Courses in Biology (Division 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

Biology 100 is a one-term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course. (Burch)

102. Practical Botany. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

Biology 102 is an introductory course about plants: how they are grown and used by people. Each week there are two one-hour lectures and one all afternoon lab/discussion at the Botanical Gardens. Lecture topics include: what plants look like; how plants work; how they make their living in nature; using this knowledge to landscape your house, caring for your house plants, and growing your gardens; medicinal plants; plant breeding; agriculture and food; environmental and psychological importance of plants. In the lab, each student has his/her own personal space in a greenhouse to grow plants that can be taken home during the term. Lab activities include: looking at plants; planting seeds; growing plants; rooting cuttings; making medicinal salve; testing soil; preserving garden produce; making hanging baskets; using plant dyes; making bonsai; grafting plants; making wine; and forcing bulbs to flower. The text, An Illustrated Guide to Gardening, will be useful throughout your life. Only prerequisite is your interest in plants. You MUST attend the first lecture and first lab for which you are registered to retain your place; your attendance throughout the term determines part of your grade. Cost: text is about $30, course pack is $5. There will be two special sections for first-year students. These will be opened during the last days of Early Registration. WL:Sign waitlist near 2117 Natural Science Building. (Estabrook)

108. Introduction to Animal Diversity. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The goal of this course is to describe the diversity of animals. Students will learn about the diversity of animal life, accumulate information and experience that will enhance their appreciation of the natural world, and gain background to enable them to better understand current issues concerning biodiversity and conservation. Lectures will be presented by faculty who work with the animals being considered. Topics for each group of animals studied will include a description of diversity, evolutionary background, natural history, and issues concerning conservation or biodiversity. Students will attend three lectures and one discussion section per week. Participants will read and discuss The Diversity of Life by E.O. Wilson. They will also have available an electronic database of images and text that show and describe the organisms treated in lecture. Grades for the course will be based on three midterms and one final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Myers)

124. Cells, Cancer, and Society. Not open to biology concentrators. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 224. (3). (NS).

This class uses lecture and discussion sections to introduce non-science concentrators to cancer biology, and has no prerequisites. The term will be divided into three basic sections. (1) First we will describe the basic concepts in cell and molecular biology that must be understood before students can comprehend the mechanisms that lead to the development of cancer. (2) Next we will use this information to explain current ideas regarding the causes, prevention, and treatment of cancer. (3) And finally, we will discuss the relevance of this information to social issues such as governmental regulation of environmental cancer-causing agents. Emphasis will be placed on the critical thinking skills that are needed to evaluate the claims that continually appear in the news media regarding the latest "breakthroughs" in cancer research. Students will be evaluated through three examinations and small group projects. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kleinsmith)

150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 152, 154, or 195. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Small groups of students meet weekly with a faculty member for group discussions on topics selected by the faculty member. Topics may include biological issues in the news, history of biological ideas, and ethical issues in biological sciences. Students will be introduced to biological research through discussion of faculty research projects and tours of active research laboratories and museum collections. Such tours will be coupled with discussion of scientific questions being pursued in the laboratories visited. Introductory students will have the opportunity to interact directly with a faculty member who will introduce them not only to the basic areas of scientific research but also to the structure and opportunities available in Biology concentration programs. Evaluation of students will be through class participation and short written assignments.

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs or preprof studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are: (1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, (2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, (3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology and (4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology, (b) genetics, (c) evolution, and (d) ecology. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule ) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 or 004 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture/lab course. The first part of the course will deal with the nature of science and the scientific method. Science will be viewed as an approach to viewing the universe. Subjects that will be covered are the scientific method, hypothesis testing, the roles of logic, creativity, and serendipity in scientific discoveries. From a more practical point of view, the structure of a scientific paper will be analyzed. The topics covered in the second part of the course will vary depending on the instructor. Topics which may be covered are the genetic code and information theory, the revolution of molecular biology, genetic engineering and its ethical and social implications, the evolution of biochemical pathways, the properties of life and the search for life on other planets, the issue of gender, race, and intelligence. Cost:2 WL:1 (Shappirio)

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) plant biology; (b) development; (c) animal structure and function; and (d) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 or 033 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Evolution, as the study of origins and change in life forms, is a unifying theme in biology. This readings and discussion course will focus initially on the development of evolutionary thought and its basis in evidence. From there we will consider the importance of an evolutionary approach in understanding topics as diverse as, the relative age and distributions of life forms, animal behavior and culture, and the origins and persistence of diseases. In doing so we will discuss the roles of natural selection, chance, and self-organization. Writing, speaking and critical thinking skills will be honed throughout the term. Weekly reading assignments will provide the basis for discussions.

195. Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 130, or equivalent. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (6). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required.

Biology 195 is a one-term alternative to the Biology 152-154 sequence. It differs from 152-154 in the accelerated pace of study and emphasis on the laboratory. Students who enroll in the course should be aware of the intense nature of the course and the need for self-discipline and effective writing skills. Biology 195 is divided into four units (Biology of Cells, Genetics and Development, Biology of Organisms, and Biology of Populations). Unit examinations test both factual recall and analytical and integrative abilities. Lectures in Biology 195 reinforce key topics from the reading assignments and laboratory work and provide in-depth perspectives in several subdisciplines of biology. The laboratory, which is central to the course, provides the opportunity to make observations and perform experiments; these are discussed weekly in recitations. The course grade is based on examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and the student's participation in the course. Students are required to purchase the textbook Campbell's Biology (2nd ed.), a course pack, a laboratory kit (at Chem Stores), and a quadrille notebook. For more information concerning the course or registration, call 763-0495. Attend both first lecture and first recitation. DO NOT CRISP INTO A SECTION YOU CANNOT ATTEND. Cost:3 WL:1 (Ikuma)

200. Undergraduate Tutorial. Permission of faculty member in biology. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course is intended for sophomores learning research and laboratory techniques, working under close supervision of a faculty member. It may also be used for directed readings at an appropriate level. It includes reading on a significant topic and regular consultation with the faculty member chosen to supervise the work. The required paper could be on the scientific literature in a broad field, on biological issues on which the student may want to do continuing work, or on the detailed results of research in a biological specialty. Conferences, seminars, readings, and assigned writings are used to develop critical perspectives on modern biological problems and to provide breadth and sense of historical continuity in biological thought.

222. From Message to Mind: An Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS).

An introduction to molecular, cellular, and systems-level neurobiology. Topics include: (1) bioelectricity, (2) intercellular communication, (3) sensory transduction and processing, (4) motor function, (5) the neural basis of learning and selected regulatory behaviors, and (6) development of the brain and sensory systems. Students will be evaluated by exams and participation in discussion. There are three lecture hours per week. (Oakley)

252. Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course teaches the comparative method, using the "three-fold parallelism" of anatomy, ontogeny, and paleontology. All examples are based on chordate animals, with emphasis on their anatomy and development. The introductory third of the course includes the theoretical basis of the comparative method, principles of evolutionary theory and speciation, and phylogenetics. The remainder of the course involves application of the method, with a survey of chordate structure, including the integument, skeleton, muscles, and the circulatory, urogenital, digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. The laboratory provides practical experience in the comparative method, including dissections, preparation of cleared and stained materials, and examination of fossils. There are three one-hour lectures per week and one three-hour laboratory. There are two hourly examinations and a final examination for the lecture, and a one-hour laboratory practical exam. A detailed syllabus and laboratory manual, rather than an assigned textbook, are used, with supplementary texts on reserve. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kluge)

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 154 or 195, or the equivalent. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life including the anticipated advances in plant biotechnology. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. : http://www.biology.lsa.umich.edu/~ldnum/bio275/275home.html Cost:2 WL:3 (NoodÈn)

300. Undergraduate Research. Eight credits of biology and 3.0 grade point average in science; permission of faculty member in biology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

Intended primarily for juniors, including Honors students, who wish to pursue independent research or study at an intermediate level in an area of biological science. The student may ask an appropriate faculty member in the Department of Biology to direct the research project and supervise related readings. The project may take the form of an investigation of new problems in the field or laboratory, a detailed investigation of primary sources (a literature survey), development of new procedures or programs, design of a classroom experiment, etc. A final paper is required and must be approved by the research advisor.

301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. Competence in writing in biology requires critical evaluation of one's work. In order to encourage the development of critical thinking, students critique published work as well as write essays, reviews, and reports. The heart of the course lies in the weekly interaction between staff and student through discussion both in class sections and one-on-one. A weekly lecture provides structure and continuity and allows consideration of other topics such as interviewing and resume writing, ethics in biology, and the nature of science and creativity. Cost:1 WL:1 (Helling)

302. Teaching Experience for Undergraduates. Permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (1-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL).

Undergraduates participating in this course are responsible for (1) aiding regularly assigned Teaching Assistants; (2) providing tutorial help for undergraduates enrolled in the course; (3) meeting regularly with discussion and laboratory sessions; and (4) participating with Teaching Assistants in instructional activities.

304. The Gene Concept. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305, and admission to the College Honors Program. (2). (Excl). (BS).

Designed for students who are particularly interest in genetics, including Honors' students, who have taken Biology 305 or who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 305. The students will be exposed to the theoretical basis of genetics in a discussion format. "Classical" articles that contributed to our understanding of gene transmission, structure, and function will be read and discussed with the students. The instructor will provide background for each grouping of articles. Pairs of students will be responsible for leading discussion of assigned articles. Active participation of all students is expected. In addition, time will be set aside for discussion of relevant current topics from the media, ethical considerations, and other issues bearing on the process of genetic research. A term paper on "The Gene Concept" will be required a preliminary draft by the 10th week and a revised draft by the last day of classes. A course pack will need to be purchased. Cost:2 WL:1 (S. Allen)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Open to students concentrating in the natural sciences or intending to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biology. This introduction to genetics includes the following sections: DNA and chromosomes; gene transmission in Eukaryotes; linkage and recombination; genes and enzymes, the genetic code, and mutation; recombinant DNA, RFLP mapping, the Human Genome Project; gene regulation, transposons; population genetics; and quantitative genetics. There are three hours of lecture each week and one discussion section directed by GSIs. The discussion sections expand on and review lecture material, and discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on three exams and a final covering lectures, discussions and reading assignments, and a 6-page paper based on journal articles in a course pack. Exams include new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. A practice problem set is available and is covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Study Center. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. Films, workshop/review sessions, and the three "hour" exams are given Monday nights. A CSP section is available. Biology 304 (taught by S.L. Allen) is available for those with a special interest in Genetics, including Honors' students. Cost:3 WL:1 (Allen, Clark)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students should have already taken or be concurrently taking Bio 305 Genetics Lecture. Students will analyze gene interaction, linkage relationship and mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila through a series of crosses. The genetic analysis of Sordaria (a fungus) will be done by ordered tetrad analysis. By using molecular techniques, the students will locate certain genes in C. elegans. The experiments in microbial genetics include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, recombination analysis by transduction using bacteria and phage, and complementation tests on "his" mutants of yeast. Students will do karyotyping of human chromosomes by using their own blood cells. One hour lecture on Mondays 12-1 PM and one three-hour lab are scheduled each week; additional 3-4 hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write three lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are two tests given during the term. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)

307. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course introduces students to the basic principles of developmental biology. We will emphasize the continuity of developmental processes by examining the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult, and by examining several levels of control from the selective expression of genetic information to the orchestrated generation of complex tissues and organs. We will cover basic developmental events such as production of sperm and eggs, fertilization, development of the early embryo, and genesis of organs. We will cover basic developmental processes such as nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction, morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions, and morphogenesis. We will also evaluate the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental processes. This course is open to sophomores and above. Three one-hour lectures are given each week. Grades are based on three evening exams given during the term and the final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Tosney, Kuwada)

308. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with the opportunity to study first hand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos, specifically sea urchin, amphibian, and chick embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, induction, determination and differentiation of various tissues, metamorphosis and regeneration. In addition to one hour lecture and one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three to four additional hours in the laboratory each week. Grades are based on three laboratory tests, a lab grant proposal, and lab notebook evaluation. Maintenance of a lab notebook for a complete and accurate record of observations and experimental results is required. There is a required lab manual. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)

310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Introductory Biochemistry is designed to be a general introduction to the chemistry of biological systems. This course will furnish basic information concerning the organization of chemical reactions in cells and will include information on the enzymes that catalyze these reactions as well as on the interactions between different pathways. Topics covered include: amino acid structure and nomenclature, protein structure and function, enzyme kinetics, nucleic acids, intermediary metabolism, photosynthesis, and regulation of metabolism. This is a lecture based course with discussion sections, the final grade is based on four in-class exams. See http://www.biology.lsa.umich.edu/~www/bio310/310home.html for more information. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ocorr)

311(411). Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. The student takes both a written and an oral quiz for each of 12 units which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed and performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Cost:3 WL:1 (Osgood)

318. Project Laboratory in Microbiology and Genetics. Biol. 305 or Biol. 206, and permission of instructor. (10). (Excl). (BS).

A research experience in the genetics of bacteria, yeast, or bacterial viruses beginning with a standard methods-laboratory, compressed into three weeks and ending with a research proposal. The remaining thirteen weeks are used to carry out the research proposal under the supervision of the professor, instructor, and teaching assistants. (Bender)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 420. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, nervous and endocrine system controls and integration, respiration and circulation, water and ion balance, excretion, digestion, reproduction, and immune system function. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. This course may NOT be elected by students who have already taken Biology 420. Cost:3 WL:1 (Webb and Ocorr)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. (2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

These laboratory exercises deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. Students working in small groups present material for each exercise, collate class data and perform analyses. A term paper and oral presentation are required. Students should have had Biology 325 or be taking it concurrently. Students who intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. Cost:2 WL:1

341. Parasitology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($30) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course concentrates on the biology of animal/animal interactions including parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism. The focus is primarily evolutionary and ecological, with emphasis on the origins and development of such associations. The organismal approach will be stressed in studies of Protozoa, various helminth groups and arthropods, with examples including parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Discussions of host-parasite interactions will include co-evolutionary perspectives as well as traditional approaches. No specific background other than introductory biology is required, although courses in ecology and evolutionary biology will be helpful. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two hour-exams, a lecture final, a term paper, laboratory quizzes and a practical examination. This course consists of three lectures and one lab weekly. Cost:3 WL:1 (OConnor)

390. Evolution. Biol. 152-154 or the equivalent. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). (Excl). (BS).

This is a comprehensive lecture and recitation section course covering the evolution of organisms. This includes critical examination of: the origin of evolutionary thought, evolution at the molecular level, genetic change among populations and higher taxa, natural selection, speciation, phylogenetic systematics, the fossil record, development, patterns of extinction, biogeography, coevolution, and human evolution. Weekly discussions will focus on primary literature. Two midterm tests and one cumulative final exam will test students' knowledge of lecture material. Writing assignment(s) based on readings from the primary scientific literature will be required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mindell)

400. Advanced Research. 12 credits of biology, 3.0 average in science, and permission of faculty member in biology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

Intended for those engaged in original research at an advanced level. This course number is most frequently elected by senior Honors students who have completed Biology 300 and who are completing their research and writing their thesis. A final paper is required. (Refer to the description of Biology 300 for more information.)

401. Special Topics in Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Ecology of Marine Ecosystems: the Baltic.
This course will examine the Baltic Sea ecosystem with particular emphasis on its formation and biodiversity. Topics will include the division and characterization of the Baltic marine environment (deep sea, inter-tidal zone, estuary, coastal zone), life conditions in its marine ecosystem (salinity, temperature, gases, tides, currents), and living organisms (from phytoplankton to mammals). This course will describe the food web in and energy flow through the Baltic system. In conclusion, attention will be drawn to long-term changes in the Baltic and implications for its future. WL:1 (Szaniawska)

Section 002 Ecology. This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations, and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the roles of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the dynamics of population growth, species interactions including competition, predation, and mutualism, the structure of ecological communities, ecological succession, and applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 381 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There will be lectures, discussions, and computer simulations. Three exams will constitute the main basis of evaluation. WL:1 (Rathcke)

405. Molecular Basis of Development. Biol. 152-154 and 305. A course in molecular and developmental biology is helpful but not required. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The fundamental question of how asymmetry and diversity is generated during development of an organism will be explored in this course at the molecular level. The way by which form is created - such as head and tail, limbs and eyes, flowers and roots will be presented in terms of actions and interactions of identified proteins and genes. These questions will be explored in considerable detail in selected eukaryotic systems. For example, we will discuss how the mating type in yeast is specified, how the body axes of the fruit fly Drosophila are determined, how segmentation and segment identity is generated in the fly and the mouse, how certain molecules induce germ layers and tissue types in frogs and chicken, and how developmental patterns are generated in plants. Emphasis will be placed on how experiments have been designed and how conclusions have been reached. Students are expected to read critically primary research literature related to the lecture material and participate actively in class discussions. Three hours of lecture a week. Student evaluation is based on one midterm and one final exam, as well as written and oral critiques of primary research articles and participation in discussions during lectures. Cost:1 WL:1 (Bodmer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TAs for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 311). TAs meet with the instructor for a two-hour class each week for lectures, presentations, and discussions of teaching and biochemistry. TAs also prepare a report on a recent advance in biochemistry which they present to their peers and the instructor. The major roles of the TAs are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the students with explanations supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TAs learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Osgood)

428. Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 428 is designed to provide students with a comprehensive overview of the biology of eukaryotes and prokaryotes at the cellular and molecular level. This course is intended for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The information is presented at a level that requires students to integrate information from their other biology, chemistry, and biochemistry courses. Topics include: cell structure and function; cell membranes; intracellular organelles and cytoskeleton; inter- and intra-cellular signaling; cell development and cell cycle. Students will be expected to integrate the scientific data presented in class as well as to read and interpret basic research drawn from the current scientific literature. Grades will be based on two in-class exams, the final exam, and the discussion section. Cost:3 WL:1 (Olsen, Bardwell)

429. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.

The course consists of one lecture and one four-hour laboratory session each week. Additional time outside of scheduled lab sessions will be required. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, cell fractionation, electrophoresis, and tissue culture. Mammalian systems are given emphasis. The lectures trace the history of cell biology but emphasize the background of techniques used in the laboratory. Grades are based on two lecture exams and a lab grant proposal. The course is required in the Cell and Molecular Biology concentration and is appropriate for concentrations in Biology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)

430(515). Molecular Biology of Plants. Biol. 305, and 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The topic of this course is major advances in understanding molecular processes in plants, and the contribution of molecular biological techniques to these advances. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. The course will begin with an overview of the basic techniques of plant molecular biology such as cloning and sequencing of DNA, transformation, and analysis of gene expression. We will then examine selected topics in detail, including genome structure and the evolution of genes, proteins, and biochemical pathways, photoreception, photosynthesis and respiration, and the synthesis of secondary products. We will read and then discuss research publications in class. Student performance will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, two take-home examinations, and a term paper. (Pichersky, Yocum)

450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (5). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize identification, life history, adaptations, and field methods. WL:1 (Nussbaum)

483. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). (No text, only a course guide). This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course (Biology 484) described below. Cost:1 WL:3,4 (Kling)

484. Limnology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Field and laboratory techniques in aquatic science. The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes during both ice cover and open water conditions will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, use of automated data acquisition technology, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. Cost:2 WL:3,4 (Kling)

488. Microbial Ecology of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Biol. 152 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Soil microbes, despite their small size, have a profound impact on man both economically and through their control of ecosystem structure and function. Bacteria and fungi have long been recognized as important plant, insect and human pathogens, but their increasing importance in biotechnology has brought new recognition to these fascinating and unique organisms. This lecture course surveys the members of the soil biota (bacteria, fungi, insects and other invertebrates), provides an introduction to their ecology, structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems, and importance to man in biotechnology, maintaining and restoring ecosystem productivity, and plant pathology. This course provides useful training for students interested in careers in biotechnology, plant pathology, forest pathology soil biology, and microbial ecology. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a term paper on a topic of the student's choice. Cost:2 WL:3 (Fogel)

490. Population and Quantitative Genetics. Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The purpose of this course is to introduce population genetics as it relates to all branches of modern biology. Emphasis will be placed on contrasting empirical and experimental approaches with comparative and statistical methods. The theoretical foundation for such processes as drift, mutation, migration and selection will be built in the first half of the course, and used to address the mechanisms for the maintenance of variation and to consider the neutral theory of evolution. We will then focus on the dynamics of specific genes in natural populations, by studying recent applications of population genetics to evolution, development, ecology, mapping of quantitative trait loci, and human biology. Evaluation will be by two exams, an essay, and a seminar presentation. There will be two lectures and one student-led discussion of the current literature per week. (Gibson)

492. Behavioral Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and one additional course in zoology. (4). (Excl). (BS).

The objective of this course is to acquaint students with the subject of animal behavior. All types of behavior and their ecological ramifications are considered; both vertebrate and invertebrate examples are utilized. The course approaches behavior from a zoological viewpoint; emphasis is placed on understanding the methods of investigation used in the study of animal behavior. Consideration of physiological mechanisms is given, as well as discussion of the evolutionary framework in which behavior patterns evolve. The course is divided into two sections. In the first, the types of factors which affect behavior are discussed. During the second part of the course, functional categories of behavior (feeding, orientation, agonistic, sexual) are discussed with an emphasis on bringing together as many factors as possible in an attempt to understand the control (both proximate and ultimate) of these behaviors at all levels.

Although Biology 152-154 or equivalent are required, it would be best to have at least one of the following three areas before taking the course: genetics, ecology, or neurophysiology. Students who wish to obtain a more complete background should plan to take Biology 422 and/or Biology 494 either before or after taking Biology 492. Methods of instruction: (1) lectures and discussion are the primary means of instruction; (2) a text is also utilized, as are a number of outside readings; (3) there is a midterm lecture exam and a short term paper, as well as a final exam. Cost:2 (Hazlett)

497. Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

An examination of current theory and empirical research on ecological communities. Emphasis is on the analyses of patterns in community structure and species diversity, and the mechanisms responsible for generating and maintaining these patterns. Specific topics include the roles of species interactions such as competition, predation, and mutualisms, environmental variation, and biogeography, in community processes. A background in ecology is required. Readings are from the original literature. There are two one-hour lectures and one two-hour discussion per week. Cost:1 WL:1 (Goldberg, Werner)

513. Microbial Genetics. Genetics; and microbiology or biochemistry or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Lecture and discussion focus on analysis of original papers dealing with the genetics of E. coli and other prokaryotes. Topics include mutation and repair, transposition and rearrangement, chromosome maintenance, gene-transfer and acceptance, regulation, and variation and evolution. Paper and oral report. (Maddock)

533/Anatomy 715. Regeneration in Vertebrates. An introductory course in developmental biology; graduate or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl). (BS).

This is a lecture-discussion course designed principally for graduate students. Its object is to cover the principles of regeneration in vertebrates. The first half of the course is devoted to an in-depth analysis of amphibian limb regeneration as a biological model system. The second half of the course is tailored according to the interests of the members of the class. Class participation consists of regular readings and discussions based upon them, a student seminar and a paper. Cost:1 WL:3 (Carlson)

541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

The course provides an overview of the hormonal regulation of mammalian reproduction at the system, cellular, and molecular levels. Topics include basic and clinically-orientated material related to properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex steroids, the neural control of reproduction, anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, endocrine control of menstrual and estrous cycles, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. Primarily for upper-level undergraduates or graduate students with a strong background in biology. Permission of instructor is required. Evaluation is by written examinations and presentation of a poster. The course is team-taught by several members of the multi-departmental Reproductive Sciences Program. Cost:2 WL:4 (Foster)

589. Mechanisms of Microbial Evolution. Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is designed to introduce students to the processes of evolution in the context of microbes. The course will focus on the forces which promote variation and change in microbial populations. Among the topics covered during the term will be: structure of microbial populations and measures of genetic variation; evolution of community structure including predatory/prey interactions; roles of mutator genes and transposable elements in evolution; evolution of plasmids and their interaction with the host genome; enzyme evolution; evolution of the E. coli genome. The course is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in evolutionary biology, and/or molecular biology and/or microbiology. In addition, the course is one of the electives for the undergraduate concentration in microbiology. The course will meet twice a week 1-1/2 hour/lecture). Course requirements are two term papers plus a mini-seminar presentation and participation in discussions; no exams. Cost:1 WL:1 (Adams)


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