Romance Languages and Literatures

French, Italian, and Spanish Placement Tests

If you are planning to take an elementary French, Italian, or Spanish class and you are a new student, freshman or transfer student, or you have not yet begun the elementary language sequence on the Ann Arbor campus, you must take the placement test in order to register for the correct course. You must register for the class into which you have been placed.

If you have registered for a class prior to taking the test, you will still be required to take the test in order to verify that you are in the appropriate level class.

If you have already taken French, Italian, or Spanish 101-232 on the Ann Arbor campus, or if you have already taken the placement test once, you are not eligible to take the test again. For questions regarding the LS&A language requirement, please see a general academic advisor or call POINT-10 (764-6810).

Please Note: With the reduction in the number of classrooms throughout LS&A, departments must limit the number of classes offered between 10 am and 4 pm. There will be more classes open before 10 am and after 4 pm. Please take advantage of the opportunity to register for these classes and avoid the "Lottery" (see 2b below).

Instructions for students requesting overrides for French or Spanish 101, 103, 231, or 232.

1. Try to find a section that will fit into your schedule, since the Department cannot guarantee every student a space in a section of his/her own choice.

However, do not register for a class that you cannot attend. You will not be eligible to override into the section of your choice if you are registered for any section of 101-232, even if you cannot attend that section.

2. As it states in the Time Schedule any registered student who misses one of the first four class meetings will be dropped from the course, thereby leaving some open spaces for those students who have been closed out.

If there is absolutely no section open which will fit your schedule, you should follow this procedure:

(a) Start attending the section you would like to get into on the first day of class. You will receive a Proof of Attendance form which must be signed by your instructor every day. You must attend a class every day, but it does not need to be the same section. All students must take action through T-T Registration to make sure their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are taking.

(b) On January 15 at 7:00 p.m., there will be a meeting in the basement of the MLB, rooms to be announced later, for each of the above courses. At these meetings, students will be assigned to remaining vacated spaces in the most fair and equitable manner possible, using a lottery system. At no time, however, will any class be allowed to exceed 25 students. Students must bring their printout of classes and the Proof of Attendance form to the meeting!

3. Please note that you will not be allowed to change sections at the French meetings. Beginning Wednesday, September 11, Elementary French Language Supervisors will hear requests for section changes and fill those requests to whatever degree is possible.

4. Please ensure when adding with the override that you also add modifiers for pass/fail, etc.


Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Students with any prior study of French must take the Placement Test. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (LR).

The sequence of French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar, vocabulary, and culture which are needed in everyday life to understand French spoken at a moderate speed and to be understood by sympathetic native speakers. Vocabulary and structures are practiced in class primarily through communicative activities stressing listening and speaking. Authentic documents are used to develop reading skills and culture. Cultural awareness and listening skills are further developed through listening and video materials. Classes meet four hours per week in sections of 20-25 students. Daily homework assignments involve studying vocabulary and grammar, writing exercises or short compositions, and practice in listening comprehension. There are several quizzes and tests, as well as midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Class participation is graded. Cost:3 WL:See statement above.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. (4). (LR).

See French 101. French 102 is the continuation of French 101. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H. Neu for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

French 103 is a course for students with some prior language study in French, and covers the same material presented in French 101/102. Entrance into the course is by placement or with the permission of the course coordinator. Because students are expected to be already familiar with some of the material, the course moves at a rapid pace, and students will need to plan on spending at least 8-10 hours each week preparing daily lessons. The objectives and methods of instruction are similar to those of French 101/102. Frequent quizzes (with both oral and written components) are administered to check students' assimilation of material. There are two hourly exams, a final and speaking tests. By the end of the course, students will have a good working vocabulary and strong listening comprehension skills; they should be able to express themselves in French (both in writing and orally) using most of the basic structural patterns in the language.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

Students whose last French course was NOT at UM-Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French grammar structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and literary excerpts. Both courses include the use of French movies and video. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversation on such topics. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises, and laboratory work, both audio and video. There are comprehensive course-wide tests, compositions, and final examinations.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

In French 232, students will continue learning and reviewing vocabulary and grammar from the second half of the book Ensuite. There will be short weekly readings (advertisements, literary excerpts, and short stories). Throughout the term, students will listen to French songs, see several videos (from French television) as well as two French movies. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Since communicative skills are emphasized, daily, regular attendance and active participation are essential. There will be three course-wide tests, compositions, and a final examination.

Courses Taught in English (without language prerequisite)

342. French and Francophone Film Taught in English. Taught in English. A knowledge of French is not required. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The French New Wave.
This course is an in-depth exploration of the development and evolution of the French New Wave. We will concentrate on the history of the New Wave in France from the 1950s through the 1970s by the close study of the styles of individual filmmakers, the "film movement" as perceived by critics, and the New Wave's contribution to international film culture. The primary emphasis will be the stylistic, sociopolitical, and cultural dimensions of the New Wave, and the filmmakers and critics most closely associated with the movement. These include Chabrol, Godard, Truffaut, Rivette, Resnais, Rohmer, Varda. This course satisfies the National Cinema elective for concentrators in the Program in Film and Video Studies. This course will be taught in English. One essay, a midterm, and a final. (Yervasi)

Cultural and Literary Studies

270. French and Francophone Literature and Culture. French 232. (4). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.
Sections 001 and 003.
This course will focus on specific countries of French speaking. Through a series of readings and other cultural productions drawn from specific areas of Francophone world, we will attempt to clarify how discourse on culture operates to both reflect and constitute social relations. Our aim will not be simply to familiarize ourselves with various cultural representations, but more importantly, to situate ourselves within the founding problematic of representation in those forms. Given that race, class, gender, and ethnicity factor so decisively in the post-colonial study of culture, our examples should pressure the effort to rethink the social and cultural representations and productions along discursive lines in a decisive and instructive manner.

Section 002 Disease and Community. This course will study how various concepts of health and disease have been used throughout French literary, social, and political history. What is normal and what is deviant? What are the links between medical science and literature? How was medicine used to define race and sexuality? If disease can be used as exclusion, can it also be used in a positive way? What is the AIDS crisis telling us about French society? Oral presentations and short papers. Readings: Montaigne, "D'un enfant monstrueux"; Chateaubriand, RenÈ; Zola, ThÈrËse Raquin; Maupassant, "Le Horla"; excerpts from Drumont, La France juive, and BarrËs on "the Orient"; Gide, L'Immoraliste; and Alain Emmanuel Dreuilhe, Corps-¦-corps: journal de sida. Film: La bÍte humaine. (Caron)

274. French and Francophone Societies and Culture. French 232. (4). (HU).
Section 001 Small Change: Childhood Narratives and the Politics of Learning French.
The purpose of this course is twofold, to introduce student to French and Francophone societies and cultures and to allow students to develop their reading, writing, and speaking skills in French, skills they will need in more advanced courses in French and Francophone studies. We shall concentrate on French and Francophone childhood narratives (to be distinguished from literature written for children) in both novels and film and consider what these childhood narratives teach us about their cultural context and, especially, about the role (political, social, economic) of teaching and learning French in France and the French colonies (during the colonial period). We shall read several Francophone novels and view French and Francophone films, and study the representation of historical events through childhood narratives. Students will have the opportunity to think about how their own experiences of learning French might relate to the narratives they have studied. The objectives of the course will be to envision ways of learning French that empower students rather than alienate them. (Hayes)

365. African Studies (Sub-Saharan). French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Representing the Family in Francophone African Literature and Cinema.
This course aims to pinpoint and to acquaint students with the impact of French language and culture on French-speaking Africa in general, and on French African literature and cinema in particular. Questions developed in narratives of family representations will be addressed and an attempt will be made to map out the cultural production generated by families studied. Participation in class discussions will be required. Required work: three short papers (4-5 pages) and an oral presentation. This course is taught in French. (Ekotto)

367/368/369 Introduction to French Literature.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

368(388). Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course will focus on a representative work of five of the most important writers of the period in question, namely, Voltaire, Constant, Balzac, Baudelaire, and Musset. Emphasis will be placed on the literary and thematic aspects of the works read, together with appropriate consideration of their historical, political, and cultural context. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write four papers in French (three or four pages in length) during the course of the term. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression, and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. Regular attendance is required. The course will be conducted in French. (Gray)

369(389). Literature, History, and Culture of Modernity. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Urbanism and Modernity.
In this course we will explore the effects of urbanism on French culture of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The modern transformation of the city which began in the middle of the past century has re-mapped not only people's ways of living, but also their ways of experiencing the world and themselves. Urbanism has also had a considerable effect on the development of modern literary movements and aesthetic attitudes. We will examine the complex interaction between urbanism and culture by focusing on literary works (Baudelaire, Zola, Verne, Apollinaire, Aragon, Colette, CÈline) and artistic movements, such as Impressionism and Surrealism. Examples will also be drawn from fashion journals of the time, photography, architecture, and film. Our approach to the urban imagery will be informed by recent theories of culture (Barthes, Deleuze and Guattari, Baudrillard, Jameson, James Clifford). Students will be encouraged to explore the problematics of the contemporary city, as it appears in fiction or other media (painting, architecture, film). Class discussion will be carried on in French, and occasionally in English. Grading will be based on participation in class and one or two essays defined by the students' interests. (Clej)

372(440). Film and Cinema Studies. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 French Society and Film.
In this course on the interrelations of film and society, we will focus on French cinema produced from the mid-1950s through the end of the 1960s (approximately, the Algerian War of Independence through May 1968). This course will emphasize the important film movements from this era, including the French New Wave and its legacy. Although this course will emphasize the stylistic and cultural dimensions of the New Wave and French politics, it will also focus on film critics' debates around film and politics in France and abroad. Through the close study of the styles of individual filmmakers Chabrol, Godard, Truffaut, Rivette, Resnais, Rohmer, Varda and critics' perceptions of the "film movement," we will draw conclusions about the relationship of new film movements to the French filmmaking establishment and to youth and national institutions as well. This course will be taught in French. (Yervasi)

374(430). Problems in Society and Social Theory. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
Section 001 Issues in Race and Cultural Diversity in the Francophone World.
In this course we shall study cultural production and social issues related to race, racism, and ethnicity in French-speaking societies. At one level of presentation we shall discuss how discourses on race function within the general ideological state apparatuses that reproduce a given social order. At another level we shall analyze how discourses on race, racism, ethnicity, gender, and social class are inscribed in the texts and films selected for the course. We shall also examine the implications of cultural diversity in different parts of the Francophone world. Selected examples of specific texts and films will be used to put in context our examination of these issues. Class participation; one oral presentation; three papers (approximately 4-5 pages each) will be required. (Ekotto)

450(460). Special Studies. Three courses in French numbered 300 or above. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 A Nation within a Nation: QuÈbÈcois Literature, Culture, and Identity.
After French-speaking Canada was conquered by England in 1763, former French subjects became subjects of the British throne. In spite of Anglo-Canadian efforts to assimilate their French-speaking compatriots (or the exodus that the British forced on Acadians), QuÈbec and other French-speaking regions have maintained an identity and culture distinguished from those who, in time, became the majority. In time, QuÈbÈcois identity has distinguished itself just as strongly from European French culture. Yet in spite of an armed rebellion in the 1830s, the Silent Revolution, the "terrorist" acts of the FLQ (Front de LibÈration du QuÈbec), and two referenda on the separation of QuÈbec (both of which narrowly failed to pass), with a strong sense of a unique national identity yet without a sovereign state, QuÈbec remains a nation within a nation. (Hayes)

463(453). Literature of the Seventeenth Century. Three courses in French numbered 300 or above. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The French Classical Theater.
The history of dramatic literature numbers four great creative periods: the fifth century BC in Greece, the Elizabethan age in England, the Golden Age in Spain, and the 17th century in France. This had the particular distinction of establishing in both tragedy and comedy a tradition which was to determine the subsequent development of European drama. This course will focus on the works of the three most important and seminal dramatists of the time: the tragedies of Corneille and Racine and the comedies of MoliËre, first of all as literary texts, but also in relation to the social and political context of 17th-century France. Grades will be based on class participation (regular attendance is required), and on three papers (5-8 pages each) on assigned topics. The course will be conducted in French. (Gray)

Other Language Courses

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of French 111-112 does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward midterm, students select several articles of a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 25 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

235(361). Advanced Practice in French. French 232 or equivalent. May not be included in a concentration plan in French. (3). (Excl).

In this course we will be dealing with some of the issues and problems facing today's French/Francophone society (unemployment, immigration, education system, the familial structure, young people and AIDS, racial and sexist prejudices, etc.) through readings (press and textbook articles) and videos (documentaries, news programs, exposÈs and film.) This "cultural" approach will offer us a jumping-off point for oral and written communication (respectively 60% and 40% of the final grade). Four individual oral presentations, three medium-length essays, active class participation, and regular attendance are expected in a course which will be conducted in French.

333(363). French Phonetics. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (Excl).

This course, conducted in French, is designed to introduce basic concepts in phonetic theory and to help students improve their pronunciation of French through (1) study of the physical characteristics of individual sounds, the relationship between sounds and their written representations, the rules governing pronunciation of "standard" French, and (2) intensive oral practice in the production of French consonants and vowels, syllabification, intonation, liaison, and deletion/retention of the "mute E." During the first week, students will record a speech sample and will be informed of problem areas to work on independently using audio tapes. Homework for each class consists of reading theory, writing phonetic transcriptions using the International Phonetic Alphabet, and oral practice with tapes. Participation, 1-2 oral quizzes, and the final oral exam will evaluate proficiency in pronunciation. Written homework, quizzes, a midterm, and a final written exam will evaluate ability to use the phonetic alphabet and knowledge of basic theory. This is NOT a conversation class. Prerequisite: prior completion of two courses taught in French beyond French 232 or RC French 290, or permission of instructor. (Neu)

335(371). Composition and Stylistics. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299. (3). (Excl).

This is a practical course in writing French. Students will analyze and imitate a variety of short samples of French writing representing a wide range of uses of the written language. We will work on ways to use and not to use dictionaries as aids to writing, and will review and clarify some points of advanced grammar as needed. Students will write regular short compositions, rewriting some of them, and will choose and complete one major writing project in an area of their choice. (Paulson)

370/RC Core 370. Advanced Proficiency in French. French 235 or RC Core 320. (3). (Excl).

See RC Core 370. (Butler-Borruat)


Courses in Italian (Division 399)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (LR).

This course is task- and content-based and incorporates grammar in a functional use of language through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Vocabulary and structures are practiced in class through communicative activities. Cultural awareness and listening skills are further developed through audio-visual materials. Evaluation criteria include: regular attendance, oral participation, in-class work, homework assignments, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101. (4). (LR).

This course continues the presentation of essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. It is task- and content-based and incorporates grammar in a functional use of language through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language use is encouraged through variety of communicative activities. Instructional methods include authentic readings in Italian (short articles from newspapers and magazines) and audio-visual materials. Grading is based on regular attendance, oral participation, in class-work, homework assignments, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Italian 111. (4). (Excl).

Italian 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a thorough reading knowledge of the language. Advanced reading of critical materials in the student's field of specialization, designed to teach translating skills. All of the basic grammar of the languageis covered and reading of both fictional and critical materials is required. Open to graduates, and undergraduates and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Italian 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirements for the doctorate. Italian 111 and 112 may not be used to satisfy the LS&A foreign language requirement. Italian 112 is a continuation of Italian 111 and open ONLY to students who have completed Italian 111. Class and Tutorial.

206. Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102. Italian 206 may be elected prior to Italian 205. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Italian 206 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is designed for students who have had at least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading materials from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short stories, etc.) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Classes will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading in on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in the classroom activities.

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar, gives student an insight into standard modern Italian through the reading of articles, short stories, and literary excerpts, and increases student facility in speaking and writing Italian. Content-based themes further develop the student's cultural awareness and encourage him/her to formulate opinions on issues of interest. Communicative skills are emphasized through class discussions and oral reports, based on readings or current events. Compositions are required. Audio-visual materials are incorporated. Grading is based on regular attendance, class participation, oral reports, compositions, homework assignments, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (LR).

This course aims at a further development of each student's speaking, reading, and writing knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a continuing review of grammar within the functional use of language. Various genres of literature and journalistic prose are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral presentations on contemporary issues are also required. Grading is based on regular attendance, class participation, oral presentations, short papers, home assignments, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

Courses Taught in English Translation (without language prerequisites)

315(380). Italian Cinema and Society Since 1945. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

This course, taught in English, traces the historical development of Italian cinema from the postwar advent of neorealism to the mid 1980s. The course has several aims: to understand the political, economic, and cultural contexts which generated and supported neorealist movement; to explore and analyze the theoretical bases of neorealism and its reception, both friendly and hostile, in Italian intellectual/political circles; to examine various aspects of the movement beyond neorealism proper in films of the 1950s and 1960s by Fellini, Visconti, Olmi, Bertolucci, and Bellocchio; and to expose the rethinking and reevaluation of the neorealist aesthetic as carried out by Scola, the Taviani Brothers, Nichetti, and Salvatores in the 1970s and 1980s. The course requirements, beyond class participation, will be three 6-8 page papers. A knowledge of Italian is useful, but is not required. (Frisch)

325(420). Italian Novels and Films. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2-3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

This course will focus on the relation between literary and cinematic versions of modern stories: Giovanni Verga's The House by the Medlar Tree (and Luchino Visconti's film La terra trema), Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa's The Leopard (and Visconti's Il Gattopardo), Mario Puzo's The Godfather (and Francis Ford Coppola's Godfather trilogy), and N. Pileggi's Wiseguy (and M. Scorsese's Goodfellas ). There will also be several more recent films to be viewed, all regarding Italian and American contemporary culture and depictions of organized crime. In each case, the rapport between literature and film will be examined with an eye to the central area of representation, which is to say to the image of Southern Italy in relation to the rest of Italy and eventually to the United States. There will be two short papers and a final exam. Class meetings will be conducted in English, with readings either in English or in Italian depending on the background of the students. (Lucente)

433/MARC 439. Dante's Divine Comedy. A knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

Open to concentrators and non-concentrators alike, this course is devoted to a reading of what is undeniably one of the richest and most resonant creations of Western literature, Dante's Divine Comedy. An exile from his native Florence, Dante levies an intense critique of the society of thirteenth century Italy, in which he was raised, as well as a profound meditation on European culture, broadly conceived, in its merits and its failings. Written at the climax of the Middle Ages, this book attempts to sort out the inevitable clash between a recently rediscovered pagan inheritance, on the one hand, and a modern Christian imperative on the other - salvaging what it can, in terms of science, ethics, poetry, and political thought, from the wreckage of past civilizations as well as from the crisis of its own. The poem's narration of a professed journey through the many layered realms of the afterlife will be read in all its three parts, Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso, in facing-page translation in order to benefit those who know some Italian as well as those who do not. Attention will be paid nonetheless to the language of Dante's poetry, a revolution in its own right, and to his manipulation of his numerous sources of inspiration Virgil, Ovid, Statius, Lucan, the Bible, Augustine and other Church fathers, medieval romantic and lyric literature, scientific and theological treatises, etc. The format of the course will consist of lecture and discussion, and evaluation will be on the basis of two short papers (4-6 pp.), a midterm, and final exam. No prerequisites. (Cornish)

Other Language and Literature Courses

300. Advanced Composition and Conversation. Italian 232 and 235. (3). (Excl).

In this course students will be presented with a variety of authentic written (literary and journalistic), visual, and audio materials designed to stimulate discussion, both oral and written. In addition to group discussion, debates, oral presentation, and role playing, students will practice writing in various formats such as letters, book or film reviews, essays, etc. The goal of this course is to develop the skills necessary for speaking and writing correct, fluent Italian. The course is conducted in Italian. (Habekovic)

374. Topics in Italian Literature. Italian 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Tales from the 'Other Side': The Short Stories of "Scapigliatura."
The years between 1860 and 1880 are a period of crisis of Romantic culture and of the values of post-unitary Italy. They also mark the birth of the literary movement of "Scapigliatura." The term may be interpreted as the translation of the French BohËme and, as such, it immediately conveys a sense of independence from social and literary conventions, an artistically provocative and extravagant behavior. The writers and the intellectuals who contribute to shape this literary experience, in spite of some ambiguous oscillations towards integration and compromise, display a repertoire of transgressive poetic objects: anticlericalism, irreverence against authority, blasphemous parody of the Sacred, and the willingness to experiment with narrative structures and genres. This course will examine a short segment of the "irregular" line in the Italian literary tradition, focusing on the issues of transgression, desecration, and on the fundamental contribution of this movement to the affirmation in Italy of a hyperrealistic and fantastic expressive mode. We shall read and discuss significant texts by the brothers Boito (Arrigo and Camillo); I.U. Tarchetti; R. Zena; L. Gualdo, also making references to the international background that has influenced them (E.T.A. Hoffmann, E.A. Poe, T. Gautier, C. Baudelaire, V. De L'Isle-Adam, etc.). The readings will be in Italian and the course will be conducted in Italian as well. Requirements include oral presentations, midterm exam, an a final paper (8-10 pp.) (Cesaretti)

483. Ariosto and Tasso. Italian 232. (3). (Excl).

This course will be dedicated to a reading of two landmarks of Italian Renaissance literature, Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando furioso and Torquato Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata. Grammar and vocabulary review will be provided as needed in order to meet the demands of reading older poetry, with the goal of strengthening and broadening reading and comprehension skills in Italian. Attention will also be paid to the historical context of the court of Ferrara in two distinct moments of the sixteenth century, to the changing political and cultural landscape of Italy during that time, as well as to contemporary trends in art and literary taste. Evaluation will be based on class participation, progress in reading comprehension, two short essays, and a final exam. Class will be conducted primarily in Italian. (Cornish)


Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101. (4). (LR).

A continuation of Portuguese 101, composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade is based on departmental exams, oral exams, quizzes, written assignments, and daily oral work. (Fedrigo)

232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 231. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Portuguese and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Portuguese-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on exams, designed to assess ability to speak, understand, read, and write Portuguese, plus periodic written work (including compositions) and oral class participation. (Fedrigo)


Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

410/Spanish 410. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 410. (Gallego)

414/Spanish 414. Background of Modern Spanish. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 414. (Dworkin)


Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students must check with the Program Director for any exceptions to the Placement Test level.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (LR).

Course objectives: the first part of an introduction to the Spanish language and culture; task- and content-based approach integrates grammar in a functional use through listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language use encouraged through communicative activities rather than a sequence of linguistic units. Videos, audio cassette and computer materials incorporated. Goals: students completing Spanish 101 understand about different sociocultural norms, can act with awareness of such differences; speak, using memorized phrases and some original language; read short texts of familiar or simple structure for detailed comprehension, less familiar materials for gist and main ideas; write familiar material with considerable accuracy. Work requirements/evaluation criteria: regular attendance essential. Participation in class includes asking and answering questions, initiating discussion, role playing and other situational activities. Grade based on oral participation, homework assignments, in-class work, three exams, and a final written and oral exam.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103. Spanish 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in Spanish 103. (4). (LR).

Course objectives: See Spanish 101. Goals: Students completing Spanish 102 will speak in short spontaneous conversations involving everyday topics, observing basic courtesy requirements; understand gist of one-way communications like radio and television; read for practical information; writer simple correspondence and short compositions on familiar topics, with good control of basic sentence structure. Work requirements/evaluation criteria: See Spanish 101.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. Transfer students elect Spanish 103 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 102. (4). (LR).

Accelerated refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. Course objectives: See Spanish 101. Goals: Student completing Spanish 103 will hear about different sociocultural norms, can act with awareness of such differences; speak in short spontaneous conversations involving everyday topics, observing basic courtesy requirements; understand gist of one-way communication like radio and television; read for practical information; write simple correspondence and short compositions on familiar topics, with good control of basic sentence structure. Work requirements/evaluation criteria: See Spanish 101.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on a series of quizzes and exams designed to assess ability to read, write, and understand Spanish plus periodic written work, and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 112. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, and outlooks, of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on exams, designed to assess ability to speak, understand, read, and write Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions) and oral class participation.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

112. Second Special Reading Course. Spanish 111. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors, and to others by special permission. For graduate students a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate.

Other Language Courses

270(358). Spanish Conversation for Non-Concentrators. Spanish 232 or 233. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Spanish 275(361) or 276(362). A maximum of six credits of Spanish 270, 275, and 276 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

This is a practical Spanish course for non-concentrators interested in the Spanish language and in contemporary Hispanic culture. Texts include journalistic prose as well as journal-formatted videos aimed at increasing students' knowledge of current affairs in Spain and Latin America. Audio tapes will be employed to improve pronunciation, vocabulary, and listening skills. Class format includes group discussions, debates, oral presentations, and role-playing. Attendance and participation will be mandatory and will constitute a large part of the course grade. Grades will also be determined by examination of students' listening and expressive skills. Finally, students will practice writing in various practical formats such as letters, book or movie reviews, etc. These written exercises will form the final component of the course grade.

275(361). Grammar and Composition. Spanish 232 or 233. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 270, 275, and 276 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended to increase the accuracy of students' Spanish and to increase vocabulary and cultural knowledge through readings. The course is centered on a grammar-review text. Students do readings in Spanish, prepare compositions and other exercises, and expand vocabulary. Time is allotted to class discussion of readings and especially to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, and class participation.

276(362). Reading and Composition. Spanish 232 or 233. A maximum of six credits of Spanish 270, 275, and 276 may be counted toward graduation. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended to improve students' ability to read Spanish prose, as well as their skills in conversational and written Spanish. To this end, students will be presented with a variety of written, visual, and audio materials designed to stimulate discussion, both written and oral. Compositions are assigned regularly, and oral presentations by students are required. Classes are conducted exclusively in Spanish. The final grade is based on compositions, exams, and participation in class discussions or presentations.

290(307)/Amer. Cult. 224. Spanish for U.S. Latinos. Basic knowledge of Spanish language or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). This course does not satisfy the language requirement.

This course addresses the particular linguistic needs and interests of students of Hispanic descent and heritage, born and/or educated in the United States, and interested in acquiring a formal and structural knowledge of Spanish, in further expanding vocabulary at the abstract and professional levels, and in developing their skills in formal and professional writing. Sociolinguistic aspects of Spanish in the United States code-switching, linguistic attitudes, bilingualism also will be explored in relation to the politics of cultural identity. Short weekly assignments and exercises emphasizing the differences between oral and written modes of communication and between formal and informal Spanish will be required, along with a midterm and final exam. Readings will include cultural essays, literatures, and scholarly articles. (Cepeda)

410/Rom. Ling. 410. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

This course will offer participants a theoretical foundation in Spanish phonetics and phonology. It includes the study of articulatory phonetics, phological theory, distinctive feature analysis, practice in transcription, lab practice, contrastive analysis of English and Spanish sounds, with special attention to those sounds of Spanish that are most difficult for English speakers to acquire. The grade will be based on a midterm and a final exam, four quizzes, various homework assignments, and a final paper. Course is conducted in Spanish. (Gallego)

414/Rom. Ling. 414. Background of Modern Spanish. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course surveys the historical, social, cultural, and literary background against which the spoken Latin of the Iberian Peninsula evolved into Spanish. The emphasis is on the external rather than the internal history of Spanish. Topics covered include the influence on the development of Spanish of such diverse languages as Basque, Gothic, Arabic, French, Italian, and literary Latin, the role of the Reconquest (Reconquista) in shaping the linguistic map of Spain, and the circumstances leading to the rise of the Castilian dialect as the national standard. Although the course will be taught in English, the ability to read Spanish is essential. The textbook is Rafael Lapesa, Historia de la lengua espaÒola; in addition, graduate students will be required to read the chapters dealing with Spain in Roger Wright, Late Latin and Early Romance. There will be midterm and final exams, and a written report. Prerequisite: Good reading knowledge of Spanish. (Dworkin)

Literature

320. Introduction to the Study of Literature. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (HU).

This course introduces students to narrative fiction, poetry, drama, argumentative essays, and critical literature. It emphasizes the formal aspects of each genre, including appropriate terminology and analytical/ interpretive approaches.

Section 001. In this introduction to the study of literature, specifically literature written in Spanish, we will consider two fundamental methods of literary study and analysis, formalist and extra-textual. We shall examine three of the most commonly-taught literary genres prose fiction, lyric poetry, and drama. In addition, we will study the essay. The discussion of each reading will focus on one or more specific aspects of literary style appropriate to the genre under consideration. The principal text for the course, Aproximaciones al estudio de la literatura hisp·nica, will be supplemented by other readings from the four literary modes. (Pollard)

Section 003. This course focuses on the way texts are constructed to produce meanings or convey messages to readers. Students will become familiar with basic concepts and the terminology used in the analysis of literary texts in Spanish, and will engage in various practices essential to the investigative processes such as bibliographical research (with practical exercises on using the MLA International Bibliography, HAPI, First Search, and Expanded Academic Index to find articles and previous criticism), and will learn the norms used in writing academic essays. Students will also become familiar with the development of major literary movements in Spain and Latin America throughout time. In this course, three short papers (5-7 pp.) will be required: one devoted to narrative, one to poetry, one to theater, making use of the research tools and conceptual frameworks necessary to produce reasoned, analytical studies of particular texts in Hispanic literature. Textbook: Virgillo, Valdivieso and Friedman, Aproximaciones al estudio de la literatura hisp·nica. Additional Readings: Wayne Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction, (selection); Walter Achtert, The MLA Style Manual; Raman Selden, A Reader's Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory, (selection); Hensley Woodbridge, Guide to Reference Works for the Study of Spanish Language and Literature and Spanish American Literature. (Herrero-Olaizola)

332. Short Narrative in Latin America/Spain. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (HU).

This course introduces students to the genre of narrative, as practiced in various Hispanic cultures. Through readings of short stories and novellas, students will examine the functions of narrative in human cultures: What is the role of narrative in structuring cultural belief systems? How can we explain the paradox that narrative imposes orderly designs upon experience, and yet may also challenge those very designs, opening new possibilities for thought and imagination? Such a course also lends itself to specific thematic focuses in given terms. (Camarero)

341(376). Introduction to Latin American Cultures. Spanish 275 and 276. (3). (Excl).

This course offers a reflection on contemporary Latin America by examining historical, political, social, artistic, and literary aspects of the Americas from pre-Columbian times up to the celebrations of the Quinto Centenario (1492-1992). Students will write a journal in Spanish (2-3 pages per week) following discussions in class on a variety of topics Defining the Americas, Latinos in the U.S., Artistic and Political Revolutions in Latin America, Revising the Conquest and Colonization of the Americas, The Value(s) of Testimonial Accounts in Latin America which will be illustrated through films, documentaries, TV shows, music, art, as well as historical and literary texts. Grading: participation (20%), journal (30%), midterm essay (25%), and final essay (25%). Required Readings: Bradford E. Burns, Latin America: A Concise Interpretive History (6th ed.) [selection], Carlos Fuentes, El espejo enterrado; Sandra Cisneros, La casa en Mango Street.. Additional Readings (reserves): CristÛbal ColÛn, "Carta a Luis de Santangel"; Holliday Day and Hollister Sturges, Art of the Fantastic: Latin America 1920-1987; Laura Esquivel, Como Agua para Chocolate; CÈsar Fern·ndez Moreno, AmÈrica Latina en su literatura; Rigoberta Mench, Me llamo Rigoberta Mench (selection); Leopoldo Zea, AmÈrica Latina en sus ideas (selection); Louis Werner, "Verdad y ficciÛn de una travesÌa milagrosa de Cabeza de Vaca"; Alison Wylie, "Rethinking the Quincentennial." Films: Cabeza de Vaca, El Norte, La muerte de un burÛcrata, Camila. Documentaries / TV: El espejo enterrado, Frida Kahlo, Columbus didn't discover us, Cristina, Broken Silence, Fire in the Mind, Frescoes of Diego Rivera, The Gringo in MaÒanaland, [[questiondown]]QuÈ pasa U.S.A? Music: Los Panchos, Silvio RodrÌguez, Celia Cruz/T. Puente, El Vez, Salsa (Video). (Herrero-Olaizola)

382. Survey of Latin American Literature, II. Spanish 275 and 276, and one additional 300-level course. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to the main currents of Latin American Postcolonial Literatures from the early Nineteenth Century to the present through the study of their major figures. It will cover several literary genres with an emphasis on the relationship between literature, culture, and society. The main topic will be the roles that literature has played in the formation of Latin American nation-states and their respective "national cultures." Evaluation will be based on class participation, reaction papers, a midterm exam, and a final essay. (Zevallos-Aguilar)

437. Introduction to Literature Studies and Criticism. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

What do literary critics do? How is studying literature (being part of Literary Studies) different, or not, than reading literature? What makes literature literature? What makes criticism criticism? In this course, we will explore these questions via a series of readings of fiction, literary criticism, and literary theory. Students should emerge from the course with (1) an elementary understanding of the principles defining literary criticism as a practice, and literary studies as the "space" in the American university where that practice takes place; (2) a deepened understanding of the particular shape of the criticism of Latin American literature, including an understanding of the role that criticism plays in shaping what we think of as Latin American literature; and (3) an introductory exposure into the assumptions, habits, feelings, and values of critical thinking. (Col·s)

456. Golden Age. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Spanish Golden Age.
El curso sobre Siglo de oro tiene como objeto que el estudiante descubra las principales corrientes artÌsticas, y los estilos de la literatura de los siglos XVI y XVII, a travÈs de las obras y autores m·s representativos: un fragmento de Antonio de Guevara, la Egloga primera de Garcilaso, Fragmentos de Santa Teresa, dos Odas de Fray Luis de LeÛn, el Cantico Espiritual de San Juan de la Cruz, Lazarillo de Tormes, un Paso de Lope de Rueda, una Novela Ejemplar de Cervantes, una comedia de Tirso de Molina, un SueÒo de Quevedo, y varios sonetos del siglo XVII de GÛngora, de Lope, de Quevedo. Con fragmentos de prosa de mediados del siglo XVII. Los alumnos trabajar·n en equipos de estudio y har·n presentaciones orales sobre esos trabajos. Deben realizar un estudio de investigaciÛn dirigido por la profesora, pues conviene adaptar los mÈtodos de investigaciÛn a cada texto, y a cada estudiante. El profesor dar· a los alumnos una guÌa de comentario literario, que pueda ayudarle a desentraÒar los textos estudiados. Los ex·menes incluir·n un ejercicio de comentario de textos. La evaluaciÛn se har· a partir de las intervenciones individuales y en grupo en la clase; de tres ex·menes, distribuÌdos a lo largo del curso, sobre tres areas: poesÌa, novela, teatro y prosa did·ctica, y del ensayo de investigaciÛn conducido a lo largo de todo el semestre. (LÚpez-Grigera)

467. Literary and Artistic Movements in Modern Spain. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

Spain's encounter with modernity will be the focus of this course, as we examine the radical transformation of its culture from 1880 to 1925. In the literature of that time we will see the cultural effects of the modern experience the accelerated, fragmented experience of the metropolis, the impact of photography and film, the sensations of speed wrought by new modes of transportation, and the demise of the old Spanish Empire. As we examine how literature was effected by the modern experience, we will also consider how literature affected that experience, by defining and shaping the ways that people saw modernity, talked and wrote about it. Readings will include short stories, novels, essays, plays, and poetry by Pardo Baz·n, GaldÛs, Unamuno, Valle-Incl·n, Machado, and JarnÈs. Students should be able to read 30 to 40 pages carefully for each hour of class. Assignments include two papers (6-8 pages each), several short writing assignments, and two exams. Evaluation will be based on written work and class participation. Discussions will be conducted in Spanish. (Highfill)

473. Colonial/Postcolonial Studies in Latin-American Cultures. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Latin-American Literature: 16th-19th Centuries.
This course introduces students to Latin-American Colonial Studies, 1492-1800s. Students will examine historical cartographic, literary, and iconographic texts. Colonial texts will be paired with postcolonial approaches to the colonial period. Topics to be discussed include: the discovery/invention of America; the subjection of Native-American writing systems; knowledge as power in colonization and conquest; discourses of resistance; women in the colonial period; the novel and the emergence of the nation. (Rabasa)

485. Case Studies in Peninsular Spanish and Latin American Literature. Spanish 275 and 276, and three additional 300-level courses. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Latin American and Latino Theatre.
For Winter Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with American Culture 498.003. (Prida)


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