Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for first- and second-year students. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).
This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture and ethnicity, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and globalization. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and perhaps a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1 ,3,4 (Section 001:Peters-Golden; Section 026:Kottak/Caspari)
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272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for first- and second-year students. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).
What place does language have in everyday life? Do people really communicate when they speak to each other? How is language used to reinforce relationships of power, especially along racial, gender, and class lines? How do languages change, and how does change reflect the structure of society? This course is about the nature of language and the ways in which it reflects and informs social life. Topics covered include: (1) How and why languages change; (2) the relationships between speech and social class, race, and gender; (3) the politics of language use in society, including language policy in third-world societies (especially in South America) and the "English-only" movement in the United States; (4) the ways in which language is used to construct social, cultural, and political "realities" and the ways these realities are contested as, for example, in the abortion debate. We will try to answer some of these questions in this course, which is about the nature of language and social life. The course has no prerequisites except curiosity about the interrelationships between language and society. There is a required text, Nancy Bonvillain, Language, culture, and communication, and a supplementary course pack. (Berkley)
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282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).
This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of anthropological archaeology with a general survey of world prehistory. Discussion of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in anthropological archaeology. The survey of world prehistory will focus on four major topics: (1) the emergence in Africa of the first proto-humans, between two and six million years ago; (2) the appearance of the first anatomically and behaviorally "modern" humans; (3) the origins of domesticated plants and animals, and the development of the first village farming communities; and (4) the rise of more complex stratified "state-level" societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be three one-hour lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements: three in-class hourly exams and a final examination, plus 3-4 take-home exercises that give students firsthand experience with the analysis and interpretation of archaeological data. Required readings: Archaeology, by David Hurst Thomas, and Images of the Past, by G. Feinman and D. Price. Cost:3 WL:2 (Sinopoli)
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285. Cult Archaeology. (4). (SS).
Cult archaeology examines claims in the press and on television that cultural achievements by American Indian people are a consequence of contact with superior beings. The examples will be drawn from the prehistory and contact periods in the New World and the approach will be a case study using critical thinking as an analytical method. Claims of contact with beings from outer space, diffusion of ideas and methods across the Pacific, and pre-Columbian appearance of Europeans and Africans will be examined. The subjects discussed include art, architecture, agriculture, social change, and cultural evolution. The goal is for students to learn critical thinking, to understand professional ethics, to appreciate cultural racism and the harm that it does, and to analyze popular beliefs in an imperfect knowledge arena. The course format is lecture and discussion sections. Evaluations are based on section exercises, two exams, and participation. The texts are Williams, Fantastic Archaeology; Feder, Myths and Frauds; and a course pack. Slides, videos, and museum specimens supplement the course. Cost:2 WL:4 (Ford)
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Ethnology-Regional Courses

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).
Following a survey of the peoples and cultures of South Asia - which will include the Indian sub-continent and Sri Lanka - the course will focus on six culturally salient phenomena: person, family, caste, religion, language, and ethnicity. A course pack in addition to several monographs will constitute the required reading for the course. A paper, a midterm, and a final examination will be required of all students. The course will be structured on a lecture-seminar format. Cost:3 WL:4
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409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).
This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, with the emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant, and urban. In the course, some cultural themes are addressed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women, and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context, and some emphasis will be placed on the rapid expansion of urbanization and emerging forms of social organization and idioms of identity in the contemporary urban context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from earlier as well as recent anthropological sources. (Fahy)
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411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to and familiarize them with the nature and dynamics of the unity and diversity of pre-colonial sub-Saharan African cultures and societies. The focus is on INSTITUTIONAL characteristics. Topics covered include: ecology and environment; the distribution of races and peoples; economic institutions; kinship and marriage; political and legal institutions; religious, magical, and witchcraft beliefs and practices; music/dance and the arts. Grades are based on four take-home papers and contributions to class discussions. Films and videos. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)
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330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).
This course is offered as an intensive upper-division introduction to cultural anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction to cultural analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. Concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels are welcome. There are no prerequisites. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construct "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics. The goals of this course are: (1) to facilitate reading of scholarly books and articles in cultural psychology, cultural semantics, intercultural communication, and the like; (2) to learn to write clear and effective essays in these genres; and (3) to learn to think cultural analysis routinely. Cost:4 WL:4 (Mueggler)
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447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).
This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of Homo sapiens, and traces the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)
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Ethnology-Topical Courses

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).
This course provides a survey of anthropological approaches to warfare (armed conflict) as practiced by "tribal" societies, drawing on materials from North and South America, Melanesia, and Africa. Through lectures, readings, and class discussion, we will examine (1) the actual practice of war, along with theoretical overviews concerning the interrelationships between warfare and society; (2) evidence and debates concerning war in humanity's distant past and the human "propensity" for war; (3) the links between warfare and ecology, kinship, economy, value systems, and politics; (4) how indigenous warfare was affected by the expansion of states and of capitalism; (5) case studies of contemporary violence in Rwanda, Yugoslavia, and other parts of the world; and (6) peace. (Fleisher)
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356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Anthropology and American Culture.
For Winter Term, 1998, this section is offered jointly with History 397.001. (Trautmann)

Section 002 Gender Consciousness and Oral History. For Winter Term, 1998, this section is offered jointly with Women's Studies 343.001. (Hart)
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357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and junior standing. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Anthropology of Europe.
The course will examine current and past studies, issues, and debates in the potentially vast field of European ethnology. Among our key concerns will be: what are the boundaries of European anthropology and indeed of a concept called "Europe"? How have anthropologists made intellectual decisions in the midst of global and local transformations and given the explosion of cross-cultural interactions in and around the continent? Can we talk about a tradition of European anthropology and any kind of common identity among its practitioners? [Witness the active existence of such organizations as the European Association of Social Anthropologists]. Are European anthropologists necessarily European? Does the region studied have to be formally designated as Europe? What kinds of regional hierarchies exist within the discipline of anthropology itself? Finally, how do recent shifting identities and outbreaks of hate-mongering in parts of Europe, as well as so-called postmodern and postcolonial problems affect anthropological practices in the region? These points will provide some axes for discussion in the seminar. Grades will be based on class attendance and insightful participation, successful completion of readings, a term paper, and several shorter exercises. (Hart)
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438. Urban Anthropology. (3). (Excl).
What characterizes life in an urban society? What are the common features and/or variations between urban societies situated in different cultural and historical contexts? In addressing such questions, this course will be organized around two broad concerns: (1) the anthropology of cities: the main factors shaping the nature of urban life, the historical emergence of urban forms, and different forms of urbanism, and (2) anthropology in cities: examining themes such as social networks, class, gender, idioms of identity, and the status of institutions, with reference to specific ethnographic accounts. Topics will be addressed through lectures and classroom discussion and will be based on the reading of required texts. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams. (Fahy)
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439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).
This course introduces students to economic anthropology and development in rural, village-based, tribal, peasant, urbanizing and industrializing societies and cultures of the Third World: Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Middle East. The FIRST PART reviews the nature of economic anthropology, its scope, objectives, basic concepts, theories, and methods of investigation. It discusses economic anthropology as it relates to conventional/development economics. The SECOND PART examines anthropological (social science) perspectives on development and underdevelopment: progress, modernization, acculturation, socioeconomic growth. The THIRD PART is concerned with specific case studies of problems of Third World development and underdevelopment: rural/urban poverty and inequality; women and development; international migration and globalization; etc. The course CONCLUDES with an overview of global issues in Third World development and underdevelopment in a post-cold war environment. The course is recommended for anthropology concentrators and all students with serious interest in comparative cultures and Third World development and underdevelopment. Lecture/discussion format. Films and videos shown in class when available. Final grades based on three take-home papers and contributions to class discussion. Basic texts: Lucy Mair, Anthropology and Development; and Polly Hill, Development Economics on Trial. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)
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440. Cultural Adaptation. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Cultural Adaptations: Political Ecology, Agriculture, and Deforestation.
This course is a one-term introduction to theory, method, and analysis of relationships among cultural, social, and ecological systems. It is designed to (1) familiarize the student with past approaches to these relationships and (2) to explore new approaches which give explicit attention to historical and political processes, the articulation of cultural images of the environment and human behavior in it, and the encroachment of the capitalist world system on local adaptive systems. These two themes define the difference between an ecological anthropology focused on stable adaptation and one which more dynamically explores contemporary ecological problems. Through lectures, readings, class discussion, and written assignments, we will critically evaluate differing approaches to these issues, examining the socioeconomic aspects of global ecological problems and the ways in which environmental decisions differentially affect different social groups. (Fleisher)
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444. Medical Anthropology. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).
The concepts of "health" and "illness" are culturally constructed. This seminar will examine beliefs about these states of being, and the ways in which they are both products and illustrations of the larger social system in which they are found. Ideas about the social construction of the body, illness causation, therapies and therapists, healing symbols and rituals, and the social roles of patients and healers will be explored. In addition to examining these beliefs and processes cross-culturally, we will also draw upon examples from Western biomedicine among them cancer, AIDS, eating disorders, schizophrenia - to illustrate the powerful ways in which illness and culture are bound together. Discussion will be a key element in the success of the course, and active participation will be expected and encouraged. (Peters-Golden)
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448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).
Religious beliefs and practices are some of the most basic and universal of human activities. Like language, they rank among the oldest of human inventions and may be part of our evolutionary heritage. This lecture course will examine anthropological approaches to the study of religion as well as religious beliefs and practices such as shamanism, revitalization movements, and syncretism in a number of ethnographic and historical contexts. Our point of view will be critical and descriptive in that we will interrogate theoretical orientations such as functionalism, Marxism, etc., as well read a variety of ethnographic and historical accounts. Grades will be based on two essay exams, a two-five page thesis statement, and a research paper presented during the last week of class. Books cost about $75. (Pulis)
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458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Discourses and Society in Mesoamerica.
This course explores hybrid, colonial discourses and their relationship to contemporary Mayan communities. Both the language of native discourse and the representations of culture and society emergent from it display multiple voicings. This is partly because these texts were and are deeply responsive to the bilingual institutional frameworks in which they are produced and received. By reading historical and ethnographic evidence as discursive in this double sense, we will analyze the persistence, reinvention, and manipulation of Mayan cultures and languages. Topics addressed include: Genre, naming and colonial knowledge; the discursive construction of authority; reported speech, archaism, and parallelism; regional identity; narratives of continuity (rupture); and purism in Pan-Mayanism. Readings center upon colonial and postcolonial Yucatan and include other related areas as well. Students will have considerable opportunities for introducing their own perspectives through discussion and class presentations. Evaluation will be based upon participation and a final paper. (Berkley)

Section 002 Anthropology and the Body. The mind cannot be seen or touched. It is subject to an array of social constructions as Freud and Jung demonstrate. Fossil human bones are bereft of life and emotion and allow a hobby-like avoidance. Non-human primates may be a diversion. Where are the anthropological descriptions of diverse human sex acts, death finales, and digestive behaviors (e.g., urination and defecation)? Why has anthropology avoided the "beef," the sex, death and digestion of healthy human bodies, except in Alice in Wonderland in "a simpler place and time?" Anthropologists are Human. They have bodies. What are they hiding under their clothes and beneath the masks? "Come back Sheba": "the real body, nature and place." In medical anthropology the body is ill. In cultural anthropology the body is "largely absent." In biological anthropology the body is silent. "What kind of body does society want?" "What kind of society does the body need?" This course examines sex, death, and digestion; race, age, and gender; and the biophobia hypothesis to grapple with what it means to be human, yesterday, today, and tomorrow. That elusive conception human nature is stared-down. The course ponders new directions in anthropology, new prescriptions health care, earth care, and embodied love to save the species. Its focus is human insecurity as a partial understanding of contemporary and future social problems. Come, have fun, and learn. The course will require two paperbacks, two essay exams, and a series of short presentations. (Williams)

Section 003 Romani Diaspora: "Gypsies" in Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Americas. Rama are mistakenly described as "wanderers," though most settled centuries ago. How is it that when they do travel, their emigrations are depicted as some natural attachment to the "road," rather than as affected by historical and social conditions? Despite demographics of diaspora, Romani social life and discourse are linked to local histories and specific cultural landscapes. At the same time, 20th-century Romani activists, for instance, must negotiate a common identity and a standardized language not merely across dialectal differences, but across state lines, and in the face of majority stereotypes. Through ethnographies, documentaries, language primers, biographical accounts and histories, the course will address the tropes and realities of diaspora, and the language Roma use to talk about them. Because "Gypsies" are increasingly a foil for nationalism, especially in Eastern Europe, recent writing on racial ideologies and on other kinds of diaspora experience will also be included. (Lemon)
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473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics, or literature. (3). (Excl).
How do we listen to the verbal arts of nonwestern peoples without imposing our preconceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship, and textuality? And if we do manage to hear and study these arts in their own "terms," can we translate and represent them without making a caricature of these sources? This course will consider efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels: (1) working our methodologies which allows us to see the poetics in others' arts; (2) critically assessing the methodologies; and (3) exploring theories about differences between oral literatures and written traditions as well as the cultural shaping of literatures. We will also consider what ways this work contributes to reshaping anthropology itself. (Bierwert)
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519(476)/Ling. 517/German 517. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411. (3). (Excl).
See Linguistics 517. (Shevoroshkin)
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572(478)/Ling. 542. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 414 or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).
See Linguistics 542. (Milroy)
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577. Language as Social Action. Anthro. 576. (3). (Excl).
Language is normally understood as a closed, formal system. As such, it is relatively autonomous from culture, social relations, and vectors of power. The purpose of this course is to develop a framework for viewing language as a social, cultural, and political matrix, a form of action through which social relations, cultural forms, ideology, and consciousness are constituted. Topics covered include: Models of language as action; Why language and culture can't be viewed as shared systems of meaning; the sociolinguistic division of labor; the interactional construction of social actors and of reference; meaning and intentionality; cultural inference and presupposition; language and reproduction of ideology; linguistic hegemony; the reproduction of interactional style; linguistic and cultural polyphony; metalanguage, consciousness, and forms of social authority. Class time will be divided between lecture and discussion. It assumes some background in social anthropology or a related discipline and in formal linguistics. Requirements include leading a class discussion, a prospectus for a final paper, and a final paper. (Mannheim)
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382(482). European Prehistory. (3). (Excl).
A broad survey of the archaeology of Europe from the earliest evidence for human occupation to the Roman conquest of Gaul. Major themes include the emergence of human culture during the Ice Age, the introduction of food-producing economies and village life, and the development of complex societies, metallurgy, trade, and warfare. Students will be introduced to painted caves such as Lascaux, Venus figurines and other Paleolithic art, mammoth hunters of the steppe, megalithic tombs, Stonehenge and other henge monuments, the princely tombs of the Early Iron Age, Vercingetorix and the assembly of the tribes of Gaul, and many other phenomena of European prehistory. Lectures will be frequently illustrated with slides and supplemented by selected films. Student evaluation is based on examinations. Cost:1 WL:3 (Whallon)
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386. Early Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).
Section 001 Early Civilizations.
The earliest civilizations in both Eastern and Western hemispheres are the focus of this course. The civilizations of most ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Mexico, and Peru will be emphasized. The course begins with discussions of archaeology of the evolution of complex cultural organizations, of the spread of human populations in the planet's many environments, and the beginnings of our agricultural systems. We then consider the geography, economic and political development, and ideologies of each early civilization, based on archaeology and the evidence of the earliest written texts. No special background is assumed. There are two lectures and one discussion section per week. The textbook is Patterns in Prehistory, by Robert Wenke, Oxford University Press. Accomplishment is evaluated on the basis of two in-class short answer and short essay examinations. A research paper is also an option. Cost:1 WL:4 (Wright)
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387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (Excl).
Students are introduced to the diversity of prehistoric Native American cultures in eastern North America, with an emphasis on those of the Midwest and Southeast. Ten thousand years of accommodations to diverse natural and social environments are covered, starting with the initial peopling of the Americas and ending with early contacts between Europeans and the Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands. Topics of special interest include terminal Pleistocene extinctions, particularly the supposed overkill of megafauna; hunter-gatherer and horticulturalist adaptations to resource-rich riverine settings; agricultural origins, including the independent domestication of several seed-bearing plants; and the development of organizationally complex societies, called chiefdoms, in the Southeast and southern Midwest. (Schroeder)
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407. Archaeology of South Asia. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).
This course examines some of the cultural developments in South Asia over the past 100,000 plus years (with a primary focus on archaeological evidence of the last 10,000 years). Given the vast area of the region (modern Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka and Nepal) the course will be organized around major themes of theoretical interest to contemporary archaeology, and will not seek to cover the entire region comprehensively. Among the topics to be addressed are: the origins of settled life and agricultural economies, the rise of social complexity, the emergence of state societies, and the impact of large and small scale population movements and contact on South Asian prehistory and history. Requirements: two take home essay exams, a research paper (12-15 pp. undergraduates, 25-35 pp. graduate students), and participation in class discussions. Readings: The Archaeology of India, by D.P. Agrawal, selected articles, and site reports. Cost:2 WL:2 (Sinopoli)
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483. Near Eastern Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).
This course traces the evolution of culture and society in Israel, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, from the earliest evidence for humans in the region (over 1,000,000 years ago) until the rise of Mesopotamian civilization (around 2500 B.C.) Topics include the origins of agriculture and animal domestication, the establishment of village and town life, and the rise of cities in the Tigris-Euphrates lowlands. Cost:1 WL:3 (Flannery)
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587/Class. Arch. 531/Hist. of Art. 531. Aegean Art and Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 or 222. (3). (Excl).
See Classical Archaeology 531. (Fotiadis)
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Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 001 Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course is divided into two parts. In the fall term, the students meet once a week in seminar to define research problems in ethnology, to discuss methods appropriate for ethnological investigation, and to present their research projects to the group. By the end of the term, the students will have designed a research project and be well underway in carrying it out. In consultation with the Honors advisor a student may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. In the winter term, each student presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. By the end of the winter term, each student will have completed an Honors thesis. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Mueggler)

Section 002 Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to review the intellectual history of American archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. WL:1 (Ford)
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499. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). A maximum of three credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits
Independent reading and research under the direction of a faculty member. Ordinarily available only to students with background in anthropology.
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