Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This introductory course will address critical issues in the history of modern Europe from the Scientific Revolution to the present. Topics will include: the replacement of "religion" by "science" as the common metaphor for understanding the world, the emergence of the industrial market economy, the making of modern gender and racial differences, the position of women in European society, the emergence of democratic and working class movements, the revolutions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, war and society, and cultural inventions of the past and future. We shall examine closely as well the ways that people in the past invented their worlds, their sensibility, and their sexuality. Students will be encouraged to develop critical historical analyses of their own, with particular focus upon the creation of historical arguments. Readings include a basic text, along with several novels and secondary works. (Frost)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

The course treats the modern experience of China, Japan, and Korea. We shall discuss comparatively the social and political orders in each country in their Asian context, before the advent of a powerful Western intrusion, and then explore the ways that these old civilizations handled the new calculus of power in the 19th and 20th centuries. We will attempt a broad look at the many sources of change and the varieties of their expression in the modern period. Topics will include reform and revolution, colonialism and liberation, racism directed both against and by Asians, the changing roles of women, and the economic transformation of recent decades. Readings will be drawn from historical narratives and translated expressions of East Asian voices. There will be a midterm exam, a term paper, and a final exam. Cost:2/3 WL:4 (Young)

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

Southeast Asia is one of the world's most culturally diverse regions, home to Buddhist, Muslim, Confucian, and Christian civilizations. It boasts ancient monuments of surpassing grandeur and symbolic complexity. It was the scene of the bloodiest conflict since 1945, the Vietnam War. Today it has the world's fastest growing regional economy and is an area of mounting importance to Japan as well as the United States. This course offers an introduction (and thus assumes no prior knowledge) to Southeast Asian history from the earliest civilizations, through the colonial conquest, the indigenous political reaction of which Vietnamese Communism and the Vietnam Wars were one expression and the contemporary economic explosion. The course seeks to define Southeast Asia's uniqueness as well as its evolving ties to the rest of the world. Midterm, final, and optional paper. Two lectures, one discussion section per week. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lieberman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This lecture/discussion course will examine central issues and events in the history of the territories that became the United States, and the peoples who lived there, from the late 16th to the middle of the 19th centuries. Among the topics that will be considered are: the territorial expansions of Europeans into the Americas; the creation of Anglo-American colonies; the social, political, and cultural orders of British North America; the creation of an independent American republic in the Revolution; and the destruction of that first republic in the War Between the States. The required readings will include both primary and secondary sources, and will be examined in weekly discussion sections. There will be both a midterm and a final examination, and active class participation will be expected in the sections. (hancock)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course is an undergraduate survey of American history from 1865 to the present. It examines the major social, political, and economic events that shaped America after the Civil War (Reconstruction, Industrialization, Progressivism, the New Deal, WWI and II, McCarthyism, Feminism, the Civil Rights Movement, the Turbulent Sixties, Great Society Liberalism, Reagan Republicanism, etc.). This survey acquaints students with the urban, labor, African-American, and women's history of this period through both primary and secondary sources. Students will attend lectures as well as discussion sections. Cost:3 (Thompson)

197. Freshman Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Postwar Britain.
This course examines Britain from World War II to the present, through the Cold War, social, cultural, and political challenges in the 1960s, the Conservative resurgence of the 1970s, the Falklands War, the fall of Margaret Thatcher; and current political developments. Special attention is paid to: the legacy of the war experience; the development of a "welfare state"; Britain as a world power; economic change; peace movements from the late 50s through the 80s; the influence of American culture; decolonization; youth cultures; student movements; feminism; sexuality; the Miners' Strike; the tabloid press; Welsh and Scottish nationalism; Northern Ireland; Thatcherism; contemporary constitutional debates; poverty; racism and neo-fascism; on-going debates about class, "heritage," education, television and other media, and Britain as a multi-cultural society. Course materials include films, television, photos, music, press clippings, and literature and scholarly writing. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)

Section 002 The Salem Witchcraft Outbreak of 1692. This seminar focuses on a single historical event, the Salem witchcraft outbreak of 1692. Its goal is to explore both "what happened" during this highly dramatic episode in early American history and why the Salem story continues to have such a powerful hold on the popular and scholarly imagination. Beginning with original trial records and other primary documents, students will also analyze scholarly accounts of this event, recent films and other fictionalized versions of it, and images of witches and witchcraft in other segments of contemporary American culture. Among the central questions to be addressed in the course are why most accused witches in Salem were women and why the witch figure continues to be represented primarily as female in today's popular culture. Students enrolled in this seminar should see the 1996 Hollywood production of Arthur Miller's The Crucible before the first day of class. (Karlsen)

Section 003 Race, Class, and Gender in American History. In this seminar students will be introduced to the techniques of historical analysis as we try to unravel how gender, race, and class have functioned in American history. We will also explore how historians have identified, analyzed, and written about these subjects and how those approaches have changed over time. Students will be introduced to the concept of cultural construction the idea that categories of race, gender and even class status are not fixed, universal, biological entities, but are shaped and determined by cultural values, time, and place. Students will also be urged to think about how these categories intersect, for example, the ways in which race structures class or class influences concepts of masculinity and femininity. Throughout the term students will be required to maintain a journal and record questions, thoughts, and comments about their reading. Two thought papers will also be assigned, intended to stimulate students to grapple with the issues discussed in class. Cost:2 WL:4 (Morantz-Sanchez)

Section 004 Twentieth-Century Africa. This is an introduction to the study of Africa. Via readings of African literature, discussion, and written work, the seminar will focus on major themes in the historical record of 20th-century Africa through the close reading of novels written over the past four decades by authors based on the African continent: Achebe, Armah, Brink, Dangarembga, Head, Mwangi, Mzamane, Ngugi, Serote, and Soyinka. The seminar draws on the premise that African writers have commanded an extremely important role in the interpretation and criticism of events and developments on the African continent. A series of 2-4 page reviews and seminar participation will provide the basis for evaluation of work in the seminar. (Cohen)

Section 005 The Face of War: Emotion and Armed Conflict. This course will survey the experience of war and armed conflict from a multicultural perspective. Such basic emotions and expressions of fear, hatred, courage, cowardice, love, and sacrifice remain an integral part, if not a defining characteristic, of conflict despite efforts to create a dispassionate military science. Reflections of these emotional experiences will be explored in the film, literature, and art of America, Europe, and Asia. (Forage)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).
Section 001 The Roman Empire and its Heirs.
A survey of Roman history from the consolidation of the Roman empire in the first century B.C. to the rise of its political heirs in the Mediterranean world in the eighth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include Rome's overseas expansion; the administration of a large empire; the impact of Christianity; the conversion of Constantine; heresy and the imposition of orthodoxy; barbarian kingdoms; Justinian's reconquest; the rise of Islam; and the coronation of Charlemagne as a revived Roman emperor. Readings will include many ancient texts in translation and some modern scholarship. Classes will consist of lectures by the instructor and discussions led by TAs. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent written exercises, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost:1, maybe 2 WL:1 (Van Dam)

211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (4). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the opening of the second millennium through the fourteenth century. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Extensive readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.), a midterm, a final examination, two short papers are required. There are two lectures and one discussion session per week. WL:2 (Squatriti)

249(150)/Korean 249. Introduction to Korean Civilization. (3). (HU).

See Korean 249. (Cho)

255. Gandhi's India. History 151 recommended. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for undergraduates with little or no background in history or Indian studies, though I would welcome students who have already completed History 151/Asian Studies 111, the introductory course in Indian civilization. This course will focus on the history of modern India, using the life and times of Mohandas Gandhi as the basis not only for an engagement with an extraordinary historical figure but also for a consideration of a great variety of historical issues. The course will begin with biographical and autobiographical works, proceeding then to an examination of the colonial predicament in India and the nationalist response to colonial rule. The course will conclude with an effort to use Gandhi's life and thought to crystallize the contradictory and complex histories of colonialism and nationalism (in India, and elsewhere), as well as with a set of reflections about the relationship of broad based cultural, social, and political history to the life of a single person, however great he may have been. The course will also deal extensively with Gandhi's experience of and writings about racism, and the relation of racism and colonialism more generally, both in South Africa and India. Explicit parallels will also be drawn between the struggles engaged in by Gandhi and those engaged in by civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., who was strongly influenced and inspired by Gandhi. The course will also consider the nature of caste politics in contemporary India (about which Gandhi was always very concerned), raising issues of a comparative nature related to affirmative action policies in the United States today. (Dirks)

260/Amer. Cult. 260. Religion in America. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the study of American religion from colonial times to the present. The emphasis will be on religion as a cultural system and as a social and political institution, rather than as a set of formal beliefs. We will explore the rise of revivalism as a major cultural force in colonial America, the place of women in the major religious traditions, the synthesis of African and Christian belief systems in the slave community, the role of religion in social reform movements, the rise of fundamentalism as a political force in the 20th century, and the wide diversity of sectarian beliefs in all eras of American history. Students will be expected to read both primary documents and historical studies, participate in class discussions, and write two papers. (Juster)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (4). (HU).

The University of Michigan has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will examine this heritage and history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, etc. It will explore the factors that have shaped the University and place it within the larger social, political, national, and international context. The only prerequisite is an interest in your University and its place in history. Presentation will be through lectures with slides. Grading will be based on essay/ objective exams; term project or research paper; photo quiz to acquaint students with central campus, its architecture and embellishment. Readings will be from a course pack and 2 or 3 required texts. Cost:2 WL:1 (Steneck, Steneck)

275/CAAS 231. Survey of Afro-American History II. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 231. (Theoharis)

286/Rel. 286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (3). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all concentrations, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the Church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic and Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Attention is also given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam, and a final are required. (J. Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

319. Europe Since 1945. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive critical introduction to European society, culture, and politics since the Second World War. Lectures and readings will cover both Eastern and Western Europe, the international arena and the national histories of particular countries, and social and cultural life as well as political developments. The course aims to explore the shaping of the contemporary world and to introduce students to societies and political cultures which are both structurally similar and fundamentally different from their own. Instruction will be via lectures and ad hoc discussion, evaluation via midterm exam and end-of-term essay. No special background is required; prejudices and preconceptions about European societies are enough. Cost:3-4 WL:4 (Eley)

333/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of East Central Europe. (4). (SS). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

See REES 396. (Verdery)

346/NR&E 356. Environmental History and the Tropical World. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Environmental History and the Natural World.
For Winter Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with RC Social Science 306.001. (Tucker)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

The wars of this century have been important experiences both for American society and for millions of individual Americans. This course examines those wars through literature, histories, films, lectures, and discussions in order to find patterns of change: changes in how America fights wars and changes in the society that results from them. It also examines changes in the personal perceptions of the experience of war: perceptions not only of the combat soldiers but also of the many others affected by wars. Among the readings are Gray, The Warriors, March, Company K, and O'Brien, The Things They Carried. There will be pop quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. Please register for only ONE lecture section and one discussion section. Discussion sections will not meet until after the first lecture. Cost:4 WL:1 (Collier)

368/Amer. Cult. 342/WS 360. History of the Family in the U.S. (3). (SS).
Section 001 History of the Family in the United States, 1880 to the Present.
This course aims to help students gain a perspective on the contemporary family by studying the development of this important institution in the American past. Particular emphasis will be placed on changing attitudes towards and experiences of sex roles, sexuality, childrearing, work patterns, and relationships between men, women, and children. We will explore: race, ethnicity, and class; cover economic developments as well as shifting conceptions of the role of the state; and ask about the impact of these factors on family life. We will want to examine how much the family has changed over time and try to project, on the basis of historical evidence, whither the family is going. Cost:2 WL:4 (Morantz-Sanchez)

372/WS 372. Women in European History, 1750 to the Present. (3). (Excl).

This course examines broad developments in the history of women and gender across Europe with particular attention to differences amongst women, with special attention paid to: women and economic and political change, especially industrialization; women and revolution, from 1789 to 1989; the gendering of class; domesticity, family, children, and homes; gender, sex, and science; women and nationalism; the emergence and histories of feminisms; women and European imperialism; women, art, and literature; women and war; women as economic actors, both as workers and consumers; women and gender in Nazism and fascism; modernity, technology, and gender; women and consumerism, especially in post-war Europe; women in contemporary European politics. The cross-cutting of gender by "race," religion, class, nation, ethnicity, political affiliation, sexuality, and other categories of identity, affinity, loyalty, and experience is stressed. Course materials include fiction, art, music, film, and photos as well as historical scholarship. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)

374/Amer. Cult. 374. The Politics and Culture of the "Sixties." (3). (SS).

See American Culture 374. (Sanchez and Countryman)

377/Amer. Cult. 312. History of Latinos in the U.S. (3). (Excl). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

This course is an exploration of the history and culture of Latinos in the United States from the colonial era to the present. We will examine the diversity among groups that make up the Latino population of the United States, paying particular attention to the three largest subgroups of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origin. Topics will include the varied experiences of colonialism and immigration; the role of race prejudice and discrimination in shaping social mobility; cultural transformation and regional variations in language, religion and music; gender as a central variable in defining issues of identity and opportunity; and the birth of a Latino civil rights movement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Montoya)

384. Modern Jewish History 1880-1948. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys the history of the Jewish people in Europe, America, and the Middle East over the last one hundred years. The course begins with the rise of virulent forms of semitism at the end of the nineteenth century and examines how this undermined Jewish assimilation in Western Europe and dashed all hope for emancipation in Eastern Europe. The course then considers the various ways in which Jews responded to this new crisis: nationalism, revolutionary socialism, emigration, assimilationist defense activities, and conversion. The last third of the course is devoted to the drama and often tragic events of the twentieth century that totally changed the face of world Jewry the Bolshevik revolution, the Holocaust, the creation of the State of Israel, and the emergence of the American Jewish community as the largest and most secure community in the history of the diaspora. There will be a midterm and a 10-12 page paper. Cost:3 WL:3 (Endelman)

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys the evolution of warfare in the western world from the seventeenth century to the present. Points of emphasis will include the relationship between politics and war and between societies and their military institutions; the influence of changes in political, social, economic, and technological factors upon western methods of warfare; and the impact of the popularization and nationalization of war upon western nations' approach to modern conflicts. Particular attention will be paid to the relationship of the United States military to its nation's society and whether or not there is a distinctive "American Way of War." The conduct of specific wars, campaigns, and battles will be addressed, but they will be employed to illustrate the above themes and will not, in and of themselves, be the focus of the course. Course requirements will include one research paper, a one-hour midterm examination, and a two-hour final examination. (Fitzpatrick)

391. Topics in European History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Visions of the Past.
This course rests on the proposition that most of what most people have ever known about the past has come from deliberated aesthetic forms such as monuments, paintings, novels, and films. Many more Americans have read or seen Gone with the Wind than have ever read a history of the Civil War; films like Schindler's List have been the primary means by which Americans and Europeans have conceptualized the destruction of European Jewry. This course, therefore, will examine how and why history is represented in the various aesthetic forms, and how those representations have created our sense of what is important in history. We shall read a half dozen novels and plays, see several films, look at a variety of art and architecture, and listen to several musical forms. Classes will be lecture and discussion, and there will be one or two papers besides a midterm and final. (Marwil)

393. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 The Fabulous Fifties? A Re-examination of America in the 1950s.
Famous for Elvis, Eisenhower, the Beaver family and the Beats, the fifties are currently in vogue. This course will reexamine popular culture in the 1950s, and assess the decade. Some topics to be discussed are: Atomic Culture, Affluence and Anxiety; Poverty and the "Other America"; Eisenhower; Segregation and Civil Rights; The Beats; Rock n' Roll; Elvis, James Dean and Marilyn Monroe; TV; The Quiz Shows; Family Life; Suburbia; The Organization Man; The Feminine Mystique; the Silent Generation. We will also ask why the 1950s sowed the seeds of the more tumultuous 1960s. Finally, we will ask why are the 1950s viewed with nostalgia in the 1990s? (Palmieri)

Section 003 Black Women's History. For Winter Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with Afroamerican and African Studies 358.003. (Brown)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators needing ECB requirement and by override only. Apply for overrides at 1014 Angell Hall on Monday, November 11 from 11 a.m. until 3 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action through Touch-tone Registration to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 The Church and the Jews. The course will examine the complex relationship between the Western Church and the Jews, from the time of the Church Fathers. It will analyze ideas and policies regarding Jews as expressed in different realms, from theology and canon law to church art and popular preaching. It will also attempt to survey the factors which led to striking changes in church attitudes and policy, with emphasis on the interplay of the theological legacy and evolving realities. Background in medieval or early modern European history is helpful but not required. A term paper is required. Cost:2 WL:3 (Bodian)

Section 002 United States Social and Cultural Thought since 1945. After 1945 Americans confronted a new world. The military spread across the globe and most men were subject to the draft. Women were supposed to become wives and mothers but they also went to work in increasing numbers. College education became a normal expectation. Many asked why such a wealthy, powerful nation was still disgraced by crime, poverty, and racial inequality. Others feared the increased powers that government leaders had acquired. In this course, we will look at movies, books, art, and music from 1945 to 1975 to examine cultural and intellectual responses to these changes. Key topics will include debates on the nature of work and education; America's relationship to the rest of the world; new ideas about art that led to the counterculture; the growing importance of African-Americans in both popular and elite culture; the feminine mystique; youth culture and attitudes about sexuality; the Vietnam War; the rebirth of conservatism. Cost:3 WL:2 (C·ndida Smith)

Section 003 True Lies: Writing the Self in Premodern Europe. This course will focus on autobiographical texts as historical documents, written by men and women between late antiquity and the eighteenth century. By investigating letters, diaries, and so-called confessions in a variety of historical setting, we will, among other lines of inquiry, explore representations of the self, the individual, and the gendered subject in works by Saint Augustine, Albrecht D¸rer, Michel de Montaigne, Glikl bas Judah Leib, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and others. In the past, the emergence of the individual has been linked with the making of modernity. However, does "the self" really have a history? Was there a discovery of the individual and does the Renaissance indeed signify a turning-point in the history of the self? Moreover, how did men and women in premodern European feel, live, love, and write differently from ourselves? Writing assignments will include several short essays on the course's themes as well as a 12-page research paper based on a text of your own choice. (Puff)

Section 004 Social Change in 20th-Century Africa. This course treats selected topics in modern African social history, proceeding roughly chronologically. It begins with some of the changes associated with colonial rule (including migrant labor and the spread of Christianity) and progresses through ethnic tensions and cultural identities in the post-independence period. Particular attention will be paid to shifting relations between the sexes and within families. The class meets once a week for three hours and centers on class discussions, although short lectures will occasionally provide background information. Materials for discussion will include secondary readings, novels and memoirs, and films viewed in class. Prior coursework in African history is helpful, but not necessary. WL:2 (Lindsay)

Section 005 Law and Society in American History. This course deals with several major themes in American legal history from the Colonial period to the early twentieth century. The themes include: tensions between formal legal rules and widespread social attitudes in various settings, including the local community, the family, and the larger economic order; changes in concepts regarding the nature and source of law and the relationship between those concepts and the roles of legislation, judicial opinions and informal or "customary norms"; concepts of human behavior as they relate to legal and social ideas regarding both the theory of criminal responsibility and the practical uses of institutions to enforce the law and to "correct" offenders; the relationship between socio-economic development and legal change regarding issues of class, gender, and race; the various meanings of the "rights tradition" in America. These subjects will be pursued through analysis of a selection of recent books (paperbacks) and articles. Attention will be paid both to the substantive matters listed above and to the manner in which historians have formulated issues and employed evidence in setting forth arguments regarding specific historical contexts. Students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. The term paper will be an analytical essay on one of the main themes of the course and will draw upon several of the works read for the course. Cost:4 WL:2; The history department will create a waitlist; do not attend the first class meeting unless the instructor has admitted you to the course. (Green)

Section 006 Michigan in the Era of Industrialization. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1920. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original manuscripts and archives relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the industrial and social history of the U.S. and to do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Blouin)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (HU). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators and by override only. Apply for overrides at 1014 Angell Hall on Monday, November 11 from 11 a.m. until 3 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action through Touch-tone Registration to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 Urban Black Communities in Historical Perspective. For Winter Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with Afroamerican and African Studies 358.002. (Theoharis)

Section 002 Applying History to Community Building. This course will explore contributions by the University of Michigan to community building at the state and national levels since the Civil War. (Achenbaum)

Section 003 The Renaissance: Italy and Northern Europe. The theme of this survey of the Renaissance is humanism, religion, and society from the 14th to the 16th century. There will be substantial assignments in prominent humanist authors such as Boccaccio, Valla, More, Machiavellie, Erasmus, Rabelais, and Montaigne. Luther, Calvin, and Loyola are possibilities. There will be a textbook to provide continuity and at least two weeks' assignments in readings that are not by or about major intellectual figures. Students will be graded on participation in weekly discussion; three short essays on the assigned reading; and one longer synthetic experience (10-12 pages). Cost:2 (Tentler)

Section 004 Jewish Responses to Antisemitism. The theme for this colloquium is how Jews in Europe and the United States responded to social and political antisemitism in the period between mid-nineteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries. Students will be introduced to a broad spectrum of individual and collective responses, including radical assimilation, "passing," self-hatred, conversion, emigration, anti-defamation activities, cultural nationalism, political nationalism, and revolutionary socialism. The course will consider the relationship between Jews' understandings of antisemitism and their responses and between these responses and the larger political and social contexts in which they took place. Prerequisite: a survey course in modern Europe or modern Jewish history. Cost:3 WL:3 (Endelman)

Section 005 Abacus and Sword, Japan 1600-1868. Samurai constituted the ruling class in early modern Japan and the samurai ethic of loyalty and devotion to duty dominated societal values. Officially relegated to the bottom of society, merchants ended up controlling much of its wealth. Their emphasis on trust and accountability made modern banking possible. The interaction between these two groups and the values that sustained them provides much of the dynamism in this society, but it does not tell the entire story. For a more complete picture we will examine the peasant class, its values and beliefs and consider the plight of underprivileged women and minorities. Play was important and so was protest. Students' responsibilities include participation in discussion, three short papers answering questions based on the reading, and a ten-page term paper. There are no prerequisites. Cost:3 WL:2 (Walthall)

409(431). Byzantine Empire, 867-1453. (3). (Excl).

A survey taking the Byzantine Empire from the accession of the Macedonians till the Empire's fall to the Ottomans. The course focuses on both internal political history and foreign affairs (relations with the West; the great Church split between Rome and Constantinople; relations with Crusaders and with Slavic neighbors - Russians, Bulgarians, and Serbs, relations with the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks). The main texts are: Ostrogorsky's History of the Byzantine State, and Jenkins' Byzantium: The Imperial Centuries; and for the final two centuries, Nichol's The Last Centuries of Byzantium. Flexible requirements: Besides the final examination, various options exist: (1) a short paper and hour exam; (2) a longer paper and no hour exam. (J. Fine)

414/MARC 428. Northern Renaissance and Reformation. (3). (Excl).

The intellectual history of Europe from the late middle ages to the Counter Reformation, with special emphasis on religious thought, social criticism, and political theory in their institutional, political, and cultural contexts. Some secondary readings will provide background, but most of the assignments will be primary sources. Interpretation of primary sources is the principal focus of the course. The readings will cover a range of authors and literature. Examples are scholasticism (Thomas Aquinas), Italian humanism (Lorenzo Valla), northern humanism (Erasmus, Thomas More), Protestant Reformation (Luther, Calvin), Catholic Reformation (Loyola, Montaigne). There will be three short essays on the assigned reading; a midterm; and a final. Students will be expected to participate in weekly discussions. Cost:2 (Tentler)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (3). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French revolution to the 1920s, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure of the role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write two 10-page papers on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a take-home final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course can make use of previous college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).
A history of the Soviet Union from 1917 through 1991.
The course will emphasize developments, continuities and transformations in elite, popular, and administrative cultures, in economic and social organization, and in politics. We will explore different interpretations of the Soviet project, including perspectives on class, gender, imperial and national politics, and political demography. Students will read and interpret political documents, fiction, journalism, and historical scholarship. Requirements: active participation in discussion sections, attendance at two lectures per week, one paper, and two take-home examinations (midterm and final). Cost:3 WL:1 (Burbank)

448/CAAS 448. Africa Since 1850. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to provide students with little or no background knowledge with an overview of the major periods and themes of colonial and post-colonial Africa. It meets once a week for three hours, and will include lectures, discussion of readings, and films. Some of the themes of the course are: continuities between the precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial eras; the partial and contested nature of colonial control; stratification within African communities; and the evolution of notions of ethnic identity within particular social and political contexts. Primary documents as well as fictional works provide opportunities for historical interpretation and complement the more standard secondary readings. There will be no tests, but students are expected to participate actively in class and write three papers. (Lindsay)

449. Topics in Middle Eastern History. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Economic History of the Middle East Since 1800.
This course will examine selected topics in the economic and social history of the Middle East and North Africa from 1800 until World War II. It will be organized thematically. Topics to be covered include European economic expansion, economic and social consequences of the nineteenth century reforms, peasants and agrarian change, emergence of new urban groups, changing roles of women, the impact of the Great Depression, the beginnings of industrialization, and new forms of labor organization. The basic requirements are one midterm examination and one term paper. (Pamuk)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (3). (Excl).

The major theme of this course is "emancipation" of Southeast Asia, a historical confrontation between the societies of the region and the imagined global community of "developed" nations. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, and the Philippines). Lectures and reading assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and a term paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mr·zek)

463. The Origins of the American Civil War, 1830-1860. (3). (SS).

This course attempts to understand the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of the ante-bellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It culminates with an exploration of the sense in which the intellectual, social, religious, and economic conflicts in America came to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. There will be a midterm exam, a research paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. Enrollment will be limited to forty students, in order to facilitate class discussion. Cost:4 WL:4 (Thornton)

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; the 1980s and the Reagan presidency; and the presidencies of Bush and Clinton. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Cost:3 WL:4, a student may also visit the faculty office to see about getting on a Waitlist into the course. (S. Fine)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is chronological and thematic. A temporal narrative will be organized around these themes: (1) state formation, including forms of political rule and the construction of collective identities at local, national, and continental levels; (2) elite and popular relations, including cases of rebellion, revolution, and state repression; and (3) forms of capitalist development and transformations in class relations, ideologies of economic development, and center-periphery linkages. The discussion of individual countries and of specific topics will be intertwined throughout the course. Classes will combine lecture and discussions. Students are required to read the assigned materials BEFORE each class and are encouraged to participate in class discussions. Written work will involve a short essay, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. Readings will include relevant sections from a textbook, and articles, monographs, novels, short stories, newspapers and films, some of which will be selected in response to class discussion and students' interests. (Coronil)

478. Topics in Latin American History. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Genealogies of the State.
This course will examine transformations in the evolution of the state in Latin America under three rubrics: colonialism, neocolonialism, and postcolonialism. We will first discuss general theoretical approaches to the state, and then will examine specific monographs and articles under each of these rubrics. Since classes are based onthe collective discussions of texts, students are expected to read the materials before each class. Students will be required to lead some of the discussions and to write a combination of short papers or/and a longer paper. (Coronil)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 101 or 102. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 491. (Levenstein)

A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

537/APTIS 463. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

See APTIS 463. (Walker)

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (3). (HU).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: (1) the concept and structure of empire; (2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; (3) society, cities, and literature; (4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; and (5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. Cost:4 WL:1 (Chang)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, and a multitude of recent business developments and trends. Cost:1 WL:3 (Lewis)

577. History of Brazil. (3). (Excl).

This course will provide a broad outline of Brazil's social, cultural, and political history from the arrival of European traders in the sixteenth century to contemporary society in the 1990s. Topics will include indigenous societies and responses to European invasion; slavery and the formation of a multi-ethnic society, stratified by class and race; gender roles and the development of family-based political organization and survival strategies; and processes of social and economic change in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Evaluation based on a take-home midterm and final examination and a final paper. Cost:4 WL:4 (Caulfield)

591. Topics in European History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 Science and Society: History of Science from Plato to Newton. In this course we will examine antique, medieval, and early modern theories about the nature of the universe. We will explore the manner in which science was closely intertwined to particular regimes of political power, social organization, and religious ideology. Through the examination of classic works on astronomy, astrology, physics, magic, biology and geography, we will try to understand the ways in which our knowledge concerning the order of the cosmos developed in close conjunction with political, social, and moral life, not outside of it. (Wintroub)

Section 002 Political Culture and National Identity in Germany. For Winter Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with German 449.001. (Thaa)

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