Anthropology


Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The course explores the evolutionary basis for human variability. For this purpose, the course will deal with a review of principles of human evolution, fossil evidence, relationship among human and non-human primates in behavioral and morphological characteristics, human inter-population differences, and environmental factors that account for these differences. (Frisancho)

168. First Year Seminar in Primate Field Studies. (3). (NS). (BS).
Section 001 The Origin of Modern Humans.
One of the oldest controversies in evolutionary anthropology concerns the emergence of modern humans, people who were anatomically like ourselves and whose behaviors were recognizably human. How did humanity evolve? What kinds of environmental pressures and evolutionary forces caused the emergence of language, art, and other forms of symbolic behavior? Did modern humans evolve once or several times? Gradually or very rapidly? Are modern humans a new species? In this seminar designed for first-year students, students will use the literature and casts of the fossils themselves to understand the physical changes that made us human and the source of theories about the path of this critical part of our evolution. Requirements include class participation, oral presentations, and a term paper. The class will meet once a week for three hours. (Caspari)

Section 002 Behavior of Non-human Primates. A seminar designed for first-year students. Students will be introduced to science as a mode of inquiry by applying Darwin's theory of natural selection to the behavior of non-human primates. Emphasis will be given to long-term field studies of primates in the wild. One three-hour discussion/lecture. Class participation, weekly writing assignments, and a term paper are required. (Mitani)

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).

The subject matter covered in this course is different from but complementary to that covered in Anthropology 347 which is more concerned with race relations. Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology and must be dispensed with before we can make sense out of the very real aspects of human biological variation. This portion of the course treats the dimensions of human biological differences that can be traced according to selective force distributions and their changes through time. These will be contrasted with the biological traits that show regional clustering but which have no adaptive value and cannot therefore be hierarchically arranged. (2) If the common concept of race has an inadequate biological base, how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that they owe more to folklore than to biology? This portion of the course deals principally with the history of the race concept. All the material covered by the course will be dealt with in lecture. Supplementary readings will be suggested from time to time, along with specific sections in the assigned texts. Texts: C.L. Brace, The Stages of Human Evolution. Lecture outlines (syllabus) and C.L. Brace, Race is a Four Letter Word will be available at Kinko's copying. Cost:2 WL:3/4 (Brace)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS). (BS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures, discussion section, laboratory, and reading, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early adaptive shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology and the changes in physical form that are the consequence of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. The "Eve" theory and other ideas about the origin of races and their development and relationships are discussed in this context. Class participation and discussion are emphasized and there is a required discussion/ laboratory section for elaboration of lecture topics and supervised hands-on experience with primate skeletal material and replicas of human fossils. Student evaluations are based on three examinations, laboratory quizzes, and a laboratory exam. Cost:2 WL:2,4 (Wolpoff)

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology and Anthropology/Zoology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty or other qualified person. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors advisor for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the College Honors Program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program.

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl). (BS).
Section 001 Molecular Anthropology. (3 credits).
The course will describe basic techniques of anthropological genetics, starting with a review of basic genetics, and of molecular genetic data collection methods. The principles of population genetics, molecular evolution, and phylogenetics will be introduced. The course will review key papers in the field. Students will be responsible for presenting papers from the published literature for class discussion. (Merriwether)

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The course is addressed at evaluating the physiological response and adaptations that enable humans to survive environmental extremes such as those found under stressful conditions of heat, cold, solar radiation, high altitude, undernutrition, overnutrition, and Westernization of dietary habits. Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to the environmental stress, the discussion of the major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development and their implications for understanding the origins of population differences in biological traits. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. Course also involves practice with field laboratory techniques. Requirements: Senior standing or permission of instructor. (Frisancho)

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Bio. Anthro. 368; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This is an advanced course examining the ecology and behavior of the nonhuman primates. We will employ evolutionary theory to describe and interpret patterns of behavioral diversity as shown by primates living in the wild. Topics include: the evolution of sociality, feeding ecology, reproductive strategies, competition, and cooperation. Grades will be based on midterms and a paper. There is a limited enrollment. Cost:2 (Mitani)


Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).
Section 001.
This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex-gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings come from two introductory texts and additional paperbacks. Lectures and discussion-recitation. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Fricke)

Section 026. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and globalization. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and perhaps a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Kottak/Caspari)

Section 200. (Honors). This Honors seminar introduces anthropology's modes of inquiry and its four subfields (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic) through the examination of theoretical problems and ethnographic examples which illuminate anthropology's principles of analysis. We will highlight the connections between the study of human history and conceptions of science, and will examine anthropology as a socially situated endeavor which addresses contending beliefs about the nature of human life. Our emphasis will be on the cultural dimension of issues, and our focus will be on race, gender, and conflict and their relationship to situations of colonialism and inequalities of power. Our aim is to develop the capacity to think critically about human variability and cultural transformation, and the ability to use an anthropological approach to consider contemporary questions, such as, what is a family?; is intelligence innate?; are people naturally violent? The course will be based on the critical discussion of the materials by the members of the class. The materials include two ethnographies, articles, and films. Students are asked to write three papers on class materials and a fieldwork report on their own research, as well as short comments on the readings. There are no exams. (Skurski)

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

What place does language have in everyday life? Do people really communicate when they speak to each other? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, gender, and class lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? This course is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and informs social life. Topics covered include: (1) How and why languages change; (2) the relationships between speech and social class, race, and gender; (3) the politics of language use in society, including language policy in third-world societies (especially in South America) and the "English-only" movement in the United States; (4) the ways in which language is used to construct social, cultural, and political "realities" and the ways these realities are contested as, for example, in the abortion debate. We will try to answer some of these questions in this course, which is about the nature of language and social life. The course has no prerequisites except curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. There is a required text, Nancy Bonvillain, Language culture and communication, and a supplementary course pack. (Mannheim)

285. Cult Archaeology. (4). (SS).

Cult archaeology examines claims in the press and on television that cultural achievements by American Indian people are a consequence of contact with superior beings. The examples will be drawn from the prehistory and contact periods in the New World and the approach will be a case study using critical thinking as an analytical method. Claims of contact with beings from outer space, diffusion of ideas and methods across the Pacific, and pre-Columbian appearance of Europeans and Africans will be examined. The subjects discussed include art, architecture, agriculture, social change and cultural evolution. The goal is for students to learn critical thinking, to understand professional ethics, to appreciate cultural racism and the harm that it does, and to analyze popular beliefs in an imperfect knowledge arena. The course format is lecture and discussion sections. Evaluations are based on section exercises, two exams, and participation. The texts are Williams, Fantastic Archaeology; Feder, Myths and Frauds; and a course pack. Slides, videos, and museum specimens supplement the course. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ford)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the basic economic, social, and cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian peoples. Major attention is given to the ways in which peoples of Southeast Asia use their different environments and adjust to changing economic conditions. Case studies are used to elaborate the theme of "persistence and change" in religion, economic activity, social and political organization. Attention will be given to the demographic, economic, and social impact of current development or "modernization" on traditional societies. This lecture course will make use of slides, films and readings, both paperbacks and course pack, to extend case studies to more general patterns for all of Southeast Asia. Students are required to take either the midterm or final examination, and may also do a research paper or annotated bibliography. (Gosling)

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on INSTITUTIONAL characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on four take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and videos. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

Ethnology-Theory/Method

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an intensive upper-division introduction to cultural anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. Concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels, are welcome. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construct "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics. There are no prerequisites. The goals of this course are: (1) to facilitate reading of scholarly books and articles in cultural psychology, cultural semantics, intercultural communication, and the like; (2) to learn to write clear and effective essays in these genres; and (3) to learn to think cultural analysis routinely. Cost:4 WL:4 (Daniel)

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of Homo sapiens, and traces the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

310. Religious Movements and Social Change. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Goddesses, Women, and Feminine Power in South Asia.
This course will examine the complex landscape of feminine power and authority in South Asia, including both symbolic/imaginative and ethnographic dimensions. Religious texts that posit elaborate ideologies of feminine power will be juxtaposed with ethnographic accounts of rituals, beliefs, and religious behavior. Several films exploring the ambivalent potential of sakti (feminine power) will be screened and discussed; contemporary fiction by South Asian women writers will also be explored for these themes. Ethnographic studies highlighting women's renegotiation of feminine power in both the symbolic and material domains in the wake of the South Asian feminist movement will be presented as case studies of the changing interpretations of tradition. Lecture course. Papers and exams will provide the basis for evaluation. Readings will include several books and a course pack. Cost:2 WL:1 (Caldwell)

329. The Anthropology of Childhood: Growing Up in Culture. One course in anthropology or psychology. (3). (Excl).

Children don't speak, think, and behave like adults. Nor do people everywhere share the same ideas about what childhood is or should be. Anthropology is largely the enterprise of documenting and interpreting what differences in speech, thought, and behavior mean. How has childhood been conceived in different ways within different cultures and historical epochs? What implications do different notions of childhood have for the developmental pathways of children themselves? To what extent do children resemble each other across cultural and historical divides? How do children acquire knowledge of the cultures they live in? This lecture/discussion course draws on anthropological research, from Mead's work in the South Pacific to contemporary studies in both complex and small-scale societies, that permits us to formulate answers to these and related questions. Course requirements: weekly journal of notes and queries, active classroom participation, two exams (short answer/essay). Cost:2 (Hirschfeld/Stephens)

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare include: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of particular interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kelly)

438. Urban Anthropology. (3). (Excl).

What is it like to live in an urban society? What are the principal factors shaping the nature of urban life? And how can we go about investigating the interplay of broad forces and personal experience in urban settings? This course will address such questions by focusing on three kinds of urbanism Third World, First World Modern, and Postmodern and by examining themes such as class relations, migration, ethnicity, gender relations, networks, family and kinship, work and leisure, and forms of organized struggle. Topics will be addressed through lectures and classroom discussion, both of which will be based on the careful reading of required texts. All students will be asked to write two papers. (Rouse)

439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to economic anthropology and development in rural, village-based, tribal, peasant, urbanizing and industrializing societies and cultures of the Third World: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Middle East. The FIRST PART reviews the nature of economic anthropology, its scope, objectives, basic concepts, theories and methods of investigation. It discusses economic anthropology as it relates to conventional/development economics. The SECOND PART examines anthropological (social science) perspectives on development and underdevelopment: progress, modernization, acculturation, socioeconomic growth. The THIRD PART is concerned with specific case studies of problems of Third World development and underdevelopment: rural/urban poverty and inequality; women and development; international migration and globalization; etc. The course CONCLUDES with an overview of global issues in Third World development and underdevelopment in a post-cold war environment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators and all students with serious interest in comparative cultures and Third World development and underdevelopment. Lecture/discussion format. Films and videos shown in class when available. Final grades based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussion. Basic texts: Lucy Mair, Anthropology and Development; and Polly Hill, Development Economics on Trial. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

444. Medical Anthropology. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

The concepts of "health" and "illness" are culturally constructed. This course will examine beliefs about these states of being, and the ways in which they are both products and illustrations of the larger social system in which they are found. Ideas about the social construction of the body, illness causation, therapies and therapists, healing symbols and rituals, and the social roles of patients and healers will be explored. In addition to examining these beliefs and processes cross-culturally, we will also draw upon examples from Western biomedicine among them cancer, AIDS, eating disorders, schizophrenia to illustrate the powerful ways in which illness and culture are bound together. (Peters-Golden)

453/CAAS 454. African-American Culture. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the African-American subculture as one example of how humans live. It places distinctive Black behavior within its social context and its history. It avoids the victimhood-victimography traps and focuses on the nature of the beast that requires the production and reproduction of social inferiority. Using SOUL AND SUPREMACY as working concepts we will examine some solutions to the underclass, gangs, addictions, unemployment, single-parent families and a human inferiority complex that exploits African Americans and threatens the entire human species. This requires a discussion of American society and the history of human development. We take a serious look at contemporary American society and the nature of modern humans. How did we become this and how can we change? This lecture-seminar course will have two take-home examinations. WL:3 (Williams)

457. The Film and Other Visual Media in Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Culture Through Film.
This course offers an introduction to the major issues and debates in contemporary cultural anthropology through the study of a wide range of films. Films shown will include ethnographic, documentary, and feature films, ranging from Bathing Babies in Three Cultures to Shoah to The Piano. Using films as the starting point for our discussions, we will explore the interconnections of identity, place and displacement, culture, memory, and otherness in the twentieth century. Our central aim will be to seek new understandings of the kind of anthropological observation, witnessing, and critique that film makes possible. Films will be shown weekly, followed by lecture and discussion of both films and assigned readings. Class requirements include a midterm and final essay. Prerequisites: Any introductory course in Cultural Anthropology, American Culture, Women's Studies, or Film and Video Studies. Cost:3 WL:1 (Behar)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Archaeology, Identity, and Nationalism in the Balkans and Europe.
For Winter Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with Classical Archaeology 475. (Fotiadis)

Section 002 Ethnographic Genres: Cultural and Social Identities in Russia. Where do stereotypes come from in post-socialist Russia? Surely not "deep ethnic hatreds" as newspapers say, but a complex set of public discourses about race, culture, and social identity. This course traces connections between ethnographic research and public discourses. Working from travel literature and Tsarist ethnography, Soviet minority policy and folkloric research, to recent scholarly, journalistic, or filmic accounts, the course explores ways social types (so-called "Gypsies") and subcultures ("the criminal world") are constructed and reproduced. Besides looking at how images cross media, and cross-over between media and social representations, we will examine their significance in everyday speech and practice, including interaction among the different peoples who constitute contemporary Russia. Background in social sciences or reading ability in Russian is preferable but not required. The course will be 2/3 lecture, 1/3 discussion, with video screenings. Grades will be based on a short midterm essay and a research paper. (Lemon)

Section 003 The Cultural Politics of Colonialism. This seminar offers an overview of anthropological approaches to the colonial encounter, focusing on the cultural representations and political economy of European rule in Asia, Africa, and South America. It examines the historical processes by which the categories of "colonizer" and "colonized" have been created and contested by looking at the gender politics, racial thinking, and class visions which informed how these categories were applied. We will explore the changing interface between anthropological knowledge and colonial power by tracing how anthropology has been shaped by and has shaped different colonial encounters. Attention will be given to how colonial relations have given rise to notions of "First" and "Third World," and ultimately figured in setting the terms of debates on "cultural diversity," cultural racism and the geopolitics of cultural imperialism today. (Stoler)

459. Inequality in Tribal Societies. Two courses in ethnology. (3). (Excl).

What is the principal locus of the production of inequality in human society? This has been an important concern of humanistic social thought since the Enlightenment. All those who have examined the problem have had recourse to consideration of relatively egalitarian pre-modern societies in which forms of hierarchy associated with the nation state and industrialized world economy are absent. These ethnographic cases provide a critical testing ground for general social theories of inequality because the latter explicitly or implicitly "predict" the social and economic configuration of the most egalitarian societies. Both received wisdom and recent theory have emphasized the production and circulation of accumulatable forms of wealth as the source of inequality. Unequal accumulation and relations of dependence and indebtedness are seen to follow inevitably from the sheer presence of wealth (which should thus be absent in egalitarian societies). The Marxian position holds that all social inequalities are grounded in the dynamics of a particular mode of production and are either directly generated by this or built-up upon core relations of inequality that are so generated. There should then be a one-to-one relation between economic inequality and social inequality (i.e., differential prestige, privilege and moral evaluation). Recent elaboration of this perspective sees social inequality as rooted in the social relations of production entailed by bridewealth systems in which senior males gain control over the labor of wives and junior males by their control of matrimonial goods. The exchange of persons for persons is also replaced by an exchange of persons for goods so that accumulation of wealth becomes a precondition for the reproduction of kin relations. If the evolutionary road to inequality is paved with bridewealth as this perspective suggests then egalitarian societies should lack marriage payments, for these are seen as a central locus for the production of inequality. The course will examine these issues. It is open to advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Format is part lecture, part seminar. Substantial term paper required. Cost:2 WL:2 (Kelly)

Linguistics

473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics or literature, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

How do we listen to the verbal arts of nonwestern peoples without imposing our preconceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship, and textuality? And if we do manage to hear and study these arts in their own "terms," can we translate and represent them without making a caricature of these sources? This course will consider efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels: (1) working our methodologies which allows us to see the poetics in others' arts, (2) critically assessing the methodologies, and (3) exploring theories about differences between oral literatures and written traditions as well as the cultural shaping of literatures. We will also consider what ways this work contributes to reshaping anthropology itself. (Bierwert)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Milroy)

578. Monographs in the Ethnography of Speaking. Anthro. 576, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with major works in the ethnography of speaking, ranging from studies that approach language ethnographically to those that approach ethnography through language. By examining detailed field studies, both classic and recent, we will consider ways in which ethnographers have used linguistic evidence to draw inferences about social relations and cultural patterns, and consider the methodological insights and problems raised by these studies. By reading monograph-length studies, we will go beyond programmatic statements to look at the ways in which linguistic insights have been used to develop fine-grained social analyses, and at the pitfalls encountered along the way. Prerequisite: Anthropology 576 or two courses in formal linguistics. Cost:4 WL:1 (Mannheim)

Archaeology

386. Early New World Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

The earliest civilizations in both Eastern and Western hemispheres are the focus of this course. The civilizations of most ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Mexico, and Peru will be emphasized. The course begins with discussions of archaeology of the evolution of complex cultural organizations, of the spread of human populations in the planet's many environments, and the beginnings of our agricultural systems. We then consider the geography, economic and political development, and ideologies of each early civilization, based on archaeology and the evidence of the earliest written texts. No special background is assumed. There are two lectures and one discussion section per week. The textbook is Patterns in Prehistory, by Robert Wenke, Oxford University Press. Accomplishment is evaluated on the basis of two in-class short answer and short essay examinations. A research paper is also an option. Cost:1 WL:1 (Wright)

488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the Prehispanic culture sequence for Mesoamerica outside the Maya region. It begins with the first evidence for humans in late Pleistocene Mexico, and proceeds to a discussion of Archaic hunting-and-gathering period of 8000-2000 B.C. The origins of agriculture during this preceramic period are documented, as well as the rise of sedentary agricultural villages by 1500 B.C. The course then considers the evolution of ranked societies during the Formative Period (1500 B.C.-A.D. 100) and of urban stratified societies during the Classic Period (A.D. 100-800). The evolution of Mexico's ethnohistorically documented Postclassic societies the Toltec, Aztec, Mixtec, Zapotec, Huastec, and Tarascans - is then traced up to the Spanish Conquest of A.D. 1519. There will be two lectures a week, accompanied by reading of a course pack of relevant journal articles and book chapters. Cost:1 WL:1 (Flannery)

493. Environmental Archaeology. Junior standing. (4). (Excl).

Prehistoric people adapted to a variety of environments and modified many of them to meet their cultural needs. This course will examine the ways archaeologists reconstruct past environments - pollen, phytoliths, diatoms, micro-remains and macro-remains of plants and animals, geological evidence. It will also consider how archaeological cultures transformed their biological and physical environments. Plant and animal domestication will be examined on a world-wide basis. A theory will be developed to apply to any area of the world for integrating environmental data for interpreting archaeological sites and past cultural systems. The course will be presented as a combination of demonstrations, laboratory exercises, and lectures. There will be two exams and a research paper. A textbook and course pack will be purchased. Cost:1 (Ford)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 001 Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course is divided into two parts. In the fall term, the students meet once a week in seminar to define research problems in ethnology, to discuss methods appropriate for ethnological investigation, and to present their research projects to the group. By the end of the term, the students will have designed a research project and be well underway in carrying it out. In consultation with the Honors advisor a student may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. In the winter term, each student presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. By the end of the winter term, each student will have completed an Honors thesis. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Mueggler)


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