Classical Studies

The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisors of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.


Courses in Classical Archaeology (Division 342)

222/Hist. of Art 222. Introduction to Roman Archaeology. (4). (HU).

Anyone who has watched "Ben-Hur," "Spartacus," or "Life of Brian" has an image of Rome and the Romans. But just how accurate is that picture? This course will introduce the archaeology and art of the Roman empire, a vast and diverse society that stretched from modern day Britain to Egypt and beyond, and whose inhabitants ranged from divine emperors to beggars and slaves. The course will examine a variety of themes (economics, religion, entertainment), as well as the art and architecture of the imperial power; both the imperial capital of Rome itself and the provinces will be explored. At the end of the course, current images of Rome, including its cinematic representation, will be considered and criticized. Lecture will provide general coverage, with weekly discussion sections organized to explore specific issues in detail. There are no prerequisites for the course; requirements consist of two hour exams and a final exam. Cost:2/3 WL:1 (Alcock)

437/Hist. of Art 437. Egyptian Art and Archaeology. (3). (HU).

See History of Art 437. (Richards/Wilfong)

440/Hist. of Art 440. Cities and Sanctuaries of Classical Greece. A course in archaeology or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Where did Greeks situate their cities and sanctuaries and why? How big were they? What did they look like? What purposes did they serve, and how did they change over time? Topography, urbanization, major monuments, private housing, and infrastructures of cities on mainland Greece (especially Athens) will be compared with those of Greek cities in Asia Minor (Turkey) and South Italy. Case studies in Asia Minor will include Smyrna and Pergamon, and in Italy, Paestum and Selinus. Building materials and forms, architectural concepts and language, the organization of public and private space will be topics of enquiry. The architecture and rituals of various types of sanctuary will be examined: panhellenic (Delphi and Olympia), city (Athens and Corinth), suburban (Cyrene and Samos) and rural (metapontum and Albanella). How far may sanctuaries be seen as expressions of community identity, as embodiments of social and ritual organization, as centers of communication, exchange and competition, and as markers of sovereignty? What functions do processions, festivals and oracles perform? How best should dedications be interpreted? As votive gifts? As status symbols? As objects of personal display? As reflections of communal interests? There will be a midterm and a final exam. A paper also will be required. Cost:1 WL:3 (Pedley)

475. Archaeology, Identity, and Nationalism in the Balkans and Europe. Three 200- or higher level courses in Archaeology, Anthropology, or Modern European History. (3). (HU).

This lecture course introduces students to one of the most heated discussions in contemporary archaeology, namely, the relationship of archaeology to practices of national and ethnic identity. The geohistorical focus is Greece and the other Balkan states in their European context. There are two components: the historical component outlines the ties of European archaeology to nationalism from ca. 1900 (when archaeology was proudly defined as "first and foremost, a national science") to our days, when archaeological practice sometimes appears as a form of symbolic ethnocide. The second component takes up questions of ethics and values arising from archaeology's multiple involvements with the politics of national and ethnic identity. Are such involvements inescapable, a necessary evil? Do they compromise the scientificity of archaeological knowledge? What stance and course of action should the archaeologist adopt when his/her findings are used for national and ethnic causes? Grades: class participation, short paper, exam. Cost:2 (Fotiadis)

534/Hist. of Art 534. Ancient Painting. Hist. of Art 101 and either Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History of Art 534. (Gazda)


Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

102. Classical Civilization II: The Ancient Roman World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as a general introduction to Roman Civilization, that is, the history, literature, social life, institutions, and contributions of ancient Rome. The course will focus on the continuing creation and development of the Roman Identity as the city grew from an Italian town to the center of a world Empire. We will proceed chronologically from the founding of the Republic in the sixth century B.C.E. to the second century C.E. We will read ancient authors (in translation) including historians (Livy, Sallust, and Tacitus), poets (Catullus, Vergil, and Horace), as well as occasional inscriptions and other documentary evidence and authors (Cicero, Petronius). Lectures will follow certain common themes and ideas, with occasional presentation of special topics (e.g., Roman law, the ancient book, Roman Games, slavery). There will be two short papers, a midterm examination, and a final exam. Cost:3 WL:3 (Myers)

120. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Humanities). (3). (HU).
Section 001 Greek Art and Text.
Greek poets and artists often based their works on the same stories and sometimes the artists "illustrated" particular narratives. Verbal and visual media are different in their methods and effects, however, and are often used for different purposes and aimed at different audiences. This seminar will look at how painters and poets interpreted and communicated meanings in some favorite myths, including the Trojan War, the battles between gods and giants, the labors of Herakles, the search for the golden fleece, and the murder of Agamemnon. We will read selected Greek poems and plays and compare the versions of the stories presented in Greek art. WL:1 (Herbert and Scodel)

121. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Composition). (4). (Introductory Composition).
Section 001 What is "Classical" about Classical Antiquity?
This seminar will offer an introduction to the study of classical antiquity from a somewhat unaccustomed perspective. How did the civilization of Greece and Rome become "classicized," that is, become known as it is today, as "classical"? When did this transformation occur? And above all, why? Starting with Homer's epics and concluding with Hollywood and Calvin Klein, we will attempt to discover how the image of classical antiquity was fashioned over time and what role it played in the self-images of successive cultural moments. Because our attitude to antiquity today is decisively shaped by modern attitudes to the past, modern examples of "classicism" of the interest in things classical will be discussed selectively (e.g., Renaissance writers, Victorians, Romantics, and later nineteenth century figures) alongside contemporary scholarship on culture and the body. The course is not conceived as an exhaustive survey but as a way of broaching an important topic and as an occasion for developing tools useful for analyzing cultural ideologies generally. The main requirement is a willingness to engage in vigorous debate in class. No knowledge of the classics is needed. Discussions will partly center upon a series of short position papers (3-4 pages each) to be submitted over the course of the semester, any of which may be rewritten in meeting the Introductory Composition requirement. One final mini-project will be conducted over the term and be presented orally to the seminar during the last month. WL:1 (Porter)

371. Sport in the Ancient Greek World. (3). (Excl).

Athletics and sports were as popular and significant in the ancient Greek world as they are today, and so offer a good introduction to many aspects of Greek culture over the centuries. Illustrated lectures, reinforced and amplified by student exploration of electronically-accessible learning resources, introduce such topics as the development of Greek athletics, sites where games were held, the nature of individual events, and social implications such as athletic professionalism, women and athletics, the role of sport in Greek education, etc. Wider cultural aspects to be explored include the religious, political, and economic contexts of athletics; how their ideology found expression in literature and the visual arts; issues of class, gender, nationalism, and ethnicity; and, of course, whether the modern Olympic Games are anything like the ancient ones. Students will encounter the primary data drawn from archaeology, art, and literature, and read modern studies of this ancient evidence. Grades will be based on midterm and final examinations, plus one electronic assignment and one short piece of written work. Cost:2 WL:3 (Cherry)

462. Greek Mythology. (4). (HU).

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the major myths and epic cycles of ancient Greece from the creation myths and their Near Eastern prototypes through the Trojan War and the wanderings of Odysseus. The development of various myths will be illustrated through Greek literature and art. We will also discuss the use and treatment of Greek myths in English literature, modern psychoanalytical theory, and comparative anthropology. Required texts will include Homer's Odyssey, parts of Hesiod's Theogony and Works and Days, the Homeric Hymns, and a selection of tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. An additional course pack will provide readings for discussion sections which will meet once a week to consider a variety of theoretical approaches to mythology, and other critical questions. Course requirements include two hour tests and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Herbert)

466/Rel. 468. Greek Religion. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Esoteric Traditions in Late Antiquity.
In this course we will concentrate primarily on the religions and philosophies of Greco-Roman late antiquity. We will consider both ritual elements (such as magic, theurgy, mystery religions, initiation rites) as well as philosophical foundations, especially Neoplatonism. Some of the religions that we will study include Gnosticism, Orphism, Mithraism, Christianity, and Manicheaism. Emphasis will be on the reading of a wide variety of textual genres, such as the biographies of Proclus and Plotinus, or Eunapius' Lives of the Sophists, narratives such as The Golden Ass of Apuleius or Lucian's satirical biography of Alexander the False Prophet, philosophical texts such as Plotinus' Enneads or Porphyry's treatise Against the Christians, and finally St. Augustine's autobiographical work, The Confessions. Cost:2 WL:1 (Rappe)

472. Roman Law. Not open to freshmen. (3). (HU).

This course acquaints students with the fundamental concepts of Roman private law, with their origin in the society and government of the High Roman Empire, and with their all-important influence in the development of Western European legal theory and institutions. The course aims primarily to meet the interests of undergraduates with a bent toward law as a profession, but it is open to all students (except freshmen). We will use a direct application of the American case-law method to the teaching of Roman law. Our basic text will be a series of actual problems from the Roman jurists, which we will discuss in class; only as the occasion demands will the instructor "fill in the gaps" with short lectures on other relevant legal material. Thus students should develop a feel for legal analysis and for the contribution made through such analysis by the Roman jurists; at the same time, students will learn Roman law in a form that will be directly relevant to future legal studies. Besides the handouts, one general introduction to Roman law (ca. 250 pages) will be required reading. There will be one hour test on material covered in class, in addition to the final examination; one paper (10 pages) will allow the student to analyze in detail a particular legal problem. Cost:2 WL:1 (Frier)


Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

See Special Departmental Policies statement above

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 310, or 503. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 503. (4). (LR).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. There will be a series of quizzes and hourly exams in addition to a final exam. Cost:1 WL:3 (Dillery)

302. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent. The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion of Greek 301 and 302. (4). (LR).
Section 001.
This course is the second half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. The primary goal of the student in Greek 302 is to learn how to read Homer; hence emphasis is placed on Homeric vocabulary and grammar. The class will translate and discuss passages from the Iliad. There will be quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:3 (Dillery)

Intermediate Courses

402. Greek Drama. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

The Greek satyr-play, being part and parcel of the wild and popular aspects of the Dionysiac cult, added fun to the performance of tragedies and thus resolved the tension of the audience. We will enjoy laughing, but also pay close attention to the text, its interpretation, grammar, and meter, when we read Euripides' satyr-play Kyklops (edited with introduction and commentary by T.A.S. Seaford, paperback Oxford 1988). If time permits, we may also turn to a scene from Aeschylus' Diktyoulkoi or Sophocles' Ichneutai. There will be several quizzes, a midterm, a final, and an essay. Cost:1 (Koenen)

Advanced Courses

435. Fifth-Century Prose. Greek 301 and 302. (3). (Excl).

A detailed reading in Greek of Book One of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. (Cameron)

486. Readings in Later Greek Prose. Greek 402. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Christian Martyr Acts.
The class will concentrate on the techniques of editing and analyzing texts connected with Christian martyrdom as part of the new edition of Christian Martyr Acts. The texts to which particular attention will be payed are the Acts of Polycarp and Theotecnus of Ancyra. (Potter)


Modern Greek (Division 433)

102. Elementary Modern Greek, II. Modern Greek 101 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 502. (4). (LR).

The course follows the same paidagogical scheme as Modern Greek 101, with classroom dialogues, non-competitive group games, and improvised scenarios. Instruction in more advanced grammar and syntax is effected through both formal methods and drills. By the end of the term students are exposed to approximately four-fifths of modern Greek grammar and syntax and are expected to be linguistically competent in a variety of everyday contexts. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, a one hour midterm exam, and a final. Cost:1 WL:1

202. Second Year Modern Greek, II. Modern Greek 201 or permission of instructor. Graduate students should elect Modern Greek 504. (4). (LR).

This is the final term of the Modern Greek language sequence, and students will be able to fulfill their language requirement. The course focuses on expanding vocabulary through reading more complex journalistic prose and literary texts (20th century poetry and prose) and discussion of those texts. Special attention is paid to the historical depth of the language through instruction in etymology. The proficiency gained by the end of the course should enable students to express themselves in Modern Greek on topics of interest; students ought to be able to read, with dictionary help, all writing in Standard Modern Greek. Class participation, comprehensive tests, one midterm, and a final examination will determine the final grade. Cost:1 WL:1 (Fotiadis)


Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

See Special Departmental Policies statement above

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential facts of morphology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, history and culture are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English vocabulary improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with little or no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit Professor Knudsvig in Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar and the development of basic reading skills. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

194. Intensive Elementary Latin II. Latin 193 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 221, 222, 231, 232, or 503. Graduate students should elect 503. (4). (Excl). This course does not satisfy the language requirement.

This is a continuation of Latin 193, a beginning language course which will have covered, by the end of the Fall Term, the essentials of Latin accidence and syntax, with some experience in reading continuous Latin prose. The second term of this introductory sequence will continue the reading of prose and will then include one of the first six books of Vergil's Aeneid. Students need not have taken Latin 193 to enroll in Latin 194. Initially there will be a systematic review of Latin grammar, and throughout the term attention will be paid to details of grammar to ensure a command of language necessary for increasing ease in reading. Therefore, anyone with a knowledge of elementary Latin could profit from the course. The Aeneid has been chosen as the main text because of its inherent importance for later European poetry and literature, and will be considered in class discussion as such - not simply as an exercise in translation. Cost:1 WL:4 (D.O. Ross)

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from several authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D., but primarily from Pliny the Younger. Class discussions center upon the readings. Some course materials require the use of a computer. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).
Sections 001-005.
The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's Aeneid, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. Cost:2 WL:1

Intermediate Courses

302. Intermediate Latin II. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will provide an introduction to the prose and poetry of the early Roman Empire (First Century B.C.). Class time will be spent primarily in translation and discussion of Livy's History of Rome and a selection of the poems of Catullus. Emphasis will be placed on a further mastery of Latin grammar and translation skills. There will be several hour exams and a final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

402. Imperial Prose. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Latin Biography.
The course will explore the biographical tradition in imperial Latin prose, and earlier. We will begin with Cornelius Nepos' Life of Atticus, and then read selections from Suetonius' Caesar and Augustus, as well as Augustus' Res Gestae. The course will conclude with the Historia Augusta Life of Hadrian. Consideration will be given to issues of genre, literary history, and ancient scholarship as well as translation. Course requirements will include three hour exams (translation) and a paper. There will be no final examination. (Potter)

410. Poetry of the Republic or Later Empire. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

This course will be a close reading (translation and analysis) of selections from Ovid's Metamorphoses and Fasti. Our aim will be to make a detailed exploration of Ovid's poetry through in-class reading of the Latin text and discussion of literary and cultural issues. Attention will be given to Ovid's poetic technique and to the interpretation of his poetry within its historical and literary context. Careful translation of the Latin will be stressed. There will be an hour midterm and a final exam (primarily translation, sight and prepared), occasional extra readings, a class presentation, and a short paper (seven pages) based on the presentation. Cost:2 (Myers)

Advanced Courses

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

435/MARC 440. Medieval Latin I, 500-900 A.D. Two years of college Latin or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

A survey of the major developments in Latin prose and poetry from A.D. 500-900. Attention will be paid to the changes in Latin grammar, syntax, and orthography. Texts read include monastic rules, saints' lives, history, and poetry. Midterm, final, one short paper. (Witke)

470. Catullus. (3). (Excl).

We will read all the poems of Catullus to understand them as best we can. (D.O. Ross)

506. Advanced Latin Composition. Latin 403. (3). (Excl).

The writing of continuous Latin prose; includes the writing of versions, i.e., rendering of original English passages into classical Latin and free composition in Latin. Not open to undergraduates. (Garbrah)

516. Letters of Seneca. (3). (Excl).

In this course we will read selections from the Roman Stoic philosopher Seneca, imperial tutor and moral reformer in Nero's court. Works we will survey include the De Ira, Epistulae ad Luciliam, De Beneficiis, De Clementia, and possibly, if there is time, the tragedy Thyestes. Attention will be on Seneca's stoic ethics, but also on the historical relationship between philosophers and rulers. Cost:2 (Rappe)


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