participation in civilian mobilization and the traumas of industrialized destruction, were understood and imagined; cultural and political debates in the interwar years around, for instance, the growth of mass media especially cinema and other technologies of national unification; anxieties about the perceived "Americanization" and porousness of British cultures; the growth of the Labour Party and the experience and representations of then 926 General Strike; debates about the empire and the access of colonial subjects to the terrain and institutions of British politics and social recognition, the impact of the Great Depression on ideas as well as experiences of class, the "north/ south divide", and the role of government in the alleviation of social misery; the impact of the rise of Nazi and fascist governments in Europe on British politics (including a consideration of fascist politics in Britain) and the debates about appeasement; the Abdication crisis and other debates about the symbolic and real roles of hereditary privilege; and the construction of national stories about the British experience of the Blitz and World War II. Readings and other course material will include autobiographies, novels, films, and photographs as well as scholarly articles and books. ( lass sessions will include extensive discussion. No previous knowledge of British history will be assumed or required, but students will be asked think critically about the various means by which national and personal stories are constituted, repressed, re-imagined and deployed in debates about the meaning and uses of the past. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)

197. Freshman Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Ethnologies: Studying Other People.
Ethnology (or Anthropology) is the study of the variety of human societies in time and space. We will begin our study by considering various alternative systems of ethnology that have been held by different peoples in different times and places: the Hebrews (Genesis), Christians (St. Augustine), Muslims (Ibn Khaldun), Greeks (Herodotus) and Indians (Manu). Thereafter we will take up the evolution of the major ethnological ideas in the West from the Age of Enlightenment to the present century, both as scientific propositions and as ideologies. These will include the "tree of nations", social evolutionism, racial essentialism, cultural relativism and structuralism. You do not need to have studies any anthropology before taking this class; in fact I prefer if you have not. Classwork will include discussion of readings and the writing and presentation of term papers. (Trautmann)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).
Section 001 The Roman Empire and its Heirs.
A survey of Roman history from the consolidation of the Roman empire in the first century B.C. to the rise of its political heirs in the Mediterranean world in the eighth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include Rome's overseas expansion; the administration of a large empire; the impact of Christianity; the conversion of Constantine; heresy and the imposition of orthodoxy; barbarian kingdoms; Justinian's reconquest; the rise of Islam; and the coronation of Charlemagne as a revived Roman emperor. Readings will include many ancient texts in translation and some modern scholarship. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TAs. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent written exercises, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost:2 WL:1 (Van Dam)

211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (4). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the time of the Crusades, when contact with the East was reestablished, to the discovery of the New World, when European expansion moved west over the Atlantic. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Extensive readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.), a midterm, a final examination, two short papers are required. There are two lectures and one discussion session per week. WL:2 (Squatriti)

214/French 214. Interpretations of French Society and Culture. (3). (HU).

See French 214. (Spang)

221. Survey of British History from 1688. (4). (SS).

This lecture course covers the history of Britain in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Topics include: British society and politics in the 18th century; 18th century economic and cultural change; industrialization and the making of modern class identities; the impact of the French revolution on British politics; regional differences and the histories of Scotland and Wales; the "Irish question" in the 19th and 20th centuries; the development of working class politics; Liberalism, Conservatism, and the emergence of Labour politics; gender and the activities and ideas of women; sexuality in the 19th and 20th centuries; imperialism, science, and the ideas about race; the position and activities of Blacks and Asians in Britain; social and cultural modernity; the impact of the two world wars; Britain in the post-colonial era; British-American relations; youth in Britain in the post-war era; the sixties and seventies; Thatcherism; and contemporary British social, political, and cultural movements. Assignments will include several short papers; sections; and a take-home final. No special background is required, but familiarity with modern European history would be very useful. Readings will include both primary and secondary materials and both historical and literary sources. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)

260/Am. Cult. 260. Religion in America. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the study of American religion from colonial times to the present. The emphasis will be on religion as a cultural system and as a social and political institution, rather than as a set of formal beliefs. We will explore the rise of revivalism as a major cultural force in colonial America, the place of women in the major religious traditions, the synthesis of African and Christian belief systems in the slave community, the role of religion in social reform movements, the rise of fundamentalism as a political force in the 20th century, and the wide diversity of sectarian beliefs in all eras of American history. Students will be expected to read both primary documents and historical studies, participate in class discussions, and write two papers. (Juster)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (3). (HU).

The University of Michigan has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will examine this heritage and history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, etc. It will explore the factors that have shaped the University and place it within the larger social, political, national, and international context. The only prerequisite is an interest in your University and its place in history. Presentation will be through lectures with slides. Grading will be based on essay/objective exams; term project or research paper; photo quiz to acquaint students with central campus, its architecture and embellishment. Readings will be from a course pack and 2 or 3 required texts. Cost:2 WL:1 (Steneck, Steneck)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (3). (SS).

This lecture/discussion course surveys major themes, events, and personages in the history of Africans and people of African descent in the Americas, and in particular North America, through the end of the American Civil War. The survey begins on the African continent, follows captive Africans across the Atlantic, and then traces the contours of the struggle against slavery. Themes to be covered include: slavery and slave resistance; African-American culture; free Blacks, North and South; Black participation in the abolitionist movement; the role of African Americans in the Civil War. Students will read a variety of texts, including examples of Black testimony as well as the work of contemporary cultural and social historians. Assignments include in-class examinations and a comprehensive final, short essays, and class presentations. (J.Scott)

287/REES 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (3). (Excl).

This course is a chronological survey of Armenian history organized around a number of topics: the Armenian ethnogenesis, Armenia between East and West, medieval Armenian social structure, Armenia under Turkic rule, the first independent republic, the Soviet Armenian experience, the diaspora, and the second republic. Its unifying theme is a reflection on what allowed this nation to survive for two millennia and a half despite its location at the crossroads of East-West invasions and along the fault lines between various empires. We will emphasize the social and economic life of the Armenian people and the role of their main institutions. Important cultural developments, which shaped the sense of Armenian identity (conversion to Christianity, the creation of the alphabet, etc.) will also be underlined. (Astourian)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

319. Europe Since 1945. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive critical introduction to European society, culture and politics since the Second World War. Lectures and readings will cover both Eastern and Western Europe, the international arena and the national histories of particular countries, and social and cultural life as well as political developments. The course aims to explore the shaping of the contemporary world and to introduce students to societies and political cultures which are both structurally similar and fundamentally different from their own. Instruction will be via lectures and ad hoc discussion, evaluation via midterm exam and end of term essay. No special background is required; prejudices and preconceptions about European societies are enough. Cost:3-4 WL:4 (Eley)

333/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of East Central Europe. (4). (SS).

See Russian and East European Studies 396. (Porter)

346/NR&E 356. Environmental History and the Tropical World. (3). (Excl).

The primary objective of this course is to analyze the history of change in the natural resources endowments of the developing world, as those resources have come under intensive exploitation over the past two centuries, especially by the colonial regimes and capitalist economies of the industrial "North". We will concentrate on three subject areas: the depletion of tropical forests, the transformation of savanna lands, and the degradation of mountain systems. At two points in the course we will consider more systematically the types of historical analysis which can contribute to understanding today's natural resources policy issues. We will end with a brief survey of the history of the international wildlands conservation movement, in the context of our understanding of the domestication of the planet. Cost:2 WL:4 (Tucker)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine the American experience of war in this century. Lectures, readings, films, and discussions will focus not only on the military experience itself, but on how America's wars real and imagined have shaped the country's economy, politics, and culture. The course will also examine the processes of transmission and memory: how Americans who did not fight learned about those who did, and what all Americans have remembered or have been taught to remember about the wars of this century. Finally, we will consider how the nation's wartime conduct, at home and on the battlefield, has fit into long-standing social patterns and behavior such as our alleged propensity for violence. In brief, we will be looking at the American experience of war as inclusively as a term will allow. (Marwil)

371/WS 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (4). (Excl).

This course will examine how social constructions of gender, race, class, and sexuality have shaped women's lives in the U.S. from the Civil War to the present, and how some women have pushed at the boundaries of those constructions through, for example, changing patterns of work, leisure, education, and intimacy; through political activism; through labor organizing; through involvement in a variety of social movements; and through popular culture. We will emphasize the diversity of women's historical experiences by region as well as by social category, and will situate those experiences in the larger contexts of social, economic, and political change on local, national, and even global levels. Requirements include a midterm, a final, and a paper, as well as active participation in discussion sections. Films will be shown. Cost:2 WL:4 (Palmieri)

374/Amer. Cult. 374. The Politics and Culture of the "Sixties." (3). (SS).

See American Culture 374. (Countryman)

384. Modern Jewish History 1880-1948. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys the history of the Jewish people in Europe, America, and the Middle East over the last one hundred years. The course begins with the rise of virulent forms of anti-Semitism at the end of the nineteenth century and examines how this undermined Jewish assimilation in Western Europe and dashed all hope for emancipation in Eastern Europe. The course then considers the various ways in which Jews responded to this new crisis: nationalism, revolutionary socialism, emigration, assimilationist defense activities, conversion. The last third of the course is devoted to the drama and often tragic events of the twentieth century that totally changed the face of world Jewry the Bolshevik revolution, the Holocaust, the creation of the State of Israel, and the emergence of the American Jewish community as the largest and most secure community in the history of the Diaspora. There will be a midterm and a comprehensive final, as well as an eight-to-ten page essay. Cost:3 WL:3 (Lidtke)

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 War in the Modern World.
This course is for students interested in learning about the political, technological, and military institutional change processes that have shaped war and armed forces since the 16th Century, particularly the last two centuries. The principal text is Theodore Ropp, War in the Modern World, supplemented by several other books. Readings will be extensive, and grades will be based on in-class written exercises [30%], a term paper [35%], and an essay final exam [35%]. Cost:3 WL:1 (Collier)

391. Topics in European History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Marriage and Married Life in Germany in the Late Middle Ages and in the Renaissance.
No German required. For Winter Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with MARC 402.001. Cost:2 WL:1 (Puff)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators needing ECB requirement and by override only. Apply for overrides at 4633 Haven Hall Monday, Nov. 13 from 1-5 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 The Church and the Jews. The course will examine the complex relationship between the Western Church and the Jews, from the time of the Church Fathers. It will analyze ideas and policies regarding Jews as expressed in different realms, from theology and canon law to church art and popular preaching. It will also attempt to survey the factors which led to striking changes in church attitudes and policy, with emphasis on the interplay of the theological legacy and evolving realities. Background in medieval or early modern European history is helpful but not required. A term paper is required. Cost:2 WL:3 (Bodian)

Section 002 Edward Gibbon and the Roman Empire. Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, first published between 1776 and 1787, continues to exercise a profound influence on the way Roman history is understood. Beyond its impact on the field of Roman history, the work is a classic of historical writing. The purpose of this class is to study both the author and his achievement. In his autobiography, Gibbon reflected on his own evolution as a historian and on the reception of the Decline and Fall, in particular on the controversies generated by his opinions about Christianity. We will thus endeavour to read Gibbon in his eighteenth century context, while at the same time seeking to understand his pervasive influence in our own day. Beyond that, we will explore in what sense historical understanding is part and parcel of self understanding, and why, so often, reflection about one's culture takes the form of reflection about history. There will be three papers. Cost:2 WL:1 (MacCormack)

Section 003 Politics and Culture in Weimar and Nazi Germany. This course aims to acquaint students with the history and historiography of the most perplexing and controversial chapters of German history, the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. We will explore the relations and contradictions between the realm of state/parliament ("high politics") and mass politics, between "high culture" and popular cultural realms during the 1920s and 1930s. We will examine controversies and debates about the collapse of the Weimar Republic, the Nazi seizure of power, the nature of the Nazi state, and the origins of the Holocaust. The class will also discuss the place of Nazism and the Holocaust in the recasting of German national identity in the 1980s and 1990s. Requirements: no examinations; series of short papers and one long paper (15-20 pages) at the end of the term. A basic familiarity with the historical events of these periods is required. This course is highly recommended for students who have taken History 521, History 386, History 318, History 111 or comparable courses. History concentrators still in need of an ECB colloquium have priority in enrollment. Enrollment limited to 15. Cost:4 WL:2 (Canning)

Section 004 Evangelical Culture in Britain and America. Beginning in the eighteenth century and continuing through the nineteenth, a series of evangelical revivals swept through Great Britain and America and transformed religious culture in both countries. We will examine closely the roots, progress, and consequences of this transatlantic evangelical movement through close readings of primary documents and historical studies. Our focus will be on the varied cultural meanings of evangelicalism to different groups of Americans and Britons (including women, slaves, laborers, and Native Americans), and the role of evangelicalism in shaping the political landscape of Britain and America in the age of revolution. Students will write several interpretive essays and a final paper on a particular aspect of evangelical culture based on primary research. (Juster)

Section 005 Law And Society in American History. This course deals with several major themes in American legal history from the Colonial period to the early twentieth century. The themes include: tensions between formal legal rules and widespread social attitudes in various settings, including the local community, the family, and the larger economic order; changes in concepts regarding the nature and source of law and the relationship between those concepts and the roles of legislation, judicial opinions and informal or "customary norms"; concepts of human behavior as they relate to legal and social ideas regarding both the theory of criminal responsibility and the practical uses of institutions to enforce the law and to "correct" offenders; the relationship between socio-economic development and legal change regarding issues of class, gender, and race; the various meanings of the "rights tradition" in America. These subjects will be pursued through analysis of a selection of recent books (paperbacks) and articles. Attention will be paid both to the substantive matters listed above and to the manner in which historians have formulated issues and employed evidence in setting forth arguments regarding specific historical contexts. Students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. The term paper will be an analytical essay on one of the main themes of the course and will draw upon several of the works read for the course. Cost:4 WL:5; The history department will create a waitlist; do not attend the first class meeting unless instructor has admitted you to the course. (Green)

Section 006 Michigan in the Era of Industrialization. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1920. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original manuscripts and archives relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the industrial and social history of the U.S. and to do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Blouin)

Section 007 Facing Death. Philosophical and religious thinking about death in western culture (the fear of death, preparation for death, the good death, death in the scheme of divine justice) from the Old Testament and the Greeks to modern times. The reading list is not yet fixed, but it will be selected from major works and authors of the western tradition, such as the Old and New Testaments, Plato, the Stoics, Augustine, the Ars moriendi, Thomas à Kempis, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, Montaigne, John Donne, Voltaire, Freud, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, Geofrey Gorer, Ignace Lepp, and Viktor Frankl. The course meets for one three-hour session weekly: the first two hours will be devoted to discussion of the reading, and participation is an essential part of the course. The third hour will be an informal lecture in preparation for the next week's reading. Students will be graded on four essays, based on the assigned readings. The first three essays (4 to 6 pages each) are submitted in draft, returned with criticism (including individual conferences) and then resubmitted in a final draft. The fourth essay (10 to 12 pages) may be submitted in a first draft, but that is not a requirement. (Tentler)

Section 008 Historical Writing in the Middle Ages. The course surveys Latin historical writing (in English translation) from the eighth to the thirteenth century. We begin with a review of literary genres and antecedents, and then consider the content, context, and function of a representative selection of historical works. The authors examined include Bede, Galbert of Bruges, Jocelyn of Brakelond, and Otto of Freising. Primary sources take precedence over secondary literature. The aim is to gain a sense of how and why medieval historians recorded their world and their past for others to learn about. Along with weekly reading and writing, the course entails oral reports and discussion. Background in medieval history/literature is recommended. Cost:3 WL:2 (Allen)

Section 009 The Plague in the Middle Ages. This colloquium will consider the question of disease in pre-modern history by focusing on the Black Death of 1348, which began a cycle of plague from which Europe finally emerged only in the seventeenth century. Apart from the demographic and social effects of plague on the societies it struck - a core interest in the course some of the questions to be considered are: (1) medical treatment and the state of medical knowledge during the period; (2) the development of hygiene and the policy and politics of quarantine; (3) posited relationships between diseases of the body and diseases of the soul; (4) the association of plague with other diseases, especially syphilis; (5) plague and the literary imagination. This course will demand two short papers on the readings, one analysis of a source, and a longer research paper on a topic of the student's choice. (Hughes)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (HU). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators and by override only. Apply for overrides at 4633 Haven Hall Monday, Nov. 13 from 1-5 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 East European Jews in Britain and Germany, 1870-1933. This course explores the immigration and transmigration of Eastern European Jews into and through Britain and Germany between the 1870s and 1930s. Starting from an evaluation of the condition of the Jews in Eastern Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the push/pull factors behind their emigration, the following issues will be discussed: immigration laws and patterns of settlement, the reception of Jewish immigrants by native British and German Jewry and the host societies at large, economic and social conditions of immigrant life, the transformation of the role of women in immigrant society, Zionism and Socialism among immigrants. Of particular relevance will be the question, what can the comparative analysis of Jewish migration add to our understanding of the modern European Jewish historical experience? (Lidtke)

Section 002 From Plural Empire to Nation-State: Aspects of Ottoman-Turkish Transition (1839-1923). This colloquium will explore the social, economic, cultural, and political processes that transformed a plural society (the Ottoman empire) into a nation state (Turkey). Against this background, we will reflect on the factors which shaped the Armenian-Turkish polarization. This course will combine some theoretical readings on ethnic relations, nationalism, and national identity with readings on specific aspects of nineteenth and early twentieth-century Ottoman and Ottoman Armenian history. These include the breakdown of the traditional order during the Tanzimat period (1839-76), the integration of the empire into the world economy, and its massive demographic changes. We will also analyze the growing aggregation of the population into exclusive groups by focusing on the formulation of new ideologies (Islamism, Turkism, Armenian nationalism) and the emergence of discriminatory economic theories and policies (milli iktisat). (Astourian)

Section 003 Technology and Colonialism, Machines, Peoples, and Ideas in South and Southeast Asia, 1870-1945. We will read classical and less classical studies, high- and low-culture novels and memoirs, travel guides, maps, time-tables, and statistics. We will try to understand how machines and people behaved building together the complex and bewildering culture we call modern colonialism. Hopefully, we will learn something about machines and colonialism as well as about ourselves and our present technological age. There will be a midterm examination and, at the end of the course, each student will be required to present a research paper of about 15 pages on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor. (Mrazek)

Section 004 European Peasants. This course investigates one of the crucial elements in the development of European cultures, peasantries. It treats the history of this "people without history," the workers in the fields and forest of Europe, from the Middle Ages to modern times. It thus focuses on agriculture and agricultural practices; village and community life; rural religiosity; relations between peasants and the state, including rural rebellion; and the image of the peasantry held by other social groups. Several brief reports, oral and written, and a term paper are required. (Squatriti)

405/Class. Civ. 476/Rel. 476. Pagans and Christians in the Roman World. (4). (HU).

See Classical Civilization 476. (MacCormack)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of fifteen independent republics, the experience of Communism in Russia and Eastern Europe is being rethought as if the seeds of destruction had been planted already in the revolution. This course looks at the complex evolution of political structures, social developments, and cultural responses during the 70 years of the Soviet system. Beginning with the prerevolutionary crises and political movements, it surveys the rise of Stalin, the building of a "totalitarian" state, and the successive reforms that ultimately unraveled the system. Students are required to attend two lectures and one discussion section each week, prepare a term project, and take two take-home examinations (midterm and final). WL:1 (Rosenberg)

438. Eastern Europe from 1500 to 1900. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Eastern Europe to 1900.
This course will survey the history of Eastern Europe, concentrating on the lands now included within Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. We will explore the development and collapse of a political and social system marked by both unparalleled liberties for the nobility, and crushing oppression for the peasantry. East European history has been shaped by the interactions of two great religions Christianity and Judaism and we will analyze the rich diversity within each tradition. In this course we will see how the cultural and ethnic divisions of the region took shape over the centuries, and how the sometimes violent, sometimes creative force of nationalism assumed its modern form. By looking at a region which always sat precariously on the boundaries of that elusive concept called "Europe," we will critically examine the questions of economic and social underdevelopment which remain so important in our own day. Cost:2 WL:4 (Porter)

443/APTIS 487. Modern Middle East History. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course surveys the emergence of the modern Middle East from the three great Muslim empires of the early modern period, the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal. It discusses both indigenous developments and the Western impact in the nineteenth century, looking at reform bureaucracy and millenarian movements as responses to these changes. We then examine the rise of nationalism and the break-up of the Ottoman Empire during and after WW I, and these phenomena are seen as the context for the beginnings of the Palestine issue. Attention is paid to the interwar efforts at building strong states in the region, whether in the Turkey of Ataturk, the Iran of Reza Shah, or Wafdist Egypt. The last part of the course looks at the rise of socialist and pan-Arab ideologies, as well as of opposing ideologies such as Islamic activism after WWII. The impact of petroleum, the Palestinian issue, the turn toward bourgeois liberalism, and Shi'ite movements such as the Iranian Revolution and the Hizbullah phenomenon in Lebanon, and the Gulf War of 1991, will all be addressed in this section. Students will take a midterm and a final examination, and will write a ten-page term paper on a subject of their choosing. Reading in this class is heavy, about 200 pages a week. Cost:4 WL:3 (Cole)

448/CAAS 448. Africa Since 1850. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Africa Since 1800.
This is the second of a two sequence lecture course designed to introduce students to central themes in Sub-Saharan African history from 1800 to the present. It will deal with such issues as the abolition of the slave trade, the rise of legitimate commerce, European penetration and imperial systems, physical confrontation, colonial subjugation, underdevelopment, nationalism and decolonisation. Cost:4 (Barry)

450. Japan to 1800. (3). (Excl).

This course will explore the evolution of Japanese civilization from its prehistoric days to the last phase of the age of the samurai by focusing on such key topics as emperors and outcastes, sacrality and pollution, aristocrats and warriors, bureaucracy and feudalism, sexuality and religion, peasant and lord, and seclusion and rebellions. Topically organized, the course will emphasize the interconnected patterns of social transformation over the millennium of history. Students will read translation of primary sources (literature and documents) in addition to textbooks and scholarly articles. Films and slide presentations will supplement lectures and class discussion. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class discussion, two in-class quizzes and three short take-home essays. The course welcomes participation by graduate students who will write an extra paper for earning graduate credits. No prerequisite for taking the course. Cost:2 WL:4 (Tonomura)

454. The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (3). (Excl).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilizations of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. Cost:1 WL:1 (Trautmann)

463. The Origins of the American Civil War, 1830-1860. (3). (SS).

This course attempts to understand the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of the ante-bellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It culminates with an exploration of the sense in which the intellectual, social, religious, and economic conflicts in America came to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. There will be a midterm exam, a research paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. Enrollment will be limited to forty students, in order to facilitate class discussion. Cost:4 WL:4 (Thornton)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; the 1980s and the Reagan presidency; and the presidencies of Bush and Clinton. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Cost:3 WL:4, a student may also visit the faculty office to see about getting on a Waitlist into the course. (S.Fine)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is chronological and thematic. A temporal narrative will be organized around these themes: (1) state formation, including forms of political rule and the construction of collective identities at local, national, and continental levels; (2) elite and popular relations, including cases of rebellion, revolution, and state repression; and (3) forms of capitalist development and transformations in class relations, ideologies of economic development, and center-periphery linkages. The discussion of individual countries and of specific topics will be intertwined throughout the course. Classes will combine lecture and discussions. Students are required to read the assigned materials BEFORE each class and are encouraged participate in class discussions. Written work will involve a short essay, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. Readings will include relevant sections from a textbook, Keen and Wasserman, A Short Story of Latin America, and articles and monographs, novels, short stores, newspapers and films, some of which will be selected in response to class discussion and students' interests. (Coronil)

478. Topics in Latin American History. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Cuba and Haiti: Caribbean Transformations in Historical Perspective.
This course looks at the historical trajectories of two societies that have repeatedly played major roles in the Atlantic world. The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) transformed France's richest colony into the hemisphere's second independent nation. Haiti faced down both Napoleon Bonaparte and the British army in its fight for independence and slave emancipation. One hundred and fifty years later the Cuban revolution challenged international alignments and embarked on an unprecedented socialist experiment. Each of these societies has been fundamentally marked by plantation agriculture, African slavery, and the dramas of emancipation and reconstruction in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and by the overbearing proximity of the United States in the twentieth. In this course we will draw upon monographs, documents, fiction, and testimonial literature to examine the dynamics of social change and future possibilities. Readings include works by Trouillot, Roumain, Fick, James, and Geggus on Haiti, and Pérez, Barnet, Moreno Fraginals, and Patterson on Cuba. No prerequisites; lecture/discussion. Cost:2 WL:4 (Scott)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 101 or 102. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 491. (Levenstein)

A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

517. History of Ireland Since 1603. (3). (HU).

A narrative history of modern Ireland from the time of the collapse of Gaelic culture at the Tudor conquest until the present. Lectures will treat aspects of cultural and social as well as political history. The main texts will be Moody and Martin, The Course of Irish History, J.C. Beckett, The Making of Modern Ireland, and John A. Murphy, Ireland in the Twentieth Century. Course work will include a sequence of periodic brief quizzes, one term paper, a final examination. There is no course prerequisite and no prior knowledge of Ireland is required. Cost:2 WL:4 (McNamara)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (3). (HU).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: (1) the concept and structure of empire; (2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; (3) society, cities, and literature; (4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; and (5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. Cost:4 WL:1 (Chang)

552. Topics in the Early Modern History of Mainland Southeast Asia. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Mainland Circa 1400-1850.
This course offers a comparative history of mainland Southeast Asia, principally Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam, from the crucial transformations of the fifteenth century to the eve of colonial rule. Its focus is simultaneously religious, political, and economic, and its thrust is towards historiographic debate. How, for example, can we explain the religious revolutions of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? Why the long-term trends to territorial expansion and cultural integration in each of the main polities? Why were responses to the European challenge of the nineteenth century so different in the three chief mainland states? And what unifying themes can we find across the mainland? Weekly discussion, two research papers, no exams. Open to any students with at least one course in Asian history. Cost:2 WL:3 (Lieberman, Whitmore)

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (3). (Excl).

This course examines American diplomacy since the outbreak of World War I. Major topics include entry into and participation in the two World Wars, the origins and development of the Cold War, the war in Vietnam, the diplomacy of the post-Vietnam era and the end of the Cold War. Although extensive attention is given to the world setting in which America acted, the primary emphasis is upon the formulation and execution of American policy, including investigation of the forces, domestic and foreign, which influenced it. A textbook and reading for a term paper are required. In addition to the paper, an hour exam and a final examination are required. Cost:1 WL:3 (Perkins)

561. Social History of the United States Since 1865. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The American Working Class and Working Class Communities: 1865-present.
This course explores the diverse experiences of the American working class and the evolution of working class communities from 1865-present. This course is organized thematically and it will encourage students to address broad questions such as: How does one define the working class? How does race, gender and ethnicity impact on class and class consciousness? In what ways is working class identity informed by work (what one does) and community (where one lives, etc.)? What role does unionization play in class identity, how do broader historical events define the working class and class identity? What is the nature of working class militancy and resistance in this period? Students will meet twice weekly once for a lecture and once to discuss course materials. There will be a midterm and final paper. (Thompson)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, and a multitude of recent business developments and trends. Cost:1 WL:3 (Lewis)

591. Topics in European History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Political Cleavages and Conflicts in Germany Since 1945.
For Winter Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with German 449.001. (Thaa)

Section 002 Marriage and Married Life in Germany in the Late Middle Ages and in the Renaissance. No German required. For Winter Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with MARC 402.001. Cost:2 WL:1 (Puff)

Section 003 Jews and Other Outsiders, 1789-1939: The Construction of National and Minority Identities. The theme of this course is the interplay between national and minority identities in Europe between the French Revolution and World War II. In this period, Jews and other "others" (ethnic, religious, and sexual outsiders) served as foils in the crystallization and transformation of national and social identities in most European states. While representations of minorities and the uses to which they were put offer few insights into the social experience of these groups, they do illuminate the cultural anxieties and social needs of those who constructed, embraced, and disseminated them. At the same time, these representations influenced the self-identification and behavior of minority groups seeking political integration and/or social acceptance. Outsiders eager to become insiders frequently absorbed negative constructions of their own identities, a process that ended at times in manifestation of self-hatred. Readings will be drawn from several academic fields history, sociology, psychology, and cultural studies and will include as well poems, novels, and short stories illustrative of minority group self hatred. (Endelman)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Modern Mainland Southeast Asia.
The major theme of this course will be "modernization" of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Burma, Brunei, and Singapore) - a historical conflict between the societies of the region and the global community of "developed" nations. Political, economic and social history will be studied but, first of all, the course wants to be an introduction to a sensitive and well-informed reading about cultures which are "strange" and at the same time essentially important for our own civilization. The focus this term will be on the mainland part of Southeast Asia. (Mrazek)

593. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. Juniors, seniors and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Approaches to Asian American History.
For Winter Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with American Culture 496.001. (Nomura)

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