Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers two regular introductory courses: Psychology 111 and Psychology 112. Psychology 112 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 111 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may not receive credit for Psychology 111 and Psychology 112. Either of the two courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses. Honors students and others with permission of the instructor may take Psychology 114 or 115. Psychology 115 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 114 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

Department of Psychology disenrollment policy for Psychology 111, 112, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, and 390. Students must attend discussion section by January 17 or contact the section TA, or they will be disenrolled from the course.

110(100). Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This is a course in cognitive psychology and motivation intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive psychology; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-regulation. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly two-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which will enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. Cost:2 WL:3 (Collins)

111(172). Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 111 serves, as do Psych. 112 or 113, as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112, 113, 114, or 115. Psych. 111 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 111 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course provides a broad introduction to the field of psychology. During the term we will cover such topics as perception, development, physiology and behavior, personality, and social psychology. In addition, we will look at some of the metaphors and principles that have guided research and theory within psychology (e.g., the mind as computer; the role of the unconscious; the person as pleasure seeking; the role of nature and nurture). Grades are based on two exams and assignments in discussion sections. Cost:3 (Hilton)

112(170). Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 112 and 113; no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 111, 114, or 115. Psych. 112 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). (BS). Students in Psychology 112 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course provides a broad introduction to the content and methods of contemporary psychology, with an emphasis on natural science approaches to the study of human behavior. Topics include the neural and hormonal bases of behavior, genetics and evolution, drug action, sensation, perception, learning, memory, cognition, intelligence, motivation, emotion, social behavior, and abnormal psychology. The required text is Peter Gray's Psychology (2nd ed.). Supplemental readings are likely. Grade will be based on three hourly exams, five quizzes, three to five written assignments, and participation in discussion section meetings. Cost:3 WL:1 (P.Price)

114(192). Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 111, 112, 113, or 115. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 114 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This course provides a broad introduction to the field of psychology. We will cover such topics as physiology and behavior, sensory and perceptual processes, states of consciousness, learning and memory, thinking, intelligence, development across the life-span, motivation and emotion, personality, stress and adjustment, abnormal behavior and psychotherapy, and social psychology. The textbook for the course is Understanding Psychology (2nd ed.); there is also a course pack. Each student will also be expected to select and read a number of books from a master list of recommended popular books in psychology. Grades are based on two exams, a reading log or journal based on the outside readings, and attendance at and participation in class. Cost:3 WL:1 (Morris)

Section 002. This course, which is intended for Honors students at the freshman and sophomore levels, will provide an introduction to psychology the systematic study of the human mind and behavior from a rigorous scientific perspective. Theoretical concepts and empirical data based on biological, evolutionary, behavioral, computational, cultural, and other related foundations will be emphasized. Topics covered during the course may include the nervous system, physiological mechanisms, cognition, motivation, emotion, personality, child development, social interaction, psychological disorders, and psychometric testing. Reading assignments will come from a textbook, course pack, and other relevant written materials. Class time will be devoted to a combination of lectures, student discussion, demonstrations, and Socratic dialogue. Regular attendance and active participation is required of all students. Grades will be based on the quality of student participation, written exercises, quizzes, exams, and a term paper. (Meyer)

Section 003. Psychology 114 surveys the field of psychology - including such topics as biopsychology, cognition, motivation, personality, social psychology, developmental psychology, psychopathology, and research methods used by psychologists to gain a better understanding of human behavior and experience. The course requirements include (in addition to understanding a textbook) participation in class discussion, keeping a weekly journal of reading and observations, and carrying out a research project with other students. There will be occasional quizzes, a midterm, and final examination. (McKeachie)

120. Seminar in Psychology as a Social Science. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (3). (SS). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 The Troubled and Troubling Adolescent.
This course will discuss the extraordinary increase in adolescent pathology during the last generation, specifically in the eating disorders, depression and suicide, illegitimacy, crime and substance abuse. (Adelson)

Section 002 Language, Culture, and Thought in East Asia. What does it mean to "think" like someone from the "West", to "talk" like someone from the "East"? How do the language and the culture that surround us impact on the way(s) that we think? How are language and culture related? This course will explore these themes and others through an examination of psychological and anthropological literature on these questions as well as through popular novels, films, and writings on East Asia, with a particular focus on China and Japan. Only a general interest in culture, language, and thought is required for this course. Students will be expected to take an active part in weekly discussions and will be graded on their oral and written contributions. Cost:3 WL:1. (Tardiff)

Section 003 What You Can Change and What You Cannot. Beliefs that each and all of our characteristics are in principle able to be changed are deeply held and drive much of our contemporary culture. In this seminar, we will examine the pervasiveness of this sort of optimism, identify its origins and explanations, and most critically evaluate it against evidence from biological and social sciences. Students should be willing and able to take an analytic attitude toward daytime talk shows, "pop" psychology claims, and the self-help movement. Class format will be brief lectures by me followed by discussion. Students will be asked to have good attendance, do assigned readings, write several papers, and make a presentation to the class on a pertinent topic of their choosing. Students should not tell their parents or legislators in Lansing that they will be receiving credit for watching the Oprah Winfrey Show. Cost:1 WL:1 (Peterson)

Section 004 Psychology and the Asian American Experience. How can we better understand the experiences of Asian Americans? How does psychology help us in gaining this understanding? To address these questions, this course will focus on psychological perspectives on the Asian American experience. Novels, poetry, film/video, and readings on the sociohistorical context of Asian Americans will be used to develop an understanding of the diverse experiences of this population. Discussion will be central to encouraging a dialogue between class members on materials covered. Evaluation will be based on papers and discussion participation. (Nagata)

Section 005 I, Too, Sing America: Psychology and Cultural Differences. Taking its title from the Langston Hughes poem, this seminar will explore psychological aspects of race, ethnicity, and other cultural differences in the United States. What are some of the opportunities and obstacles to our joining with Hughes in affirming, "They'll see how beautiful I am. . . I, too, sing America"? Topics will include stereotyping, communication, cooperation, conflict, justice, and discrimination. For example: What are psychological theories about how individuals and groups might most benefit from life in pluralistic societies? What are some psychological dynamics of stereotyping? What are possible connections between various forms of discrimination (for example, racism, sexism, homophobia, and anti-Semitism)? etc. The methods of the seminar will emphasize student discussion, writing, and autonomy. The seminar is offered without prerequisites. Cost:2 WL:1 (Behling)

Section 006 The Psychological Person and the Law. This seminar will examine a number of case studies involving psychology and the law that have been covered by the popular press (e.g., the Bobbit and Menendez trials). (Pachella)

Section 007 Leadership: Theory and Practice. This is a multidisciplinary seminar for first-year students that explores the questions: What is leadership? What are some styles of leadership and traits of effective leaders? How does one lead? We will examine both classical and contemporary views of leadership. We will spend some time exploring styles of leadership and traits of effective leaders. And we will explore what contemporary theory and research in the behavioral sciences tells us about leadership. Core readings will include such paperbacks as Clemens and Mayer The Classical Touch, Gardner On Leadership, McFarland et al. 21st Century Leadership, and Rosenbach & Taylor Contemporary Issues In Leadership. Each student will also prepare an oral and written report on one outstanding leader. Course grades will be based on attendance at and participation in class discussions, a reading log or journal, several brief (maximum 500-word) position papers, an end-of-class essay, and both oral and written reports. Cost:3 WL:1 (Morris)

121. Seminar in Psychology as a Natural Science. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (3). (NS). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Decisions About Marriage.
Decisions about marriage (e.g., concerning whether, when, and whom to marry) are among the most important the typical person ever makes. But there is good evidence (e.g., high rates of divorce and domestic violence) that people often make these decisions badly, with serious, detrimental consequences for everyone involved, including children. This seminar will examine literature concerning the variety of ways marriage decisions are made in practice. It will also explore and critically evaluate proposals for how people could make such decisions more effectively. Cost:3 WL:1 (Yates)

125. Drugs, Culture, & Human Behavior. May not be used as a prerequisite for a psychology concentration. May not be included in a psychology concentration. (3). (Excl).

An introductory survey of psychoactive drugs and plants, toxins, and other chemicals that alter human behavior with an emphasis on their use in various cultures. Following an historical introduction and an overview of drug action mechanisms of the nervous system, each chemical group is discussed from the following perspectives: history of use, specific modes of action, physiological and psychological effects, reasons for use (religious, medicinal, recreational, etc.), cultural influences, and potential hazards and treatments. Topics include alcohol and other depressants, coca leaves and other stimulants, psychedelics and hallucinogens, psychotherapeutics, medicinal plants, and contraceptives. Course Texts: Bakalar, J.B. and Grinspoon, L. (1984) Drug Control in a Free Society. New York, Cambridge U. Press; Furst, P. (1990) Flesh of the Gods: The ritual use of hallucinogens. Prospect Heights, Ill., Waveland Press; Ray,O. and Ksir,C. (1993) Drugs, Society, & Human Behavior. St. Louis, Mosby; Williams, Terry (1992) Crackhouse; notes from the end of the line. New York, Penguin; Course pack: 6 papers. Course requirements: 3 hour exams and 2 short (4-6 pages) essays. (Rose)

211(201). Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, the people whom you will serve, and to provide a genuine community service. Outreach includes approximately 45 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, retarded and emotionally impaired persons, women, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to mental health and criminal institutions, social advocacy organizations concerned with combating racism, helping battered women, and others. All sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Information regarding registration, field work and course information for the Winter Term, 1996, will be available at an Information Meeting on Thursday, November 16, 1995, at 6:00 pm in 1400 Chemistry. For information, call the Outreach Office at 764-9179 or 764-2580. Two separate sections of Outreach count as an experiential lab for the Psychology concentration; they do not count as a lab for the Psychology as a Natural Science concentration. Cost:1, not including $15 lab fee. WL:1 (Miller)

Section 001 Preschool Children at Risk. Provide experience for a variety of children in preschool who are at-risk for developing intellectual, emotional, and behavior problems, or work with agencies trying to reduce the number of children facing these situations. Risk factors include poverty, teenage parents, single parenthood and developmental difficulties.

Section 002 Big Sibs Community & Opportunity. Be a Big Sib; develop a meaningful individual relationship with a child in need of the companionship of a consistent caring adult; share in activities and enjoy being with a young person in the community. Some students might also have the opportunity to be a Big Sib to a physically or mentally handicapped child.

Section 003 Juvenile Justice and Education. Establish a meaningful friendship with a child in an after-school program; help tutor, plan activities and serve as a positive role model for a local student; interact with and assist teenagers and preteens whose behavior is in conflict with the laws and rules of our society, or join with community groups working to increase educational opportunity and juvenile justice. Learn about juvenile criminal behavior, the criminal justice system and the law, institutionalization and rehabilitation.

Section 004 Social Justice. Learn about racism, homophobia, sexism, rape, incest, domestic violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, the AIDS crisis, and teen pregnancy. Develop supportive and helping relationships with people as they encounter special challenges throughout the lifespan from teens through elderly, or join with local agencies working to bring about change in the lives of people of color, women, gay men, and lesbians.

Section 005 Interventions for Mental Health. Work with children and adults with mental illness or developmental disabilities living in institutional settings or in the community; assist these people in practicing social skills and increasing their integration into society, or work with groups advocating for better conditions, services, and community awareness for persons with mental health problem & examine issues such as attitudes and prejudices about mental health, mental illness and mental retardation.

Section 006 Health, Illness, & Society. Serve as a non-medical liaison between staff, family, and patients, offering empathy and emotional support in waiting rooms, at bedside, in community health clinics and in other settings; learn how people cope with stress; provide supervised occupational, physical, rehabilitative, educational, and recreational therapy, and support for people with special physical or health needs: senior citizens, children who are physically impaired, or people who are HIV positive, or work with groups trying to prevent particular health problems, promote health education or those that are advocating for improved health services.

Section 007 Exploring Careers. Investigate majors and careers that best fit your needs and abilities; explore graduate school options; write a resume and cover letter; improve your job search strategies; talk with professionals in various fields; increase your awareness of social issues that affect people's career decisions and work lives.

Section 008 Lifespan Development. Work with infants, children and teenagers, and women in a variety of care settings. Learn about the course of human development and the many forces that influence this.

255. Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. Inteflex students electing a concentration in psychology may use Psych. 255 as the introductory prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 350. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended for students in the Inteflex program. It is a life span human development course, surveying birth to death, and providing theoretical and empirical material on physical, perceptual, cognitive, social/emotional development. Grades are based on three exams and a project (library or practicum). The course is geared to Inteflex students, and they have first priority. Cost:2 WL:1 (Youngblade)

303(503). Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. One of the following: Psych. 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001 Research Methods and Techniques in Biopsychology. Prerequisites: Psych 330 and P/I.
This course will provide an introduction to selected research methods used in biopsychology. In particular, the course will focus on the research conducted in some of the Biopsychology Area laboratories. The objectives of the course are to provide a general knowledge of: (1) what kind of reasoning leads to an experiment; (2) how to design an experiment; (3) fundamentals of data collection and data analysis; (4) how to gather and read literature relevant to an experiment; and (5) how to write a meaningful research paper. Furthermore, the students will be given the opportunity to familiarize themselves with selected experimental techniques and procedures by visiting laboratories of the Biopsychology Area. Meets one of two lab course requirements. Cost:1 WL:1 (Badiani)

305. Practicum in Psychology. Introductory psychology. A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (2-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Alcoholism and Other Behavior Disorders in Community Settings, II. (3 credits). Prerequisite: Psychology 372.005.
The University of Michigan Alcohol Research Center (UMARC) provides a continuing opportunity for students to gain valuable research experience in a community setting as part of the Health Profile Project. The project will focus on the nature and extent of alcohol problems among patients 60 years of age and older, and assess specifically the effectiveness of a brief intervention designed to help older adults with drinking problems. The project provides students the opportunity to obtain research experience in the social and health sciences fields. Students will administer brief questionnaires to elderly persons in primary care offices, and they also may have the opportunity conduct telephone follow-up interviews with participants in the brief intervention study. Other requirements include: interest in social sciences or health sciences; the ability to travel to project sites (car preferred); excellent interpersonal skills; and experience interacting with the public. Furthermore, students will gain valuable research experience in the areas of geriatrics and alcohol problems. This course is the second term of a two term practicum sequence. The sequence fulfills both lab requirements for psychology majors. Those who register for the course will be required to attend a research meeting, a one hour lecture, and 7.5 hours of field work each week during the academic term. Students also are required to write a research paper. (Zucker)

Section 002 Field Practicum on Promoting Social Skills in Children. (2-4 credits). Learning to get along with people is one of the most important set of skills that children can possess. Unfortunately, many children have persistent problems in this area and are rejected by their peers and lack friends. THE FOURTH R (Reading, 'riting, 'rithmatic, and relationships) is training program that helps rejected children develop their social skills and social confidence. Children learn social skills in the program by working in small groups at school. These groups are led by pairs of trained undergraduate "coaches." If you are an advanced undergraduate intending a career in education or in developmental or child clinical psychology, you can earn academic credit and take advantage of an important opportunity to gain clinical and research experience by participating as a social skills coach in these groups. As a social skills coach, you will participate in a weekly lecture/discussion meeting with other coaches to learn about the causes and consequences of rejection by peers in childhood and to discuss the successful and unsuccessful ways of intervening on behalf of such children. You will also participate in collecting research data in local elementary schools on children's friendships, and will work weekly with a small group of children at school to build their social skills and social confidence. This is a unique opportunity to build your resume for graduate school and to develop professional research and clinical skills. If you are interested or want more information, contact Dr. Jeffrey Parker, 3433 Mason Hall, 764-6571. Organizational meeting November 14, 1995, 5:30-7:00 p.m., B006 EE. We are interested in students of junior/senior status, planning careers in psychology or education. A limited number of spaces are available. (Parker)

Section 003 Practicum in Child Development and Child Care. (2- 4 credits). This course allows students to acquire experience working in a child care setting with preschool age children. Students will be assigned to specific classrooms and work under the direct supervision of the head teacher and director of the Pound House Children's Center. Students are required to keep a weekly journal summarizing their experiences in the child care setting as well as integrating these experiences with literature on children's development. Students will be required to read the Staff Handbook for information on Center policies as well as independent readings on child development. All students must show evidence of a negative TB tine test and have a physical exam from a doctor stating that there is no reason why they cannot work with young children. Contact Carolyn Tyson at Pound House or Dr. Brenda Volling in the Department of Psychology for further information. Course registration is by permission of instructor only. Cost:1 WL:5. Students need to meet with the instructor to gain approval for course registration. (Volling)

Sections 010-016. Intergroup Dialogues: Building Bridges with Intergroup Dialogues. In a multiculural society, discussion about issues of conflict, commonalities and differences is needed to facilitate understanding and the building of bridges between social groups. In this seven-week intergroup dialogue, students will participate in a semi-structured face-to-face meeting with students from at least two social identity groups, discuss relevant reading material, and explore their own and the other group's experiences in various social and institutional contexts. Students will examine narratives, historical and sociological materials which address each group's experience within a US context, and learn about pertinent issues facing the participating groups on campus and in society. The goal is to create a setting in which students will engage in open and constructive dialogue, learning, and exploration. The second goal is to actively identify alternative resolutions in intergroup conflicts. (Kardia)

Students will enroll in one of the following dialogue sections (section times and locations are available in the Time Schedule).

Section 010 Lesbians, Gaymen, Bisexuals, and Heterosexuals.
Section 011 Blacks and Jews.
Sections 012 and 016 White Women and Women of Color.
Section 013 White People and People of Color.
Section 014 Men and Women.
Section 015 Blacks and Asians.

306. Project Outreach Group Leading. Introductory psychology, Psychology 211, and permission of instructor. A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course provides students with knowledge and practice in areas related to enhancing the educational experience of undergraduate students involved in community service learning placements in a community setting, students will learn to supervise and evaluate the placement activities of others, and gain essential skills in facilitating small group discussions which integrate field experiences with theoretical concepts. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two projects, a number of other regular written assignments, and the quality of the small group discussions which they facilitate. Cost:2 (Miller)

307. Directed Experiences with Children. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (3-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 7 credits.

Directed experience with children aged eighteen months to five years at the University of Michigan's Children Center and Children's Center for Working Families for approximately eight to twelve hours per week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a child care setting. Cost:1 WL:5, Permission of instructor required for all students. (Sternberg)

308. Peer Advising Practicum in Psychology. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (2-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course offered for two or three credits is a supervised practicum for psychology concentrates who wish to learn to help other psychology students through academic advising/counseling. Students are selected by application and interview for the training and supervised practicum. Twelve hours of weekend training in peer facilitation psychology concentration requirements precede the weekly practicum and supervision sessions. A two hour faculty-supervised weekly class and an additional half hour meeting with undergraduate office staff is required. Required also are weekly journals and a final research paper. The purchase of two paperback texts and a course pack are necessary. In addition to experience with individual academic advising, students in this course may elect to help run "focus groups" on subjects of interest to psychology concentrators. The class is limited to about 20 students in order to facilitate discussion, training and supervision of the practicum. For further information please call Dr. Sherry Hatcher at 747-3920. Cost:3 WL:3, Application, interview, and override required from Dr. Hatcher. (Hatcher)

312(391). Junior Honors: Research Methods in Psychology. Honors concentrators in Psychology. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course is intended to help students identify a research topic and develop a concrete research plan for their senior Honors thesis. By the end of the term each student will have written and revised a research proposal that can serve as the introduction and methods sections of a thesis and will also have identified one or more faculty members who are willing to supervise the research project during the following year. Students will also become familiar with a broad array of research methods in psychology, develop some proficiency in writing in standard APA format, and become familiar with some outstanding researchers both on campus and elsewhere. Grades are based on the quality of several reports (both written and oral), the final research proposal, and attendance at and participation in class. The text for the course is A.M. Graziano and M.L. Raulin Research Methods: A Process Of Inquiry (2nd ed.). In addition, students are strongly encouraged to purchase the current APA Publication Manual (4th ed.) and a course pack. Cost:3 WL:1 (Morris)

Section 002. This course is designed to help the student prepare to carry out a research project for a senior Honors thesis. We will focus on the selection and development of topics, literature reviews, and research design. Class time will be devoted to discussions in which students can share their questions, knowledge, and interests as they develop their research proposals. Evaluation will be based on short papers and presentations, and on a larger paper describing a proposed research project. Cost:2 WL:4 (Inglehart)

313(370)/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

An exploration of the encounter between psychology and religion. This course addresses issues in two interrelated fields of study. First, lectures and discussion examine the history of psychology and religion as competing or overlapping explanations of behavior-as legislations of mental health and "disease," and as techniques for the "cure of souls." Second, the course explores the nature and foundations of the "psychology of religion"-psychological theory and research about phenomena such as religious experience, moral development, spiritual autobiographical narratives and "paths," and religious practices including ritual, prayer, and meditation. The course is based on the writings of psychologists of religion, and on textual and ethnographic materials from a variety of religious traditions. Cost:3 WL:3 (Gómez)

330(331). Introduction to Biopsychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course surveys the field of Biopsychology. It introduces the kinds of questions traditionally addressed by psychological and comparative psychologists. Biopsychology is an area of study concerned with the evolution of behavior and with brain-behavior relations in both humans and animals. The goals of the course are to provide a basic understanding of the following: principles of behavioral evolution that have shaped current behavior and physiological processes; the anatomy and operation of brain systems relevant to mind and behavior, and their relation to psychoactive drugs; and neural mechanisms of normal action, perception, motivation, learning, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and for one discussion/practicum section. NOTE: This course is intended primarily for Sophomores and second term Freshmen who have taken a course in introductory psychology. This course is a prerequisite for many upper-level courses in Biopsychology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Berridge)

331(511). Laboratories in Biopsychology. Psych. 330. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

The purpose of this course is three-fold. (1) Provide students with opportunities to gain practical laboratory experience by assisting an individual faculty member in the Biopsychology Program with his/her on-going research. (2) Introduce students to selected general methods used in the field of biopsychology (brain and behavior and animal behavior). (3) Provide practical knowledge about research design, quantification of behavior, scientific writing, the use of animals in research, and miscellaneous techniques used by biopsychologists in laboratory research. Grades are based on a student's (1) performance in an individual faculty member's lab; (2) an oral presentation; and (3) term paper that describes the student's research experience. Students must register in two sections; a general lecture section (001) and an individual faculty member's section (faculty identification number). To be admitted, students must first get permission from an individual faculty member to work in his/her lab. Specific instructions and an application form (which must be completed) are available in the Psychology Undergraduate Office or the Biopsychology Program Office. Students concentrating in 'Psychology as a Natural Science' will receive priority. Cost:1 WL:3 (Lee)

340. Introduction to Cognitive Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (NS). (BS).

It will provide an introduction to cognitive psychology. The topics to be covered include various aspects of the psychology of human perception, attention, memory, thinking (including problem solving and reasoning), and consciousness. The material will include data and theory about the relationship between cognition and brain function. The course will emphasize not only the content material represented by these topics, but also the process by which researchers develop theories and collect evidence about relevant issues. Students are required to have taken an introductory psychology course that included material on psychological experimentation. Performance will be evaluated via objective examinations that will stress knowledge of the material and understanding of the relationship between theory and data. Readings will be drawn from a text and several primary sources. The course will include lecture, discussion, demonstrations, in-class experiments, and practice on problem-solving exercises. Cost :2 WL:1 (Gehring)

341(310). Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psych. 330 or 340. (4). (NS). (BS). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. The general objectives of the course are to learn why people do psychology research, to understand the logic of experimentation, to gain experience of experimentation, to learn to critically evaluate research findings. The performance objectives of the course are to be able to construct and carry out an experiment to test a given hypothesis, to be able to analyze the data from an experiment, to be able to present the experiment and its results in a clear, concise manner, and to be able to clearly communicate ideas in written form. Experimental methods are demonstrated using examples from vision and perception, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Grading is based on exams and reports of three experiments conducted by students. Cost:2 WL:1 (P.Price)

350(457). Introduction to Developmental Psychology. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 255. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the milestones of human development from conception to death. We describe physical, cognitive, and social growth of normal children with special attention to various cultural contexts of development and the rich diversity of individuals. The content is primarily drawn from research and theories in developmental psychology. We hope that students can integrate their knowledge of psychology and their observations of human development with the content of this course. In addition, we will discuss implications for child-rearing, education, and social policy-making so that you can apply the knowledge to meaningful problems. WL:1 (Paris)

351(517). Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 and Psych. 350. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This course provides training in the skills necessary to critique and conduct research on children's perceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional development. This is a laboratory course: students engage in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. In addition, there are lectures and discussions covering theories, research issues, methods, and actual studies in developmental psychology. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in research projects and written reports and exercises. Cost:3 WL:1 (Wellman)

360. Introduction to Organizational Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

Organizational psychology is the subfield of psychology devoted to the human behavior in organizations. This course offers a broad-ranging introduction to the field focusing particularly on the problems of understanding behavior that is in some respects governed by psychological principles and laws and in some respects by sociological principles and laws. Topics in the course include individuation and socialization, motivation in organizations, group psychology, sociology, role relations, organizational dynamics, and problems of management. The course will consist of a combination of lecture, discussion, and group work. Cost:2 WL:2 (Sandelands)

361. Advanced Laboratory in Organizational Psychology. Psych. 360. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This advanced laboratory will cover several approaches to enhancing individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. We will focus on role analysis and negotiation, competencies of an effective consultant, impression management, group planning and decision making, diversity in workforce 2000, organizational behavior and human resource management, and work redesign. The instructor will introduce each topic to the class members by giving a brief overview of the framework, lecture, or workshop to provide some firsthand experience with the concepts and phenomena we are studying. Subsequently, the class will reflect on the presentation and discuss relevant readings, processes, and assignments. Finally, students (individually and in groups) will conduct field research projects, deliver class presentations, and complete written reports which will then be delineated in class. Cost:3 WL:1 (Beale)

370. Introduction to Psychopathology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is an introduction to the clinical, theoretical, and empirical literature on psychopathology. We will explore the concept of "mental illness." To what extent do psychiatric disturbances reflect medical conditions? Should they be thought of as social constructions or metaphors? During the term, we will discuss behavior that is deemed by the helping professions to be dysfunctional and methods typically employed to treat forms of psychological suffering. We will use case studies, autobiographical materials and films to understand psychopathology at the level of the individual and look to the theoretical and empirical literatures to understand existing norms of illness and health in order to understand what they tell us about human culture at the present time. Grading will be based on exams, assigned papers, and class exercises. This is a lecture class only. Students should be prepared for independent work as there are no discussion sections. (Leary)

Section 010. This course is an introduction to the clinical, theoretical and research literature on psychopathology. We will explore the concept of "mental illness," existing systems of classifying behavior deemed to be dysfunctional (i.e., DSM-IV) and methods typically employed to treat forms of psychological suffering. The emphasis will be on understanding what psychopathology is at the level of the individual struggling with it as well as exploring what existing norms of illness and health tell us about human culture at the present time. Students are expected to attend lecture and section regularly and will be evaluated on examinations, short papers and class participation. (Hansell)

372(415). Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 370. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.
Section 001 Clinical Approaches To Childhood Disorder.
The central focus of this course is the process of clinical inference in exploring the nature of children's difficulties, planning patterns of intervention, and engaging in the intervention process. Students will work with such clinical material as case histories, interview materials, and children's responses to frequently used instruments for clinical assessment. Assigned readings will be used to place these clinical data in a broader perspective. This course consists of weekly topics. Meetings will center on assigned readings. Attendance is required. Students will write one-paragraph reactions to the readings. Several of these will be read to introduce class discussion. Course evaluation will be based on two short papers, two in-class tests and class participation. Cost:1 WL:1 (Fast)

Section 002. How do clinical psychologists use science to explore the nature of psychological problems? This course focuses on methods of scientific inquiry in clinical psychology. We will discuss the integration of science and practice, the logical and empirical foundation of quantitative and qualitative approaches to psychological research, and models for scientific analysis of general and specific psychological phenomena. Critical interpretation of data and conclusions derived from empirical studies will be emphasized. To this end, students will conduct a small research project. Evaluation will be based on two exams and a research report. Sessions will include lecture, discussion, and hands-on experience with data collection and analysis. Cost:2-3 WL:1 (Trierweiler)

Section 003. This section will concern clinical methods and issues with a focus on adult personality/psychopathology. A range of topics and methodologies will be studied. Lab goals include increasing the students' sophistication about adult psychopathology through the use of clinical materials (e.g., interviews, test responses) and competence in designing and carrying out clinical research projects. There will be text readings on a range of topics of research design and the special ethical considerations in doing research with human subjects. Course evaluation will be based on class participation, reaction paragraphs to articles, in-class project, reports, and the completion of a longer empirical project completed with a partner. (Lohr)

Section 005 Alcoholism and Other Behavior Disorders in Community Settings, I. The University of Michigan Alcohol Research Center (UMARC) provides an opportunity for students to gain research experience in a community setting as part of the Health Profile Project. The research will focus on the nature and extent of alcohol problems among patients 60 years of age and older, and assess specifically the effectiveness of a brief intervention designed to help older adults with drinking problems. Primary tasks include the administration of brief questionnaires to elderly persons in primary care offices. Requirements include: interest in social sciences or health sciences; the ability to travel to project sites (car preferred); excellent interpersonal skills; and experience interacting with the public. The course requires students to have 7.5 consecutive hours available during the business day to screen patients at clinics. Those who register for the class will be required to attend a research meeting, a one hour lecture, and the 7.5 hours of field placement each week during the academic term. Students will be trained thoroughly to recruit participants, administer surveys, and interact in a professional manner with health care professionals and patients. Furthermore, students will gain valuable research experience in the areas of geriatrics and alcohol use problems. Students interested in the course must interview at UMARC. Please call 998-7952 for more information and to set up an appointment. The course is offered as a two term sequence along with Psychology 305. Completing both classes fulfills the two lab requirements for psychology concentrators. (Zucker)

380(382). Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams and classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. Cost:3 WL:1 (Fredrickson)

381(516)/Soc. 472. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 and Psych. 380. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

Students design and implement a small survey and laboratory experiment on a standard social psychological topics such as personality and political beliefs, cooperation and competition, group discussion and attitude change, bargaining and negotiation, etc. Instruction carried out via discussion and demonstration plus a small number of lectures. Grades based primarily on papers in which students analyze and write-up the results of their research projects. Quality of participation in class and in research teams is also taken into account. Cost:2 WL:1 (Burnstein)

390(452). Introduction to the Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course will survey the principal theories and current research on personality. It will focus especially on (1) motives and defenses, (2) cognitive style, beliefs, and the sense of self, (3) traits and temperament and (4) social context, as the major components of personality. Case studies of historical persons will be used to illustrate and integrate these components. Cost:3 WL:5 (See Psychology Waitlist procedures above). (Winter)

391(519). Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 390. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

Personality research methods will be explored in detail in this course. Techniques involved in assessing personality will be introduced, including attention to social and ethical issues. These may include scale construction, content analysis, interviewing and observation. Issues of experimental design will be discussed, and students will gain experience administering, coding and evaluating personality measures. In addition, individually and in groups, students will plan and execute analyses of data drawn from one or more of ten different samples (of students, midlife adults, Presidents of the U.S., survivors of an earthquake, musicians, etc.) contained in the Personality Data Archive at the University of Michigan. Cost:2 WL:1

401. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science. Introductory psychology. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Community Practice in Spanish. (3 credits).
For Winter Term, 1996, this course is offered jointly with American Culture 310.001. (José-Kampfner)

Section 002 Student Affairs Helping Skills. (3 credits). This course is an introduction to the awareness, skills, and knowledge that are utilized in peer helping programs. The main goals are: to identify and practice necessary skills for effective helping and leadership; to examine relevant theory in student development, identity development, and student affairs work; to help students build bridges between theoretical material and the implementation (practice) of theory; and to expose students to the history of student affairs in universities. Students will survey relevant topics such as diversity/multiculturalism, communication/basic helping skills, issues related to student life, conflict management, crisis intervention, leadership, group facilitation, and organization of the division of student affairs. Classes will be in a seminar format (discussion, experiential exercises, lecture); attendance and preparedness are required and necessary for optimal learning. Students will also be expected to participate in a group project, complete a take-home midterm, and write a final paper. (Sevig)

Section 003 Life, Death, and Spiritual Development. (3 credits). For Winter Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with Religion 402.001. (Mann)

Section 004 Group Leadership: Facilitating Dialogue Groups. (2 credits). This section is reserved for students acting as facilitators of dialogue groups that are part of Psychology 305. The facilitators will meet weekly in a seminar that covers theoretical materials related to multicultural relations, particularly the effect of culture on verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication. The seminar will also focus on problem analysis and solution as a "hands-on" effort to provide helpful suggestions to the facilitators. A log and a final paper will be required. (Gurin)

411/WS 419. Gender and Group Process in a Multicultural Context. One course in women's studies or psychology. (3). (SS).

See Women's Studies 419. (Kardia)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Introductory psychology or introductory biology or equivalent. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on a multiple-choice quiz, two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. Cost:1 WL:1 (Mateo)

432. Reproductive Behavior in Mammals. Psych. 330, 430, or 437 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course emphasizes a biological and ecological approach to mammalian reproductive behavior in a cross-species, comparative framework. The course is appropriate for students who have a basic background and interest in biological approaches to behavior (e.g., Psych 330, 430, Anthro 368, or Intro Biol). Humans are considered in the course, but only as one of many species whose reproductive behavior is examined. Course format involves a combination of lectures, student presentations and student discussions of research articles from a course pack. The proximate basis of reproductive behavior is stressed in an ecological approach to various topics: genetic determination of sex, sexual development and puberty, hormonal influences on mating behavior, sex differences in reproductive behavior, seasonal breeding and the timing of reproduction, and the effects of various social and environmental factors on reproduction. Grades are determined based on a combination of examinations (multiple choice and essay questions), a written paper, which also serves as the basis for an in-class oral presentation, and active participation in classroom discussions.

433. Biopsychology of Motivation. Psych. 330. (3). (NS). (BS).

How do brain systems generate emotion and motivate behavior? How does motivation differ across species? How does learning influence basic motivations? What are the neural mechanisms of pleasure and pain? What are the mechanisms of sleep and dreaming, hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression? How does the brain translate motivation into goal-directed behavior? These questions are the focus of the course. Our emphasis will be upon the critical analysis of theory and evidence from opposing points of view: students are expected to construct and defend their own conclusions in essay exams, papers, and presentations. Format is a mixture of lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:1 (Berridge)

434(333). Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Psych. 634. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course surveys current knowledge of the human brain and its role in mental processes such as visual perception, attention, memory, and language. The course focuses on the cognitive consequences of brain damage, as well as brain imaging and neurobehavioral techniques that are used to study the relationship between the brain and behavior. Evaluation based on three exams. Cost:2 WL:1 (Reuter-Lorenz)

436. Drugs of Abuse, Brain and Behavior. Psych. 330. (3). (Excl). (BS).
Intro. Biology and Chemistry are recommended as prerequisites.
This course provides an introduction to the neuropsychopharmacology of drug abuse and addiction. The acute and long-term effects of selected drugs of abuse on behavior, mood, cognition, and neuronal function are explored. Material from studies with humans is integrated with preclinical studies on the biopsychology of drug action and drug abuse including an introduction to pharmacological principles, behavioral pharmacology and detailed coverage of synaptic transmission and the distribution, regulation, and integration of brain neurotransmitter systems. The focus is on drugs of abuse, including opiates (heroin, morphine, opium), sedative-hypnotics (barbituates), anxiolytics (benzodiazepines), psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine), hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline), hallucinogenic-stimulants (MDA, MDMA), dissociative anaesthetics (PCP) and alcohol. The course has a natural science orientation and is intended for students concentrating in psychology as a natural science, biology, or the bio-behavioral sciences (e.g., pre-med). A lecture format is used, with required reading from a text. Grades are based on objective-type exams. Cost:2 WL:1 (Robinson)

442. Perception, Science, and Reality. Introductory psychology. No credit granted to those who completed Psych. 444 prior to Fall Term, 1992. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course carries concentration credit for Psychology concentrators and natural science credit for non-Psychology concentrators. The course focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories. It also examines the general relationship between perception and scientific observation. Topics include: sensory transduction and psychophysics, Gestalt organization, constancy and contrast effects, expectation, selective attention, perceptual learning and symbolic representation. While the course is oriented toward the natural sciences, it also considers social, philosophical and esthetic perspectives, since at its most general level, human perception concerns the questions of how and why human beings use sensory information to conceive of, and experience immediate reality the way they do. The instructor assumes no particular psychology background, and non-psychology concentrators are welcome. Grades will be determined on the basis of two short papers (each worth 30% of the grade) and one longer paper (worth 40% of the grade). An optional CONFER will also be available. Questions concerning this class can be e- mailed to Robert Pachella. Cost:2 WL:5 Get on waitlist. At beginning of term be sure that the telephone number at CRISP is correct: If not call 764-9440 to correct it. As places in the course open up, we will call people IN ORDER from the waitlist. MTW 6-7:30. (Pachella)

453. Socialization of the Child. Psych. 350. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course will focus on children's social and emotional development with a particular emphasis on the various agents that play a part in children's socialization. A major assumption underlying this course and guiding its content is that growth in social and emotional competence emerges from children's experiences in their relationships with other people, especially parents, siblings, and friends. We further assume that socialization is bidirectional, that is, that children influence their relationships even as their relationships influence them. A partial list of topics includes: biological influences on development, infant-caregiver attachments, the development of children's friendships, parental beliefs and behaviors, the role of fathers in child development, sex-role development, the development of prosocial behavior, the development of the self, the development of achievement motivation, schools as socialization agents, day care and maternal employment, and divorce and single-parenthood. Cost:2 WL:1 (Parker)

Section 002. This course will cover the influences that affect the child's socio-emotional development. We will examine, through a developmental perspective, the role of family, peers, school and society at large in shaping personality, self-concepts, competence, attitudes, and behaviors. Throughout the course, attention will be paid to the impact of social class, ethnicity, and gender on the socialization process. Contemporary and clinical issues, such as divorce, single parenting, and child care will be considered. Grades will be based on three exams (multiple choice and essay) and one short paper. Lecture format. (Gold-Steinberg)

455. Cognitive Development. Psych. 350. (3). (SS).

This upper-level undergraduate course provides an examination of children's thinking and intellectual growth, from infancy through adolescence. Topics covered include: concepts, language, problem-solving, memory, spatial skills, individual differences, and more. We will consider different theoretical accounts of how mental abilities develop, devoting particular attention to recent psychological research (both experimental and observational). The course will include lectures and opportunity for in-class discussion. Students will be evaluated by exams and one term paper. Cost:2 (Welman)

459. Psychology of Aging. Psych. 350. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This undergraduate course is designed to familiarize students with current knowledge about the constancies and changes that occur in adult behavior and thought, as well as to acquaint them with likely causes of stability, growth, and decline across adulthood, and provide them with an enriched understanding of development and aging. By the end of the course, students should be able to characterize the range and variety of possible adult developmental trajectories, and interpret research addressing development and aging. The knowledge gained in the course should provide students with an understanding of the needs of older adults in our present society, as well an appreciation of the tremendous resource the older population offers. In addition, the course should provide students with insights about the changes they should expect as they get older, and things they can do to affect these changes. The course also should expand students' thinking about the implications of development and aging for individuals and societies. The course will cover theory, methods, and data relevant to age differences in adulthood. We will begin with a brief overview of theoretical and methodological issues. Then we will consider age differences in specific areas, and the implications of these age differences for individual and societal functioning. Areas to be covered are biological function (including physical and mental health); basic cognitive processes (e.g., sensation, perception, attention, speed of processing, learning, and memory); higher mental processes (e.g., problem solving, intelligence, creativity, and wisdom); personality; emotionality; motivation; stress; coping; social interaction (both within and between generations); social roles (e.g., family, work, and community responsibilities, and leisure activities); gender differences; and ethnic, cultural, and historical diversity. Student grades will be based on exams and papers. A text and supplemental readings will be assigned. Classes will involve lecture and discussion. (Perlmutter)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 360. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to a wide range of concepts and issues in group behavior. It is the second in a series of three courses that includes Psychology 360 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). Students may elect to take this course without taking the other two courses. The course presents information on the design and management of small task groups within organizations. The course focuses both on the contextual significance of groups and the impact of intrapsychic forces on groups. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used and course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research and consulting experience. Students will be required to work in small groups. Cost:2 WL:1 (Davis)

470(372). Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

Section 001 Empowering Families and Communities: Latino Communities. (3 credits).
Section 002 Empowering Families and Communities: African American Communities. (3 credits).

A primary goal of this course is to apply principles of community psychology to help understand how ethnic families and communities can empower themselves. Through readings, discussions, and on-site experiences with parent groups, schools, and community organizations in Detroit, the class will consider how communities define threats to children's welfare and how communities respond to those threats. Lectures, readings, and discussions will focus on principles of community psychology, urban communities in Detroit, their histories and their structures. Through discussion and written assignments, the class will consider issues critical to the future of urban communities. Do culture and ethnicity influence community structures and problem-solving styles? What factors contribute to community effectiveness and efficacy of community members in solving problems related to children and youth? Are there ways to reduce inter-ethnic conflict, competition for resources, inter-group prejudice and to enhance coalition building and co-operation? Course requirements include readings, lectures, and three papers focused on the city of Detroit. Note that sections 001 and 002 of Psychology 470 are related. They will meet jointly several times over the course of the term to discuss similarities and differences in Latino and African American communities. Cost:2 WL:1 (001:Gutierrez; 002:Staff)

471(385). Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

Section 001. This course is an introduction to research and theory focusing on marriage and the family. Central in this course is the exploration of the diversity of marriage and family forms. The examination of variations and commonalities in family life across race and ethnicity, class, and historical period are organizing themes. We will also explore marriage and family forms that have been considered outside of the mainstream of family life (e.g., gay/ lesbian families, polygamy). In addition to research and theory, we explore current debates about marriage and the family and discuss public policies specifically directed toward families (e.g., family leave) and those that indirectly (e.g., welfare policies, health plan) have an impact on families. Throughout the course an interdisciplinary approach is used and our analysis will focus primarily on the United States context. (Hunter)

Section 002. This lecture and discussion course looks at the family from both a developmental and clinical perspective. Developmental perspectives include dating, marriage and family life cycles. A variety of theoretical frameworks for understanding and evaluating the family are also presented. Primary emphasis will be on family systems, ecological, object relations and intergenerational theories of family functioning. The course paper requires students to evaluate and design a family therapy intervention for one family in a work of modern fiction. The midterm and final have a multiple choice, short answer and a choice of short essay format. Cost:2 WL:3 (Graham-Bermann)

474. Introduction to Behavior Therapy. Psych. 370. (3). (Excl).

The course will review the major theoretical models, assessment strategies and treatment modalities of behavior therapy. The syllabus will initially introduce behavior modification within the context of traditional psychology and review its underlying assumptions. Basic principles of classical and operant conditioning and social learning theory will be described, and the respective paradigms will be extended to explain the mechanisms and remediation of childhood and adult psychopathology including marital and family dysfunction. Recent trends in behavior therapy including the growth of cognitive schools of behavior change and the application of learning principles in the investigation and treatment of a wide variety of medical disorders will follow. Finally, a critical evaluation of behavior therapy and relevant ethical concerns will be discussed. Student evaluation will be based on three examinations and a behavior modification project. Cost:2 WL:4 (Roth)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

498(458). Gender and the Individual. Introductory Psych. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Psychology and the Female Body.
See Women's Studies 341.001. (Henderson-King)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology. (2-4). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Biological Rhythms. (3 credits). Prerequisite: Psychology 330.
All living organisms are characterized by endogenously generated rhythmic fluctuations in nearly all aspects of their behavior and physiology. Example of these rhythms include the daily sleep/wake cycle of humans, the 4-day estrous cycles of rodents, and the yearly breeding/nonbreeding seasons of sheep. This course will examine these and other classes of biological rhythms from many perspectives including physiology, ecology, neuropsychology, anatomy, and clinical psychology. We will consider how these rhythms evolved, how they are generated by the brain, and what are consequences of disruptions in rhythmicity for human performance and health. Required reading will consist of a basic text as well as scientific articles collected in a course pack. The class will consist primarily of lectures but will be supplemented by student discussions and presentations. Students will be evaluated on 2 midterm exams, one 6-10 page paper, a final exam, and class participation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Gorman)

Section 002 Mind and Brain: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory and Higher Cognitive Processes. (3 credits). The course will be concerned with the relation between brain and cognition, specifically with how the brain implements higher-level cognitive functions. Such higher-level functions include: long-term memory, working memory, concepts and categorization, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, and language. We will consider each of these psychological functions in turn, focusing on: (1) how the function breaks down under certain forms of brain damage, and (2) how the function is neurally implemented in normal subjects, as revealed by neuroimaging techniques. The primary goal of the course is to introduce students to (part of) the new interdisciplinary area called Cognitive Neuroscience. Material will be presented through a mix of lectures, class discussions, and readings. In addition to exams, there may be group projects that require students to explore a topic in greater depth. (E.Smith)

501. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science. Introductory Psychology. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

Section 001 The Psychology of Literary Experience. (3 credits). Since ancient times it has been thought that good literature improves the reader. In this seminar we explore whether and under what conditions the process of reading literature might facilitate human development. Approximately a third of the course will be occupied with two bodies of theory: (1) approaches that detail the active, constructive nature of perception, knowledge, memory, and interpretation (some authors: J.Bruner, U.Neisser, D.Bleich, L.Rosenblatt, S.Fish, W.Iser); and (2) perspectives on adult development (some authors: Plato, Jung, W.Perry, E.Gendlin). The remaining two thirds of the course will be centered on pieces of fiction, including a considerable number of short stories. Among the fiction authors to be sampled are Baldwin, Cheever, Chekhov, Faulkner, Hofmannsthal, Hurston, Joyce, Kafka, Flannery O'Connor, Salinger, and Welty. The seminar method of instruction is employed, based on reading, writing, and discussion. For every class period, students and instructor will produce written responses to the day's text that are subjective in nature though informed by the text. We will read each other's written responses and discuss them in class. Next we will write a second-order response to the same text, taking into account the initial responses of others in the class. Through this set of procedures we will be able to explore and to document any individual and socially mediated formative effects of literature. Class discussion will be tape-recorded for research purposes. Evaluation of student work is based on the quality of written critical responses to the theoretical and literary readings due each class period, the longer analysis of a novel due at the end of the term, and contribution to class discussion. There are no course prerequisites. Cost:1 (Rosenwald)

Section 002 Dreams as Problem Solving Strategies. (3 credits). Students examine their own and others' dreams to understand how their dramatic narrative structure highlights strategies to attempt resolution of personal conflict. Background theory is presented through required readings and lecture, and evaluation is based on participation in discussion, an exam and paper. Cost:3 WL:5. Waitlist at CRISP. If room is available, the instructor will call students on the waitlist. Waitlisted students should not attend class unless they are called. (Wolowitz)

Section 003 Children at Risk. (3 credits). This seminar will focus on concepts of risk in children's lives. We will examine current theoretical models of risk, then survey research related to biological (e.g., prenatal drug exposure, low birth weight), behavioral (childhood aggression and hyperactivity), familial (divorce, family violence, maltreatment), and ecological (violence, poverty, war) factors associated with risk of developmental maladaptation. Research paper and oral class presentation required. Cost:2 WL:4 (S.Olson)

Section 004 The Dynamics of Emotion: Perspectives From Psychology and Literature. (3 credits). For Winter Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with Humanities Institute 411.001. (Landman)

Section 005 Asian Pacific American Identity. (3 credits). In this course, we will take a comparative approach to examine how ethnicity, culture, class, gender, and community affect "identity" by looking at the diverse cultures of Asian Pacific Americans (South Asians, East Asians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders.) We will explore topics of: acculturation and identity development; impact of positive and negative stereotypes; gender role conflicts; impact of racism on identity and personality; media images vs. reality; identities of APA lesbians and gay men; multiracial/multiethnic families; and individual and community interventions. Methods of instruction will include panel discussions, lectures, structured experiential exercises, film presentations, and group inquiry. Students will focus on a particular area of inquiry and work on an investigative project with other students. Each investigative team will share their findings with the class. Evaluations will be based on participation, exams, response papers, and final project papers and presentations. (Motoike)

Section 006 Poverty and Development. (3 credits). (Houston)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory Psychology. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Psychoactive Drugs: Biological and Cultural Determinants. (3 credits).
This advanced course examines the use of psychoactive drugs and plants, toxins, and other chemicals that alter human behavior with an emphasis on cultural differences. Topics include alcohol and other depressants, coca leaves and other stimulants, psychedelics and hallucinogens, psychotherapeutics, medicinal plants, and contraceptives. Following an historical introduction and an overview of drug action mechanisms of the nervous system, each drug group is discussed from the following perspectives: history of use in different cultures; a critical analysis of the current data on specific modes of action and their physiological and psychological effects; reasons for use (religious, medicinal, recreational, etc.) as influenced by culture; ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plant use; societal influences regarding potential hazards and treatments; and the economic, political, legal, and ethical issues which influence drug availability and use. Course Texts: Bakalar, J.B. and Grinspoon, L. (1984) Drug Control in a Free Society. New York, Cambridge U. Press; Ray, O. and Ksir, C. (1993) Drugs, Society, & Human Behavior. St. Louis, Mosby; Rudgley, Richard (1993) The Alchemy of Culture: Intoxicants in Society. London, British Museum Press; Course pack. This course pack contains more advanced readings with an emphasis on ethnobotanical and cross-cultural issues. For example, some of the books from which material is taken are the following: Julien, A Primer of Drug Action; Marshall, Belief, Behaviors, & Alcoholic Beverages; Berridge and Edwards, Opium and the People: Opiate use in Nineteenth Century England; Pacini and Franquemont, Coca and Cocaine: Effects on People and Policy in Latin America; Etkin, Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet. Course requirements: 6 short (6-8 page) critical essays & class participation. Course Prerequisite: This course is limited to 30 seniors and requires permission of the instructor [preference given to psychology, sociology anthropology concentrators?] (Rose)

511(591). Senior Honors Research II. Psych. 312 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

The main business of the course is ensuring the completion of the Senior-Honors thesis. The goal is a thesis that makes student, tutor, and Psychology 511 instructor proud. Thesis authors have an obligation to present a talk based on their thesis at the Psychology Honors Colloquium in April. Cost:1 WL:3 (Larsen)

513(561)/Soc. 561. Survey Research Design. One elementary statistics course. (2). (Excl). (BS).
Section 001 How to Design Questionnaires.
This course reviews the theory and practice of question and questionnaire design and provides practice in reviewing and writing survey questions. The focus is on the development of appropriate questions and response formats for assessing information about attitudes and opinions, behavioral frequencies, subjective experiences, and factual material. The course is intended for students interested in using questionnaires in the social sciences, including applied fields such as marketing, social work, clinical or health psychology, and epidemiology. The course is organized around the various stages of questionnaire design: writing questions, selecting response formats, pretesting, and coding of open responses. The following topics will be addressed: cognitive processes in answering survey questions; the impact of question wording and response alternatives on the obtained answers; the emergence of response order and context effects; influences of social desirability; and techniques for identifying problematic questions. The course involves lectures, discussions, and exercises covering the basics of the major stages of questionnaire design. The homework assignments are intended to offer practical experience by critiquing existing questionnaires and by developing a questionnaire on a topic of the student's choice. Course grades are based on assignments and participation in class discussions. Required Readings: Converse, J. & Presser, S. (1986). Survey Questions. Handcrafting the standardized questionnaire. Beverly Hills: Sage. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Vol. 63. Selected Chapters from: Tanur, J. (Ed.) (1992). Questions about questions. New York: Russell Sage; Sudman, S., Bradburn, N., and Schwarz, N. (1995). Thinking about answers: The application of cognitive processes to survey methodology. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (Knauper)

531. Advanced Topics in Biopsychology. Psych. 330. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001: Hormones and Behavior. Prerequisite: Psych 330 or equivalent.
Do hormones influence behavior? Yes. Hormones can have a profound effect on the brain and this can produce changes in behavior. Hormone-brain-behavior relations in humans, dogs, rats, frogs, moths and other animals will be the topics of discussion. Behaviors to be discussed include sex differences in the brain, as well as hormonal influences on mating behavior, courtship behavior, parental behavior, aggression, thirst, feeding, cognitive functions, and stress responses. Grades will be based on the results of 3 exams. Cost:2 WL:1 (Becker)

Section 002 Ecopsychology. This course explores the psychological dimensions of the current global ecological crisis. We will focus on both the causes and consequences of attitudes about the natural world. Consideration of causes will focus on the evolutionary and cultural/historical roots of current Western attitudes about nature and a comparison of these attitudes with those of other cultures. Consideration of consequences will focus on how different attitudes about the natural world influence the way people relate to nature in the West and elsewhere. We will critically examine the hypothesis that current Western attitudes toward nature endanger the future of the planet, and we will consider alternative attitudes about nature that are emerging today, such as deep ecology, ecofeminism, and the sustained ability movement. We will discuss the barriers to widespread changes in public attitudes about nature (e.g., consumerism) and how these barriers may be overcome. We will also consider how people's relationships with nature influence their mental and emotional well-being. Students will use "ecological exercises" done in and out of class to explore their own relationship to nature. These exercises are designed to help students move back and forth between an outward focus on culture and an inward focus on self, in order to promote an increased awareness of the dynamic interplay between culture and self in the ecological domain. This increased awareness, in turn, should lead to an enhanced sense of involvement in the ecological crisis and its potential solutions. The reading load is heavy and includes four books and a course pack. Grades will be based on consistent participation in class discussions, oral and written reports on the ecological exercises, five short essays, and a small-group project (no exams). (Smuts)

Section 003 Biopsychology of Learning and Memory. This lecture/discussion course surveys current ideas and findings on neural mechanisms of learning and memory. One-half of the course deals with the neurobiology of learning and memory; the rest, with the neuropsychology of human memory. Grade is based on a term paper, four brief written summaries of readings and participation in discussion. Course pack readings; no text. Cost:1 WL:1 (Butter)

542(522). Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics is recommended but not required. (3). (NS). (BS).

This course is about how people typically make decisions and how they could make those decisions better. It examines questions like these: What do we take into account when we try to foresee what would happen if we chose one action rather than another? How can we learn from our current judgments to make more accurate judgments in the future? How do people in different countries approach decision making, and what can we learn from such cultural variation? Classes consist of demonstrations, lectures, and discussions in which all students are expected to participate vigorously. Considerable learning is expected to take place in student projects. Given its nature, this course should have considerable relevance for students interested in such fields as health care, business, and government, as well as various subfields in psychology. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended but not essential. Cost:3 WL:1 (Yates)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 350. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Diversity and Context.
This course uses the lifespan approach to explore the complexity of adolescent development. This approach includes the biological, psychological, sociological, and historical perspectives. Understanding the similarities and differences of experiences among adolescents from diverse groups and the social contexts (i.e., family, school, and neighborhood) in which developmental transitions occur will be the focus of this course. We will examine normative social development and issues in adolescent mental health such as depressive symptomatology, substance abuse, and compromising health behaviors. The class format includes both lectures and class discussions. Student evaluation will be based on exams, a research paper, and class participation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Caldwell)

Section 002. This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. Cost:2 WL:1 (Adelson)

570(556). The Psychological Study of Lives. Psych. 370 or 390 and junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course addresses the shaping of lives from two directions - the psychodynamic and the cultural. On the one hand, a life story manifests a continuity of tendencies and themes that have the stamp of individuality. On the other hand, the progress of life is determined by the person's social and cultural situation (family, social class, subculture, gender-role, economics). Students will learn to interpret biographical and autobiographical materials in cultural and psychological terms. Class discussion of theory, research, and case materials will be the medium of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one midterm and one final project, each involving the interpretation of a case history. Cost:3 WL:1 (Rosenwald)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 350 or 390, and Psych. 370. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes, relevant research data, and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of exams, plus written exercises. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cain)

575. Perspectives in Advanced Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 350, 370, 390, 443, 444, 451, and 558. (3). (Excl).

The evolution of conceptualization of psychopathology as repressed trauma, conflict regarding forbidden desire vs. guilt and anxiety; internalized "bad objects" vs. "good objects" and narcissistic abuse or deprivation is the focus of clinical case readings and discussion based on psychotherapy observations and interactions. Evaluation is based on an exam, final and class participation. Cost:4 WL:5. Waitlist at CRISP. If room is available, the instructor will call students on the waitlist. Waitlisted students should not attend class unless they are called. (Wolowitz)

581. Advanced Topics in Social Psychology. Psych. 380. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Close Relationships.
This course provides an overview of research and theory on interpersonal relations. It will focus on the life cycle of close relationships, beginning with the developmental bases of attachment and extending to relationship formation, maintenance, and dissolution. The emphasis will be on the processes that contribute to hardiness in relationships or to conflicts and emotional turmoil. The course is open to upper year undergraduate and graduate students in psychology. It will be organized as a small seminar. Enrollment will be limited to 15 students. Evaluation will be based on class participation, one-page thought papers, and a 5-10 page research proposal. Sharon Brehm's Intimate Relationships will be the main text. Cost:2 WL:1 (Murray)

591. Advanced Topics in Personality Psychology. Psych. 380. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Mood Disorders.
Discussion will focus on psychoanalytic, interpersonal, behavioral, cognitive, and biological theories of depression and mania, with an emphasis on the empirical support for each of these theories. Students should have had a course on abnormal psychology or psychopathology. Students will write a paper, take an exam, and make a presentation to the class. Format will be lectures and discussion. Text will be a course reader with original empirical and theoretical articles. (Nolen-Hoeksema)

Independent Study/Directed Reading

The department of psychology offers several options for independent study/directed reading.

204. Individual Research and 206. Tutorial Reading. Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research or plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

505. Individual Research and 507. Tutorial Reading. Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research or plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Work in 505 must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Work in 507 provides an opportunity for further exploration of a topic of interest in Psychology. Faculty present a proposal for student work to the Department's Committee on Undergraduate Studies, which approves projects prior to registration.

The field practicum courses (Psych 404, 405, and 409) offer an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students make their own arrangements to work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. An override from a Psychology Department faculty member is required to register. Credits do not count for the concentration although courses may be used for experiential labs. Psychology 409 is reserved for research practica. Field Practicums and Psych 505, 507 have prerequisites of one of the following: Psychology 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, or 390; and permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 505 and 507 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology.

The following limitations apply to Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study credit:

  1. A maximum 15 credits of Experiential courses may be counted toward a degree; a maximum 8 credits may be earned from one project, and only one such Experiential project may be elected each term.
  2. A combined total 30 credits of Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study courses may be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
  3. Experiential and Independent courses are excluded from area distribution plans.

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