Courses in Biology (Division 328)


100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).
Biology 100 is a one-term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture and one 2-hour discussion session per week. Discussion sections are taught by graduate student instructors and complement the lecture by providing the opportunity to pursue course-related topics in a small group format. This course is intended for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences although it is assumed that students will have taken at least one course in biology at the high school level. Biology 100 offers an introduction to general biological principles including cell biology, genetics, ecology, and evolution. A primary objective of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of scientific processes and their potential use and misuse. Where appropriate, we will explore the social and ethical implications of current biological issues facing contemporary society, including cloning, AIDS, and global warming. Cost:3 WL:1 ; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course. (Long)
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102. Practical Botany. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.
An introduction to plant life: how, why, and where do plants live and evolve; why are they so diverse; how humans use, grow, and depend on them. We will study basic plant structure and function, modes of reproduction, "adaptions", and interactions with humans in a historical and evolutionary context: domestication of crops and its effects on landscape and ecosystems. We will examine the various use of plants, traditional and modern, by different civilizations, and what direction the plant-human interaction is now going (from plant breeding to biotechnology). Two one-hour lectures, one hour discussion, plus one 2-1/2-hour laboratory in Matthaei Botanical Gardens, weekly. Labs include plant propagation and nursery practices for ornamentals, food and forestry species (seeds, vegetative propagation, bulbs, transplanting, pruning), extraction of chemical compounds (dyes, essential oils, medicinal active principles), preserving foods, specimens, and genotypes. Discussions and laboratory ABSOLUTELY REQUIRED; 1-2 term exams and essays, plus one final project. Cost:1 WL:1 (Granzow-de la Cerda)
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108. Introduction to Animal Diversity. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).
The goal of this course is to describe the diversity of animals. Students will learn about the diversity of animal life, accumulate information and experience that will enhance their appreciation of the natural world, and gain background to enable them to better understand current issues concerning biodiversity and conservation. Lectures will be presented by faculty who work with the animals being considered. Topics for each group of animals studied will include a description of diversity, evolutionary background, natural history, and issues concerning conservation or biodiversity. Students will attend three lectures and one discussion section per week. Participants will read and discuss The Diversity of Life by E.O. Wilson. They will also have available an electronic database of images and text that show and describe the organisms treated in lecture. Grades for the course will be based on three midterms, a paper, and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Myers)
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116. Biology of Sex. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (3). (NS).
This course covers basic principles of sexuality across living organisms (e.g., protists, plants, animals) from the point of view of diversity and evolutionary mechanisms. Lectures will be divided roughly into one per week concerning non-human issues of sex, and one specifically concerning the human component in relation to the same or a similar topic. Rather than using a comparative approach to read morals and ethics from non-human behavioural differences, this course seeks to emphasize the similarities in form, function, and behaviour of human sexuality and non-human sexuality so that we are understood as merely a product of the same evolutionary principles and constraints. Most importantly the driving issue of reproductive success will be continually stressed. Topics include: the origins and maintenance of sex, the anatomical diversity of sex, modes of reproduction, the hormonal cocktail and its relation to environmental pollutants, biorhythms and sexual activity, how to attract and choose a mate, and monogamy versus polygamy, all of which will be considered in a broader biological and evolutionary framework. A more detailed outline can be found at http://limnatis.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/BIO116/. Each week will have a multimedia component such as a film (educational) or guest lecture as well as discussion sections. In addition to a mid-course exam and the final exam there will be three take-home projects. In two, students will be asked to critically assess primary research papers from the field of behavioural or evolutionary biology of sex. A variety of papers will be provided and the students may choose from among them. As well, there will be one take-home essay assignment in which students will have to research a topic of their choosing (or provided by the instructor) and write a review of the current understanding in the field. Grading criteria: midterm exam 100pts; critique 50 pts each; essay 100pts; final exam 200pts total 500 pts. WL:1
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124. Cells, Cancer, and Society. Not open to biology concentrators. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 224. (3). (NS). (BS).
This course uses lecture and discussion sections to introduce non-science concentrators to the science of cancer biology, and has no prerequisites. The term will be divided into three basic sections. (1) First we will describe the basic concepts in cell and molecular biology that must be understood before students can comprehend the mechanisms that lead to the development of cancer. (2) Next we will use this information to explain current ideas regarding the causes, prevention, and treatment of cancer. (3) And finally, we will discuss the relevance of this information to social issues such as governmental regulation of environmental cancer-causing agents. Emphasis will be placed on the critical thinking skills that are needed to evaluate the claims that continually appear in the news media regarding the latest "breakthroughs" in cancer research. Students will be evaluated through three examinations and term paper project. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kleinsmith)
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150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152, 154, or 195. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
The purpose of this course is to give students in introductory biology courses the opportunity to engage in small group discussions about some of the important issues that face biologists. Each section of this course will be led by a faculty member, and will have twenty or fewer students. The focus of this course will be on two areas. About two-thirds of the course will be devoted to discussion of biological issues in the news, the history of biological ideas, and ethical issues raised by new discoveries in the biological sciences. About-one third of the course will be devoted to issues specific to students considering a concentration in the biological sciences. Topics to be covered include how to decide between the five different concentrations, how to find a research opportunity and a discussion of careers that are available for concentrators in the biological sciences. Evaluation of students will be through class participation and short written assignments. Cost:1 WL:1
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Section 001 Animal Behavior. This section is an introduction to the social behavior of animals, its development, its evolution, and its role in the biology of these animals in their survival and breeding success, especially in birds and mammals. Importance of animal behavior as it applies to conservation issues is also considered. We shall read two books on animal behavior studies in the wild, and discuss these and news articles on animal behavior and its evolution, and write papers on these readings and discussions. (Payne)
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152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.
First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs, or preprofessional studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are: (1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge; (2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses; (3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology; and (4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics; (c) evolution; and (d) ecology. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule ) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual, and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 or 004 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2 , but go to 1039 Chem.
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153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and admission to the College Honors Program. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).
Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture/lab course. The first part of the course will deal with the nature of science and the scientific method. Science will be viewed as an approach to viewing the universe. Subjects that will be covered are the scientific method, hypothesis testing, the roles of logic, creativity, and serendipity in scientific discoveries. From a more practical point of view, the structure of a scientific paper will be analyzed. The topics covered in the second part of the course will vary depending on the instructor. Topics which may be covered are the genetic code and information theory, the revolution of molecular biology, genetic engineering and its ethical and social implications, the evolution of biochemical pathways, the properties of life and the search for life on other planets, the issue of gender, race, and intelligence. Cost:2 WL:1 (Shappirio)
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154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.
This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) plant biology; (b) development; (c) animal structure and function; and (d) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 or 033 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2 , but go to 1039 Chem.
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195. Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 130. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (6). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required.
Biology 195 is a one-term alternative to the Biology 152-154 sequence. It differs from 152-154 in the accelerated pace of study and emphasis on the laboratory. Students who enroll in the course should be aware of the intense nature of the course and the need for self-discipline and effective writing skills. Biology 195 is divided into four units (Biology of Cells, Genetics and Development, Biology of Organisms, and Biology of Populations). Unit examinations test both factual recall and analytical and integrative abilities. Lectures in Biology 195 reinforce key topics from the reading assignments and laboratory work and provide in-depth perspectives in several subdisciplines of biology. The laboratory, which is central to the course, provides the opportunity to make observations and perform experiments; these are discussed weekly in recitations. The course grade is based on examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and the student's participation in the course. Students are required to purchase the textbook Campbell's Biology (2nd ed.), a course pack, a laboratory kit (at Chem Stores), and a quadrille notebook. For more information concerning the course or registration, call 763-0495. Attend both first lecture and first recitation. DO NOT CRISP INTO A SECTION YOU CANNOT ATTEND. Cost:3 WL:1 (Ikuma)
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201. Introduction to Research in the Life Sciences. Grade of B+ or better in Biology 152 or 154. (1). (Excl).
This course is designed to help students identify potential mentors for independent lab or field research. This course is particularly appropriate for students in Biology 154, 305, 310, or 311 who hope to join the junior/senior Honors program of the Biology Department. Membership in the LS&A freshman-sophomore Honors Program is not required. This course will introduce students to the diversity of research opportunities in the biological sciences that are available on the Michigan campus, by having a variety of scientists who sponsor undergraduate research visit the class. About 2/3 of the visiting scientists will be from the Department of Biology, while the rest will be from the Medical School and the School of Public Health. Students in the class will be evaluated based on two short papers, an oral presentation to the class and on their participation in class discussion. Weekly reading assignments will form the basis of class discussion. This course replaces Biology 155. Cost:1 WL:1
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222. From Message to Mind: An Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS).
An introduction to molecular, cellular, and systems-level neurobiology. Topics include: (1) bioelectricity, (2) intercellular communication, (3) sensory transduction and processing, (4) motor function, (5) the neural basis of learning and selected regulatory behaviors, and (6) development of the brain and sensory systems. Students will be evaluated by exams and participation in discussion. There are three lecture hours per week. (Oakley)
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255. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (5). (NS). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($60) required.
An introductory botany course covering a broad spectrum of topics including principles of plant systematics, evolution, growth, and development. The lectures and laboratories concentrate on a group-by-group treatment of plant diversity, ranging from algae and fungi through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. The approach is an evolutionary perspective, treating plants as organisms and emphasizing the innovations and structural adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. Such topics as pollination biology, plant speciation, and vegetational biomes are included. The course also includes plant growth and structure. Two field trips are scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Text: Raven et al., Biology of Plants, 5th edition. Cost:2 WL:3 (Wynne)
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301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125. (3). (Excl). (BS).
Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. Competence in writing in biology requires critical evaluation of one's work. In order to encourage the development of critical thinking, students critique published work as well as write essays, reviews, and reports. The heart of the course lies in the weekly interaction between staff and student through discussion both in class sections and one-on-one. A weekly lecture provides structure and continuity and allows consideration of other topics such as interviewing and resume writing, ethics in biology, and the nature of science and creativity. Cost:1 WL:1 (Helling)
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304. The Gene Concept. Biol. 152 or 195. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305, and admission to the College Honors Program. (2). (Excl). (BS).
Designed for students who are particularly interest in genetics, including Honors' students, who have taken Biology 305 or who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 305. The students will be exposed to the theoretical basis of genetics in a discussion format. "Classical" articles that contributed to our understanding of gene transmission, structure, and function will be read and discussed with the students. The instructor will provide background for each grouping of articles. Pairs of students will be responsible for leading discussion of assigned articles. Active participation of all students is expected. In addition, time will be set aside for discussion of relevant current topics from the media, ethical considerations, and other issues bearing on the process of genetic research. A term paper on "The Gene Concept" will be required a preliminary draft by the 10th week and a revised draft by the last day of classes. A course pack will need to be purchased. Cost:1 WL:1 (S. Allen)
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305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 310 or 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).
Open to students concentrating in the natural sciences or intending to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biology. This introduction to genetics includes the following sections: DNA and chromosomes; gene transmission in Eukaryotes; linkage and recombination; genes and enzymes, the genetic code, and mutation; recombinant DNA, RFLP mapping, the Human Genome Project; gene regulation, transposons; population genetics; and quantitative genetics. There are three hours of lecture each week and one discussion section directed by GSIs. The discussion sections expand on and review lecture material, and discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on three exams and a final covering lectures, discussions and reading assignments, and a five-page mini-term paper based on journal articles in a course pack. Exams include new problems that test applications of basic concepts and genetic techniques. A practice problem set is available and is covered in discussion sections or the Genetics Study Center. Two demonstrations of living material and genetic tools are given during the term. Films, workshop/review sessions, and the three "hour" exams are given Monday nights. A CSP section is available. Biology 304 (taught by S.L. Allen) is available for those with a special interest in Genetics, including Honors' students. Cost:3 WL:1 (Allen, Clark)
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306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students should have already taken or be concurrently taking Bio 305 Genetics Lecture. Students will analyze gene interaction, linkage relationship, and mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila through a series of crosses. By using molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis, the students will locate certain genes in C. elegans. The experiments in microbial genetics include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, recombination analysis by transduction using bacteria and phage, and complementation tests on "his" mutants of yeast. Students will do karyotyping of human chromosomes by using their own blood cells, or do a personal DNA fingerprinting using a polymorphic locus by PCR analysis. One hour lecture on Mondays 12-1 PM and one three-hour lab are scheduled each week; additional 3-4 hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write two lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are two tests given during the term. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)
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307. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course introduces students to the basic principles of developmental biology. We will emphasize the continuity of developmental processes by examining the temporal sequence of development from the fertilized egg to the adult, and by examining several levels of control from the selective expression of genetic information to the orchestrated generation of complex tissues and organs. We will cover basic developmental events such as production of sperm and eggs, fertilization, development of the early embryo, and genesis of organs. We will cover basic developmental processes such as nucleocytoplasmic interactions, induction, morphogenetic movements, cellular interactions, and morphogenesis. We will also evaluate the experimental basis for our understanding of developmental processes. Grades will be based on several exams and a final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Ellis, Kuwada)
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308. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($45) required.
This course provides students with the opportunity to study first hand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos, specifically sea urchin, amphibian, and chick embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, induction, determination and differentiation of various tissues, metamorphosis, and regeneration. In addition to one hour lecture and one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three additional hours in the laboratory each week. Grades are based on three laboratory tests, a term paper, and lab notebook evaluation. Maintenance of a lab notebook for a complete and accurate record of observations and experimental results is required. There is a required lab manual. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)
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310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).
This lecture-based course is a rigorous introduction to the chemistry of biological systems. The course begins with an exploration of the structure and function of biological macromolecules followed by the study of the metabolic pathways used for their synthesis and degradation. The integration and regulation of metabolic pathways will also be discussed. Discussion sections, directed by graduate student instructors, are used to review the course material and to discuss problem assignments. Grading will be based on examinations covering reading assignments, lecture material, and assigned problems. WL:1 (Guardiola-Diaz)
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311. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 310, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).
This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. The student takes both a written and an oral quiz for each of 12 units which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed and performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Cost:3 WL:1 (Osgood)
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325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and a year of chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 420. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, nervous and endocrine system controls and integration, respiration and circulation, water and ion balance, excretion, digestion, reproduction, and immune system function. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. This course may NOT be elected by students who have already taken Biology 420. Cost:3 WL:1 (Webb and Duan)
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326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biol. 325 will not be admitted to Biol. 326 without special permission. (2). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
These laboratory exercises deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. Students working in small groups present material for each exercise, collate class data, and perform analyses. A term paper and oral presentation are required. Students should have had Biology 325 or be taking it concurrently. Students who intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. Cost:2 WL:1 (Pavgi)
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401. Special Topics in Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Photosynthesis.
This course will explore several facets of photosynthesis, ranging from electron transport and protein structure, to questions of structure and function that utilize the techniques of cell and molecular biology. Topics will include chloroplast function in photosynthesis, structure and function components of the photosynthetic electron transport train, and the biogenesis of the photosynthetic energy-transducing apparatus. Students should have completed a course in biochemistry. The course include lectures as well as class discussions of research publications. Two exams and class participation will form the basis upon which students will be evaluated. Cost:1 WL:1 (Yocum)
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404. Genetics, Development, and Evolution. Biol. 305 or 390. (3). (Excl).
The aim of this course is to synthesize concepts relating to development and evolution, using genetics as a foundation. The motivation is that most courses in biology consider phenomena at a single organizational scale (molecules, cells, organisms, populations, ecosystems, or taxa), whereas a complete understanding of evolution will require the ability to think comfortably at the various hierarchical levels. Lectures will be 90 minutes long. They will be based on the current literature, and will cover: paleontology and the shape of the tree of life; comparative embryology and classical developmental biology; the fundamentals of molecular genetics with particular attention to developmental regulatory mechanisms in model organisms; molecular systematics and the new field of genomic science; and the basics of population genetics and quantitative genetics. Assessment will involve a combination of participation in discussion, exams, and a term paper. WL:1 (Gibson, Frohlich)
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412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (EXPERIENTIAL).
Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TAs for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 311). TAs meet with the instructor for a two-hour class each week for lectures, presentations, and discussions of teaching and biochemistry. TAs also prepare a report on a recent advance in biochemistry which they present to their peers and the instructor. The major roles of the TAs are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the students with explanations supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TAs learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Osgood)
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413. Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory. Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415; and Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
This is a project lab in which students learn to identify and analyze plant genes and gene products using the latest techniques of molecular biology. Emphasis will be on genes encoding unique plant characteristics. Students will first isolate genes from DNA libraries of various plant species. They will then analyze the sequence of genes they have isolated by DNA sequencing, and will characterize their copy number and expression levels by various techniques such as Southern blots, Northern blots, etc. The genes will then be manipulated to produce the gene products (i.e., proteins) in a bacterial system. WL:1 (Pichersky)
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418. Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; organic chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hormone action, general endocrine control mechanisms, the evolution of hormones and hormonal control and their physiological actions in animals. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates; there will be limited treatment of human endocrinology. Instruction in Biology 418 assumes a basic familiarity with general and comparative physiology. Training in chemistry through organic is essential, and courses in biochemistry and cell and molecular biology are helpful. Cost:2 WL:1 (Denver)
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425/Anatomy 425. Systems Neurobiology. Biol. 222, 325 or 422. (3). (Excl). (BS).
This course treats ensembles of nerve cells as developing and functional entities. It assumes a level of understanding of cellular neurobiology such as can be obtained in Biology 325 (Animal Physiology) or Biology 422 (Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology). The topics include development of the nervous system, sensory systems (especially the visual system), motor systems, and behavior. Students are evaluated by one or more hour exams, one or more papers, and a final exam. There are three lectures per week, and no optional lab. Cost:3 WL:1 (Easter)
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427. Molecular Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl). (BS).
Comprehensive coverage of the general principles governing the structures, synthesis, and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the context of the cell. Emphasizes understanding methods and interpretation of data. Topics include DNA replication and transposition, chromosome segregation, transcription and translation, the processing of macromolecules, signal transfer, and regulation at various levels. Three lectures per week are supplemented by a 1.5 hour discussion section. There will be two examinations during the term and a final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Maddock, Nichols)
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428. Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).
Biology 428 is designed to provide students with a comprehensive overview of the biology of eukaryotes and prokaryotes at the cellular and molecular level. This course is intended for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The information is presented at a level that requires students to integrate information from their other biology, chemistry, and biochemistry courses. Topics include: cell structure and function; cell membranes; intracellular organelles and cytoskeleton; inter- and intra-cellular signaling; cell development and cell cycle. Students will be expected to integrate the scientific data presented in class as well as to read and interpret basic research drawn from the current scientific literature. Grades will be based on four exams and the discussion section. Cost:3 WL:1 (Olsen, Bardwell)
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429. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
The course consists of one lecture and one four-hour laboratory session each week. Additional time outside of scheduled lab sessions will be required. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, cell fractionation, electrophoresis, and tissue culture. Mammalian systems are given emphasis. The lectures trace the history of cell biology but emphasize the background of techniques used in the laboratory. Grades are based on two lecture exams and a lab grant proposal. The course can be used to satisfy requirements in the Cell and Molecular Biology concentration and Microbiology concentrations. It is also appropriate for concentrations in Biology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)
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429. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
The course consists of one lecture and one four-hour laboratory session each week. Additional time outside of scheduled lab sessions will be required. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, cell fractionation, electrophoresis, and tissue culture. Mammalian systems are given emphasis. The lectures trace the history of cell biology but emphasize the background of techniques used in the laboratory. Grades are based on two lecture exams and a lab grant proposal. The course can be used to satisfy requirements in the Cell and Molecular Biology concentration and Microbiology concentrations. It is also appropriate for concentrations in Biology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)
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430(515). Molecular Biology of Plants. Biol. 305, and 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl). (BS).
The aim of this course is to examine major advances in understanding molecular processes in plants, and the contribution of molecular biological techniques to these advances. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. The course will begin with an overview of the basic techniques of plant molecular biology such as cloning and sequencing of DNA, transformation, and analysis of gene expression. We will then examine selected topics in detail, including genome structure and the evolution of genes, proteins, and biochemical pathways; photoreception; primary and secondary metabolism; and biotechnology. A portion of this class will be devoted to reading and discussing recent research publications. Student performance will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, two take-home examinations, and a term paper. WL:1 (Schiefelbein)
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437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 152-154 or 195, or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($55) required.
Animal diversity is reviewed with emphasis on all but vertebrate animals (most animals are invertebrates; the vertebrates account for only a part of one of the animal phyla). The distinctions between the animal phyla and theories regarding their geological history and evolution are emphasized. A phylogenetic perspective is presented for a better understanding of animal architecture, patterns of development, and adaptations to the environment. The basic life functions that all animals share are also emphasized. The course consists of lectures and laboratory (practical, i.e., hands-on ) sessions. The laboratory emphasizes the study of living animals, but supportive preserved material is also included. Evaluation of student accomplishment is by written and practical laboratory examination. WL:1 (Burch)
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468. Mushrooms and Molds: Biology and Use. Biol. 154. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($50) required.
The mushrooms and molds have changed the course of human history and continue to have a profound impact on man and the global ecosystem as important plant, insect, and human pathogens and as important nutrient recyclers. Their increasing importance in biotechnology has brought new recognition to these fascinating and unique organisms. This course surveys the members of the Kingdom Fungi, provides an introduction to their ecology, physiology, genetics, and importance in biotechnology, medical mycology, and plant pathology through lectures, laboratories, and field trips. This course is important for students interested in careers in biotechnology, medical mycology, biodiversity, plant pathology, forest pathology, systematics, and ecology. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a term project on a topic of the students' choice. General Biology (Biol 154), or equivalent, is a recommended prerequisite. Cost:2 WL:3 (Fogel)
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478. Advanced Ecology. A general ecology course (Biol. 381 or equivalent). (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
This course will cover current ecological topics, including effects of changing environments. The development of these topics will be placed in a historical perspective of how ideas and research develop. The philosophy of science, hypothesis testing, and the development of critical thinking will be emphasized. Students will lead discussions. Readings will be from the primary literature. Assignments will include written critiques, a research proposal, and a peer review of proposals. Cost:1 WL:1 (Rathcke)
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483. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1).
This course is part of the Winter Term, 1998, Environmental Theme Semester. Lakes and lake processes will be discussed from the perspective of identifying environmental problems and using scientific knowledge to solve the problems. We will use a series of case studies that include Lake Michigan and other Great Lakes as well as other lakes in North America, Europe, and Africa. The academic emphasis of the course will be on understanding and integrating the causes and effects of physical, geological, chemical, and biological aspects of lake environments. Grades will be based on two 1-hour exams, a final examination, and a paper that proposes a solution to a conceptual problem posed by the professor. This course meets Biology concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. Cost:1 WL:4 (Lehman)
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484. Limnology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.
Field and laboratory techniques in aquatic science. Several field trips to local lakes during both ice cover and open water conditions will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, use of automated data acquisition technology, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. Cost:2 WL:3 ,4
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487/NR&E 409. Ecology of Fishes. One course in ecology. (Lectures: 3 credits; lectures and lab: 4 credits). (Excl). (BS).
Ecology is the study of interactions which determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. For fishes, these interactions can roughly be categorized into physiological, behavioral and population-community interactions. Ecology of Fishes is organized to examine all of these interactions. Although fishes are emphasized, other aquatic organisms are also included. Also, aquatic ecosystems of interest include not only local freshwater systems, but also tropical and marine ones. The course gives special emphasis on bioenergetics of fish, and how energy flow is viewed on an individual, population, and community level of organization. The course consists of 3 hours of lecture per week (for 3 credit hours). There is also an optional lab (3 hours per week) for one more credit hour. The lab emphasizes field ecology of fishes, as well as laboratory analyses of energetics and behavior. Evaluation of students is based on 2 midterm exams and a final exam, which emphasize essay questions involving synthesis. The lab is evaluated on a lab notebook and an exam. Reading materials include a course pack (estimated cost $20) and reserved readings. Cost:1 WL:1 (Diana)
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494. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (4). (Excl). (BS).
This course explores the sense in which human behavior can appropriately be viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary theory are discussed with special reference to their significance for topics like sexuality, mate choice and pair bonds, parental care, nepotism, social reciprocity, and senescence and the life pattern. Emphasis is on evolutionary process rather than pattern, thus on natural selection and how it works; but the course begins with lectures on the pattern of evolution of hominids and the historical geography of humans. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and findings of the social sciences to the human background in biological evolution. A special effort is made to consider difficult topics such as music, art, humor, ethics, and morality. Discussion sections are oriented toward animal behavior to complement the lectures and broaden the course. Cost:2-4 WL:3 , course does not close. (Alexander)
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496/NR&E 425. Population Ecology. General ecology and NR&E 438; calculus recommended. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.
The study of the dynamics of single species populations and systems of multi-species populations is examined. This is accomplished by reviewing the theoretical explanations for various topics and comparing these predictions with observations and experiments with animal and plant populations. Topics covered include population growth and its limiting factors (resource acquisition, life history patterns, habitat use, and social structure), competition, predation, population cycles, food web structure, and the stability and persistence of assemblages of populations. Because the theoretical development of these topics depends upon mathematics, students will find experiences with introductory calculus useful, and basic statistical knowledge is useful in understanding the comparison of observed plant and animal populations with the theoretical predictions. The course consists of two 90-minute lectures, a lab experiment requiring one hour and a discussion group for one-two hours each week. Students are evaluated on the basis of two hourly exams, a term paper, weekly short lab reports and participation in the discussion group. Cost:2 WL:3 (Jensen)
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513. Microbial Genetics. Genetics; and microbiology or biochemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).
Lecture and discussion focus on analysis of original papers dealing with the genetics of E. coli and other prokaryotes. Topics include mutation and repair, transposition and rearrangement, chromosome maintenance, gene-transfer and acceptance, regulation, and variation and evolution. Midterm, oral report, and/or discussions. Cost:2 WL:3 (Maddock)
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541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Biol. 310 or 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl). (BS).
The course provides an overview of the hormonal regulation of mammalian reproduction at the system, cellular, and molecular levels. Topics include basic and clinically-orientated material related to properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex steroids, the neural control of reproduction, anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, endocrine control of menstrual and estrous cycles, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. Primarily for upper-level undergraduates or graduate students with a strong background in biology. Permission of instructor is required. Evaluation is by written examinations and presentation of a poster. The course is team-taught by several members of the multi-departmental Reproductive Sciences Program. Cost:2 WL:4 (Foster)
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