Courses in English Language and Literature (Division 361)

A complete up to date listing of English Department course descriptions can be found on the World Wide Web at

For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course. NOTE: If you must miss a class due to religious observances, contact the instructor or leave a message for the instructor with the department (764-6330).


After taking or placing out of Introductory Composition, students may elect either English 224 or 225 for further practice in the fundamentals of expository and argumentative prose. English 325 offers the opportunity for work in argumentative and expository prose at a more advanced level.

Several sections of English 223, the beginning course in creative writing, are available each term. The work is multi-generic, and two of the following will be covered in each section: fiction, poetry, and drama, or you may take English 227 (Introductory Playwriting). A more advanced course for creative writers is English 323 (Fiction or Poetry), which is available after completion of the prerequisite, English 223. More experienced writers may apply for admission to specialized sections of English 327 (Playwriting), English 423 (Fiction), English 427 (Advanced Playwriting), and English 429 (Poetry). Admission to these advanced courses is by permission of the instructor, who may require writing samples.


Independent study in English must be elected under one of the following numbers: 226 (Directed Writing, 1-3 hours), 299 (Directed Reading, 1-3 hours), 426 (Directed Writing, 1-4 hours), 499 (Directed Reading, 1-4 hours). There is a limit to the total hours that may be taken under any one number. Students interested in independent study should obtain an application from the English Department office on the third floor of Angell Hall. Independent study proposals must be approved by a supervising professor and by the Undergraduate Chair of the department. The deadline for Independent Study in the Winter Term 1998 is January 16, 1998.

124. College Writing: Writing and Literature. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).
By connecting the two terms of its title, Writing and Literature aims to help prepare the student to produce the range and quality of expository prose expected in college courses. Works of literature will be considered for their effective use of language and argument. They will serve as reference points for thinking and writing strategies. Characteristically, sections of English 124 will involve the writing of a minimum of five essays, with considerate attention given to the preparation of drafts and to revision. The literary works which will serve as points of reference will vary from section to section and from term to term. Section descriptions can be found on the department's Web page. If you are unable to find a section that fits your schedule, waitlist for English 125.100 and you will be contacted if space becomes available.
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Section 001 and 003 Literature and Films of Horror. In this course, students will study and practice writing skills while writing about literary and film texts classifiable within the "horror" genre. Exactly what "horror" is, and how its definitions have shifted over time, will be the course's central question. Primary texts will be chosen from among works such as the following: Walpole 's The Castle of Otronto, Shelley's Frankenstein, Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, James' The Turn of the Screw, Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Whale's Frankenstein, Browning's Freaks, Hitchcock's Psycho, Carpenter's Halloween, and Scott's Alien. The writing component of this course will focus on providing students the fundamental skills of college composition: everything from how to choose a suitable topic and organize it effectively, to how to use sound logic and follow the rules of standard English. (Crutchfield)

Section 002 Losing Innocence in America. In this course you will read American literature, drawn mostly from the 20th Century, with a general focus on what it means to come of age in America and how different generations and groups of people have experienced this process. In addition, this class will help you develop your writing skills, from some of the finer points of grammar to the larger issues of structure, persuasiveness, and how to write a convincing thesis. Your opportunities to hone these skills will come in the form of five analytical essays on the assigned novels, plays, short stories and poetry, in addition to occasional smaller assignments. Besides your work as a writer, your work as a peer-editor and your contributions to class discussions and workshops will be important. Writers covered will most likely include Ellison, Miller, Albee, Cather, Baldwin, Tan, Ford, Schwartz, Diaz, Rich, Oates, O'Brien, and others. (Twiss)

Section 003. See Section English 124.001. (Crutchfield)

Section 004. What counts as a "text"? Are some kinds of texts more critically valuable than others? How do we begin to analyze and value texts from different literary traditions oral, written, experimental, mixed media? Your own skills as an independent thinker and writer will be the focus of this course as we look at a broadly defined range of literary texts, including short stories, poetry, creative nonfiction, and texts found in nontraditional forms: film, song lyrics, and new electronic forms of writing (such as practiced both on the web and in CD-ROM format). For every text, we'll consider such questions as, "Who is this text created for? What are the conventions of this text? Is there a critical tradition, and if so, how do we converse with it (and with each other about it)?" Because our explorations will take us into electronic forms of writing, this course will meet one day a week in a computer lab and one day a week in a regular classroom. You do not need to have any computer expertise to take this course only a willingness to learn. (Lundin)

Section 005. See English 124.002. (Twiss)

Section 006 and 010 Road Stories: Hope, Trouble, and the American Landscape. Road stories are the thematic focus of this introductory course. These are generally narratives of travel and change but the road story also draws on the figure of the wanderer, the outcast, as well as the meaning of landscape, mobility, cars (fast ones and ones that break down), national and regional identities, the danger of misfits, real and imagined frontiers, going West.... Road stories embody a great amount of romantic cachet in our culture we will read stories that forward this and also ones that de-romanticize the road. Based on these readings (and a couple of road movies), you will produce four essays over the term based on close analysis of the text. Essays will be workshopped and we will learn as a group what makes an argument persuasive, how to shape an essay, how to pay attention to your readerly responses to find an argument with energy. The class will also produce weekly informal writings as part of our discussions about the readings. (S. Coleman)

Section 007 American Short Stories. This workshop course will focus on a wide variety of short stories by twentieth century American writers. Stories by such authors as Hemingway, Capote, Carver, and Oates will provide students with an introduction to the themes of contemporary American short fiction, and to the fundamental tools for prose analysis. Together, we'll focus on development of techniques for explicating literary works, and in using those techniques in writing effective papers on literature. The course will emphasize writing as a means of learning. Required work for the course includes a portfolio of four revised expository papers, weekly readings, small-group workshops, and participation in class discussions. (Crane)

Section 008. How does one define a civilization? How does the city separate itself from the uncontrolled spread of the wilderness? What happens when civilizations acquire the ruthless characteristics of the wilderness, or the wilderness becomes a fragile world requiring careful maintenance? In this course we will read texts that establish but also question this division between civilization and wilderness. While exploring this topic we will study texts from several literary genres and eras, including ancient tragedies, early American captivity narratives, lyric poems, and modern novels. Course requirements include four papers, in-class writing, written responses to classmates' work, and active class participation. (Stevens)

Section 009 and 045 The Avant-Garde of Composition: Essays and Fictions. During our term together, we will explore essays, novels, short, fiction, poetry, and live performance in order to understand the ways in which writers communicate within their historical, cultural, and philosophical contexts. Moreover, we will examine how one particular community of writers and artists the "avant garde" have tried to change those contexts in their poetry, paintings, and performance. In addition to "nuts-and-bolts" exercises in punctuation, grammar, and vocabulary, we will also explore the specific techniques that avant-garde writers, painters, and performers have used to communicate effectively and try to discover ways to make their techniques work in our own writing. We will read from a diverse number of experimental literary and creative traditions, including work by Jonathan Swift, Leslie Marmon Silko, Edgar Allan Poe, and Yoko Ono, in addition to essays on city design, aesthetic theory, and guerrilla warfare. There will also be a fair amount of music and live performance and, of course, a lot of writing. (Sell)

Section 010. See English 124.006. (S. Coleman)

Section 011 Writing American Identities. Every day the question of "Who or What is an American?" gets raised and answered through writings as diverse as news articles, autobiography, novels, poetry, essays, and even textbooks. In this course we will take a look at various ways American identity has been written about, and how writing itself has shaped this national identity throughout US history. Texts will be drawn from the rich multicultural literary heritage of the nation, and may include Frederick Douglass' Narrative of the Life, Edwin Abbot's Flatland, Philip K. Dick's Eye in the Sky, Raymond Queneau's Exercises in Style, and Esmerelda Santiago's When I was Puerto Rican. Emphasis will be placed upon fostering a deeper awareness what it means to present oneself through writing, especially in collegiate writing assignments. (Gonzalez)

Section 012 The Real World? This class is designed as a workshop in which we will undertake a practical introduction to critical reading, writing, thinking, and expression for ourselves, each other, and the university. The concerns of the texts we will be reading are both radically diverse and strangely familiar - opening up the experiences and perspectives of a host of characters, thinkers, readers, and writers exploring the cultural assumptions of their particular times and places. More importantly, these works of the recent past will help us to sharpen our own critical perspectives as both readers and writers, giving us the chance to explore and to challenge contemporary cultural norms, manners, and myths: From where have they come? How have they developed? What did they mean then, and what effects do they produce now? Requirements: Four formal papers of 4-6 pages (including pre-writing, drafts, and revisions), peer critiques, short reading response papers, readings. (Geldenbott)

Section 015. This course visits some highlighted twists and turns in the evolution of utopian literature from Plato through the renaissance and on into contemporary science fiction. Along the way we will explore brave new worlds envisioned by as diverse artists as Shakespeare and Aldous Huxley, Jonathan Swift and Ray Bradbury, as we examine the archetype's permutations in various literary genres (poems, short stories, novels, plays, films). One intention will be to trace the intersections of myth with art and history; another will be to situate contemporary utopian constructions (including our own) in a rich and fascinating tradition. The course will include drafting, revision, a portfolio of three polished essays, and much small group work and class discussion. Come prepared to travel with artistic imaginations on the move and to seriously develop your own sense of the possibilities (and limitations) of our visionary heritage. (Henne)

Section 016. This section will study outstanding examples of literature in three basic genres: prose fiction, lyric poetry, and comic drama. In each unit, we shall move from older authors (such as Jane Austen or Shakespeare) to modern masters. Each student will write two analytical essays in each unit, for a total of six papers. Class discussions will concern the relations between form and meaning, the various ways in which writers use or subvert the conventions of a genre. Some class time will be devoted to problems in expository prose and strategies for writing effectively about literature. Choose this section if you love to read; do not choose this section if you wish to write about yourself. (Winn)

Section 017 High Culture/Low Culture. In this first-year seminar, we will explore how and why we make distinctions between high (or "serious") culture and low (or "popular") culture; and where and why those distinctions might break down. We will explore how economic and social forces within American consumer culture influence the divisions between high and low, art and entertainment, what sells and what's "good." Who has the power to decide these questions? How are worries about the "Disneyfication" of American culture linked to changing ideas about the relations between history and fiction, news and entertainment, art and "trash"? Course texts will include short stories, a couple of films, one or two novels, popular and scholarly essays about the commercialization and the "dumbing down" of American culture. Requirements: Attendance and vigorous class participation; several 2-page papers in draft-revision sequence, weekly "culture reports," and one longer paper. (Robinson)

Section 018 Film and Society. In this course we will view eight films by major directors, all of which deal with political or social issues, as the basis for discussion and writing. The earliest film is D.W. Griffith's Intolerance (1916), the latest, Akira Kurosawa's Rhapsody in August (1991). Other directors and films include: Charles Chaplin, Monsieur Verdoux; John Ford, The Grapes of Wrath; Orson Welles, Citizen Kane; Stanley Kubrick, Dr. Strangelove; Francis Ford Coppola, Apocalypse Now; and David Lean, A Passage to India. We will also read some of the sources for these films. Frequent writing with opportunities for revision. Paper topics will be drawn both from the films themselves (e.g., the styles of different directors), and from some of the issues they deal with. (Howes)

Section 019. Your generation may well witness the final dying gasps of the printed book. After all, it is becoming easier and easier to find our texts on screens, as electronic images supplemented by audio and visual accompaniment. So, does reading (in the old sense, as words on a page) matter anymore? And if it does, then why? This may seem like a grossly exaggerated characterization, and it is to a certain extent. But we have to admit that innovations in communication and computer technologies have undermined the influence of print. And thus, we need to make sense of the current scenario and ask ourselves why we should bother to read books at all. We will begin asking such questions - about reading, writing, and literature. We will make a group effort to explore the communicative possibilities of the printed word. And we will ask whether language, shaped and caressed and presented by a skillful author and received by a thoughtful, engaged reader, actually makes some kind of a difference to us whether we choose to be a physician or a performance artist. Course requirements: three papers, weekly writing log, and mandatory attendance. (Ray)

Section 020 Romancing the Novel. The authors we'll be reading for this class range across a wide expanse of time and territory, from 1990s America to mid-1800s England, but they share a fascination with romance, marriage, and the pressures of romantic happiness. In these books we will see how romance 'works,' how women are fulfilled by these ideals while others are destroyed by them. For, as much as romance may offer nurturing to our characters, it also provides a natural setting for repression, betrayal, and violence. These texts will provide us with a host of other issues to discuss, not all limited to the dynamics of the romance novel. We will be reading four novels, a bit of romantic poetry, and a play in order to discuss the three genres of literature, including how they work on a technical level. Above all, this is a class about writing, and it has been designed not only to get you to think about how best to write about books, but also how to think and write analytically in general and for an academic audience in particular. We'll explore ways to defend your positions, tighten your prose, eliminate mechanical errors, and not least, how best to instill a sense of fun and originality in your work. (D. Coleman)

Section 021 The Literature of Horror. In this course we will read short stories, poems, and novels of horror and the supernatural dating all the way from ancient Greece to romantic-era Britain and on to contemporary America as part of a cross-cultural study to define what we mean by horror, what its influences have been, and what its uses are in literature. Course readings will include such titles as Oedipus Rex, The Castle of Otranto, Frankenstein, Dracula, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, as well as poems by Coleridge and stories by Edgar Allen Poe, Flannery O'Connor, Joyce Carol Oates, and a novella by Stephen King. Students will be expected to write four essays analyzing either individual works or comparing them, with the possibility of writing their own horror story in the style of a particular author in place of one of the essays. (Rekdal)

Section 022 Family Plots. In this class, we'll consider the very different ways in which authors have defined families and the ways in which families themselves define, restrict, and otherwise influence individuals by looking at fictional representations of families in a few nineteenth-century and contemporary novels, a play, and some poetry. We'll see depictions of the family as a place of both economic security and uncertainty in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. In Thomas Hardy's Poems of 1912-13 and Rita Dove's recent Thomas and Beulah, we'll look at poetic models of marriages, told from the inside. We'll take in Oscar Wilde's hilarious bashing of middle-class family life in his play The Importance of Being Earnest. The course will end with an outstanding recent novel which describes a raucous Irish family from the point of view of a brash little boy, Roddy Doyle's Paddy Clark Ha Ha Ha! The subject of families will provide a loose thematic framework for this class, but we'll have room to work on a wide variety of issues which these works raise, and just as important, on developing college writing skills. Thus, we'll be reviewing ways of constructing argumentative papers about texts, interpreting fiction and reading poetry, and unpacking the rhetoric of the authors we will read. The focus of this course, then, will be equally on writing and reading. Requirements include consistent participation in class discussion, four 5-6 page papers, and some short writing assignments. (Behlman)

Section 024 Reading with a Pen. One of the greatest benefits of literature is the pleasure we experience in simply reading it. However, we only begin to understand the complexity of that literature when we put pen to paper to trace out the currents and eddies of emotion and logic and highlight the moments of wonder and surprise. That act of writing helps us think through our reactions - positive and negative and allows us to enter into a productive conversation. In this section, we will draw texts from a variety of literary genres, short story, poetry, drama, or short novel - to focus our discussions of ways to write about and actively read literature. Expect to write at least four short papers (3-5 pages) and revise each of them, an informal reading-response journal, one larger term paper (10-12 pages), participate in a weekly e-mail conversation, peer response groups, and make one short class presentation. (Cook)

Section 025 Other Possible Worlds: Writing and the Imagination. What do we create when we write? What worlds or creatures are born in our imaginations? In this class we'll read fiction and poetry that concern themselves with these questions. Much of this literature will be about the act of writing itself; thinking and talking about it will enable us to begin meditating on our own practices of writing. Some of the authors we will read are Jane Austen, Steven Millhauser, Salman Rushdie, Nadine Gordimer, and John Barth. While we'll spend time discussing these readings, our main focus will be on the practice of writing itself. The aim of English 124 is to improve your writing and to introduce you to the process of analyzing literature. By the end of this course you should be able to write with confidence about an increasingly complex set of ideas and to begin your own process of creation through writing. (Jager)

Section 026. This course is meant to give you some strategies for reading and writing that you will use throughout your college career (and, I hope, even longer than that). We will work on coming up with good, interesting things to write about and on getting these ideas down on paper in some fashion that is appealing, useful, and illuminating to yourself and to a reader. We'll take as our focus, at least loosely, the concept of memory. How does memory work in how a story is told or in what story is told? If memory often serves as the basis of history, what do we do with that history when we know or discover or realize that memory is faulty? We may read such works as Cisneros' House on Mango Street, Hoffman's Lost in Translation, Ford's The Good Soldier, Morrison's Beloved, and O'Brien's The Things They Carried. We'll call into question, among other things, the division or distinction, if there is any, between memory and truth, remembering and forgetting, and fiction and nonfiction. Finally, though, please remember that this is a composition class. Your writing be our focus. The other texts are bouncing off points. (Kaufman)

Section 027. In this course we will read and discuss five works of contemporary fiction, a tentative list of which includes Doyle's Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha, Kincaid's Annie John, DeLillo's White Noise, Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, and Allende's Eva Luna. Each text will be the subject of an essay, which will generally be submitted in initial and revised versions. Writing assignments will be wide-ranging, including for example both close readings and comparative analyses. We will return frequently to questions of individual and family identity, their intersections, and their various permutations. In our discussion and criticism, we will address issues such as how "family" and "self" are defined, how individuals are constructed and destroyed within and in relation to families, and how individuals make or break down families. (Warren)

Section 028 Subject to Revision. Yes, that's the title of the course: "Subject to Revision." Our lives are always subject to revision, constantly undergoing shifts and changes and transformations. This course relates revision in writing to other kinds of revisions we encounter. Often, we'll look at the work of professional writers as they revise, examining their drafts or different versions they've produced of well-known texts. We'll use their work to think about revisions you make as you revise your own writing. We'll also consider how texts feature the idea of revision as a theme: how, for instance, they call for a revision of social codes, enact a character's "revision" through development, or prompt readers to revise their expectations, habits, and assumptions. Readings will include work by Virginia Woolf, Henry James, Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce, Dashiell Hammett, Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, T. S. Eliot, Marianne Moore, Gertrude Stein, and Thomas Pynchon. (Hickman)

Section 030. What is interpretation? How do we interpret everything around us? We live through our interpretations, whether we are actually aware of them or not. Through reading challenging texts, we will seek out the criteria by which we interpret, as well as the governing forces that make us interpret in a certain way. We will attempt to identify the system we use to interpret everything around us and question how this very system is formed. Throughout the course of the term, we will read texts that continually question (or even threaten) our system of interpretation. They will make us stretch our imagination and push us beyond our limits. Requirements: reading (which will include works by authors such as Kafka, Ovid, Borges, Tolstoy, Austen, Tgai, and others), writing (weekly responses and 3 or 4 longer essays including revisions), talking, and thinking (constantly). (Ueda)

Section 031 Autobiographies of Crisis. People who have lived through catastrophic events often describe the experience as impossible to understand the events are too sudden, and the consequences too pervasive, for anyone to absorb their meaning as they occur. Afterwards, survivors frequently struggle to find that meaning, needing to make sense of the past. Many turn to writing as a tool to help themselves understand their own lives. Somehow, putting words onto a page can force parts of the unwieldy experience into a comprehensible narrative; at the same time, the shape of the story can reveal the remainders, the gaps where no words could possibly convey what happened. We'll consider this dynamic, along with others, as we read a series of contemporary autobiographies, both short stories and novels. Authors will include: Laurie Moore, Rick Moody, Natalie Kusz, Dorothy Allison, Tim O'Brien, Jamaica Kincaide, Leslie Marmon Silko, Jim Grimsley, Leslie Feinberg, Fae Myenne Ng, and others. In this course, students will develop their analytical thinking, reading, and writing skills. Just as the authors use written language to understand their own lives, you too will expand your capacity for complex, critical thought through the act of writing. The autobiographies will place a wide range of social, cultural, political, and moral issues before us as a reading community, we will struggle to understand, evaluate and respond to the challenges presented by these texts. While there will be many types of writing required for this class, we will primarily focus on writing and revising a series of analytical essays in which we strive to rigorously engage with both the texts and the issues they present. (Boyd)

Section 032. This composition class incorporates the reading of literature as an approach to good writing and analytical thinking. Focusing on the details of language from overall paper organization down to the specifics of word choice, the class will be asked to write a variety of styles of writing, not only literary analysis. The central theme of the class is broadly developed around the constructions of normativity and dissent in American society as portrayed through short fiction. The texts include works by Edgar Allan Poe, Herman Melville, Mark Twain, Eudora Welty, and others. You will be asked to do 4 papers (4-5 pages), short response essays, and a revised paper at the end of the term. (Lee)

Section 034. I intend this course to make you stronger readers of and writers about literature. More important, I hope that, as we work together in this class, you will better understand how to go about formulating and achieving goals for yourself as writers in the years to come. We will read nineteenth- and twentieth-century fiction, poetry, and drama broadly clustered around questions of identity: how does a writer capture or create a portrait of subjectivity, of an individual's interior life? Authors we study will likely include Wordsworth, Douglass, Freud, Stein, T. S. Eliot, West, Beckett, Woolf, and Ellison. You will write a great deal for this course response papers, brief writing exercises, five longer essays with required drafts, critiques of your peers' papers and all of that writing will be directed toward making you more confident and capable explorers of challenging, puzzling, engaging, and important texts. Cost:2 (Whittier-Ferguson)

Section 040. We will spend the bulk of our time reading some interesting literature, covering a wide chronological span. We may read (at this point, the reading list is a work in progress) Euripides The Bacchae, Edwidge Danticat's Krik? Krak!, and an assortment of poems and short stories by Morrison, Rhys, Ellison, Shakespeare, Donne, Neruda, Allende, and García Márquez, among others. One thing is certain, we will cover all genres: fiction (novels and short stories), drama, and poetry. But for the most part, we'll read literature that we won't get the chance to encounter often, and we'll try to take new approaches to reading and interpreting them. We might also read a handful of non-fiction essays. Our writing will consist of four or five papers, and some short, in-class exercises. We may have a midterm or final exam. (SanAntonio)

Section 042. See English 124.002. (Twiss)

Section 043. This course aims to improve your ability to read and write about literature intelligently. The topic will be Arthurian literature (medieval and modern), and a tentative list of texts includes Chrétien de Troyes Arthurian Romances, the anonymous Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur, along with such works as Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, and Tennyson's Idylls of the King. The writing you will be doing is literary criticism, an academic enterprise that is part history, part philosophy, and part detective work. The only prerequisite is a genuine interest in the primary material. Requirements include five or six short papers, two of which you will thoroughly revise during the course of the term. (Tanke)

Section 044. In this course we will harness the power of language by learning how it works and by learning how to write it. We will begin our exploration of language through reading what we call fiction: novels and short stories. As we read, however, we will become aware of how much fiction resembles, reflects and affects fact, and how the distinctions between the categories break down the more we probe. We will look at many different perspectives on our world by reading a variety of novelistic styles. The course will focus not only on reading, however, but also on writing. While we read we will also attempt to master many types of writing: narratives, arguments, analysis, descriptions, and research papers. As our personalities unfold on the pages we write and shape the pages we read, we will ultimately learn more about ourselves about how to successfully write coherent and persuasive prose. Writing well will prove to be an indispensable skill in whatever field you pursue at this university. (Venugopal)

Section 045. See English 124.009. (Sell)
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125. College Writing. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).
No one ever finishes learning to write, so this course focuses on helping students further develop their unique potentials as writers, readers, and thinkers. By analyzing texts from a variety of academic disciplines, students will come to understand the conventions writers follow to present their ideas effectively to their chosen audiences. What rhetorical strategies are common in different disciplines and why? How and when might we use those strategies in our own writing? For instance, what writing strategies would we call upon for a lab report, and would we use any of those strategies for a philosophical speculation, a history exam, a love letter? Throughout the term, students will work to identify the writing skills they most need to develop, and they'll invent and refine a personal style of expression that can be adapted to different audiences and purposes. Course requirements include at least 40 pages of writing, including at least 20 pages of revised, polished prose. Section descriptions can be found on the department's Web page. If you are unable to find a section that fits your schedule, waitlist for English 125.100 and you will be contacted if space becomes available.
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Section 001. This course is designed to develop your analytical thinking, reading, and writing skills. No matter what your field of study, these are the most crucial and versatile skills that you will need to succeed throughout your college coursework and beyond. This class will enable you to gain self-consciousness about your writing strengths and weaknesses, to set realistic and useful goals for yourself, and to improve measurably over the term in other words, to learn to take control over your writing and push it to a new level. Therefore, the course will require you to write in a variety of academic styles and to revise all of your papers at least once. Finally, because reading and writing are fundamentally about the effective communication of ideas, we will focus on working collaboratively within the class, challenging one another to meet ever higher standards. (Braunschneider)

Section 002 Critical Perspectives on Gender, Substance Use, and Mental Health. Students interested in taking Section 002 must waitlist on the CRISP registration line AND attend the first two class meetings. In this writing-intensive course we will use scholarship from psychology and women's studies to critically examine the intersections of gender, substance use, and mental health. The first weeks of the course will be spent studying issues of definition for example, how can we define gender?; what counts as a substance?; and who decides what is mental health? Later in the term we may cover topics such as: how people use substances to regulate emotions; food as a substance in eating disorders; and how media messages influence our understanding of gender and cigarette smoking. Students will do many types of writing: weekly take-home assignments, short papers and revisions, in-class writing, journals, some creative writing, and peer reviews. Emphasis will be placed on learning how to read psychological and feminist scholarship from a critical perspective, and the basics of the American Psychological Association (APA) writing style. WL:1 (Jackson)

Section 003 and 007 Writing About Ethics. In this course we will be writing about ethical issues involved in a variety of topics: science and medicine, advertising, relationships, business, race, music, and the environment. The course's object is to strengthen each student's writing abilities through a series of four essays and several in-class exercises based on the readings and expository forms studied in class. Each student will write an argumentative essay, an analytical essay, a memoir or descriptive essay, and another essay form of the student's choice. During the writing and reading of these pieces I hope we will explore what it means to be an ethical person in contemporary society, and how "ethics" as an ideal might translate into daily practice in the workplace and the world. (Rekdal)

Section 005 Practical Rhetoric. In this class, we'll look at the basic rhetorical principles that lie behind all good writing (and speaking), and the ways to use the principles to write good college papers. We'll read sources from several disciplines (probably including literature, history, and popular science) to see how authors in different fields adapt these rhetorical principles for their particular needs. We'll write four major papers (5-7 pages) and some shorter responses. (Hodges)

Section 007. See English 125.003. (Rekdal)

Section 010 Writing about Mathematics. Students interested in taking Section 010 must waitlist on the CRISP registration line AND attend the first two class meetings. This section is organized around mathematical themes. We will begin by doing some informal experimentation and problem-solving with topics drawn from geometry and graph theory. This will provide an opportunity to discuss the ingredients needed to make a convincing, intelligible mathematical argument. We will look at the close relationship between being able to analyze abstractions like math problems and being able to write about them effectively. In the second half of the course, our discussion and writing will be based on a range of issues related to mathematics. Students will read about topics in the history of mathematics, as well as accounts for non-specialists of subjects of current research. Along the way, we will consider social issues such as innumeracy, the proliferation of computers within the last decade, or the role of advanced mathematics in the origins of nuclear weapons. Each student will write three essays and keep a mathematical journal of solutions to problems. Although this section is best suited to students with an interest in mathematics, a high school background is sufficient. WL:1 (Denham)

Section 012. Imaginative writing and argumentative writing are often seen as different species. How might the two work together to create vivid and persuasive prose? While this is not a creative writing course, are there techniques that can be successfully used for both kinds of writing? Your own skills as an independent thinker and writer will be the focus of this course as we look critically at many kinds of purposeful communication, including stories, poems, essays, nonliterary media (music, art, film) and new electronic forms of writing (such as practiced on the Internet). Requirements will include one personal essay, two argumentative essays, and one research paper on individual topics we will choose and refine together. Because our explorations will take us into electronic forms of writing, this course will meet one day a week in a computer lab and one day a week in a regular classroom. You do not need to have any computer expertise to take this course only a willingness to learn. (Lundin)

Section 016. We will concentrate on writing two kinds of essays: persuasive (formal and "public") and personal (more individual and free form). Forty percent of your grade will be determined by two papers (8-10 pages), one of each of these types, to be written at the end of the term. The other sixty percent of the grade will depend on short daily writing assignments geared toward the preparation of the final papers. Doing them conscientiously and on time is essential to passing this course. Regular attendance and preparation are, therefore, a must. In designing the assignments, I will try to be as flexible in accommodating students' needs and desires as class size and time constraints will allow. The text for the course will be Richard Marius, A Writer's Companion and a course pack with some essays that we will use for analysis, criticism, and instruction. (Beauchamp)

Section 018. English 125 is a course designed to prepare you to meet successfully the demands made on your ability to express and communicate ideas/thoughts/opinions via the written word by this university and the world beyond. The focus of this course, then, is your writing. Yet writing is not done in isolation. It is intricately linked to reading, to the self, and to the world. As we learn to express feelings, report events, or narrate stories we learn about our selves as authors and as beings connected through language to history, reality, and possibility. Together we will inquire into all issues associated with reading and writing, learn to express our findings or wonderings, negotiate among ourselves what all this means, and share our conclusions. At the same time we will constitute our selves as part of a community of learners, of students at this university. (Buchanan)

Section 019 How Do You Write Your City? In this course we'll explore different forms of writing through a special topic: the city of Chicago. Using texts across genres (essay, fiction, poetry, autobiography: for example, Brent Staples, Saul Bellow, and Carl Sandberg) and across fields (literature, urban studies, anthropology, sociology, film studies) we will discuss how the life of a city and the life in a city can be captured in various media. We'll deepen our understanding of what environment and community are and why they're important, and what reading and writing can do to help you observe and describe the world around you. We will write and workshop essays based on different approaches to Chicago and on your experience of your own environment (city or country, home or dorm). Writing will include: 4-5 papers (2-5 pages), a regular journal, and a final portfolio of re-revised work. (Cassel)

Section 025. The written word is everywhere now. It covers cereal boxes, CD covers, parking tickets and telephones. It is seen as the foundation of education, and perhaps even of contemporary society. But what exactly is literacy, and who has access to it? Do we define literacy as the ability to read and write simple English, or does it imply understanding within a variety of socio-cultural contexts? In this course we will explore the ways in which attitudes toward reading and writing are shaped both inside and outside of the classroom. We will look at several definitions of literacy including academic literacy, computer literacy and "cultural literacy." We will also examine and produce a variety of writing styles using readings from many disciples. Come prepared to work hard and discuss, and, most importantly, to gain the tools which you need for writing at the University. (Cummings)

Section 026. This course will introduce you to a variety of writing strategies and give you practice in composing a variety of kinds of writing. You will learn how to better communicate with others through thinking, reading, analyzing, speaking, and writing. There is a strong correlation between reading and writing; therefore, you will be examining several narratives, arguments, and general essays. Your assignments are designed to increase your awareness of audience, of how writers adapt language for specific audiences, and of public written forms and conventions. In producing these assignments, we will study the process of writing as well as the mechanics of good writing. This class meets in a computer lab once a week. Please note that this is not a computer skills course; while you will indeed learn the basics of word processing, our time in the computer lab will be spent on drafting, revising, and editing your papers. (McFaul)

Section 027. This class will not have a single "theme." In other words, you will choose your own essay topics, and class discussions will focus on a variety of issues, based on your interests. However, we will spend some time reading and talking about the nature of college writing itself, especially about writing in different disciplines. For example, are there any "rules" that college writers need to follow? Doesn't the definition of "good writing" vary from one department to another, and from one generation to the next? Can a writer develop an individual "style"? Is it possible to draw a line between personal and professional writing? What's the difference between "college composition" and other kinds of writing? Expect a lot of individual attention (several conferences with the instructor) and a good deal of encouragement (nobody will be judged on their past experiences with writing). Class will be rigorous but pretty informal. (Heller)

Section 033 Meanings and Contexts. How do individuals go about making sense, whether in their social environments, their personal lives, or the writing they produce? This course will explore how writers interpret and express opinions about the material they encounter. We will read essays about subjects ranging from consumer culture and education to how individuals influence, and are influenced by, relationships with groups such as families and classes. These essays illustrate how writers shape their thoughts, and will prompt your own thinking about these issues. The course's focus on crafting arguments will lead as well to discussions about strategies of persuasion, effective reasoning, and the uses of evidence. Course requirements will include four papers, written peer responses, in-class writing, and participation in class discussion. (Koistinen)

Section 034. This course will provide you with the opportunity to improve your reading and writing skills. You will learn techniques and strategies that will facilitate the process of writing. Because the acts of reading and writing are inseparable, this course will also teach you how to analyze "texts," a category that includes poetry, prose, advertisements, editorials, and even cereal boxes. By learning how to think critically about texts, you will begin to acquire the tools that will help you to become a clearer and more effective writer. We will also examine the "hows" and "whys" of writing: Why is an essay effective? How do certain appeals to emotion or rationality make writing persuasive or unpersuasive? Most importantly, we will work on writing, both your writing and the writing of your peers in individual and group work. (Ching)

Section 038. This course will focus on helping the students to master academic discourse. There are two prongs to this endeavor. The first is to help the students to read and interpret academic and other related types of discourse critically and intelligently. The second is to help them learn to write rhetorically effective and logically sound academic prose. An essential element of this latter endeavor is to help the students develop a sense of familiarity and comfort with their own "unacademic," unmarked or default voices; the semester therefore begins with some writing exercises geared toward bringing out this default voice and with some discussion of language in general. The course will then move toward addressing academic discourse directly through discussions and papers keyed to the reader Signs of Life in the USA . Peer evaluation will also play a central role in the course. (Hutcheson)

Section 042. What constitutes the world for you? New York? Los Angeles? Or perhaps it is Paris in the 1920s, London in the 1960s, or Alexandria in the time of the Pharaohs. Writers constantly evoke other worlds as they remember them to have been or imagine them to be. We will concentrate on works by writers who, for one reason or another, feel themselves to be excluded from the world as they conceive of it. These reasons might include notions of race, class, gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, and age among others, or they might be based on temporal and spatial disjunctions. Writing assignments will focus on thinking analytically about the worlds presented to us in the texts we read and about the world as each of us perceives it. Our primary goals will be to think more critically about the world around us and to communicate more effectively our observations about it, skills which will serve you well throughout your college career and beyond. (Kodesh)

Section 044. Throughout your college education and in the course of your career you will be asked to present yourself, your ideas and your work in a written format. It is thus important that you express yourself clearly and effectively. This course aims to hone the written skills that you have already acquired in order to help you become elegant and convincing writers. In my opinion, reading is one of the most important ways to develop your writing. Throughout the term we will explore many different texts: literature, history, cultural studies, sociology, film. Not only will you expand your vocabulary and become aware of different styles of writing and their purpose, but most importantly you will be challenged to think about new concepts. As the term progresses, hopefully you will find yourself growing intellectually as you learn to express yourself both in writing and discussion on a variety of topics. Writing requirements: four formal papers, critiques of workshopped papers, various in-class assignments, writing journal, and final portfolio. We shall spend approximately four weeks in writing workshops. (Pieprzak)

Section 045 Some Narratives of Migration and Displacement. This course will focus on themes of migration and displacement in a number of cultural discourses immigration policy debates, autobiographical writing, cultural criticism and fiction. This course will find its animating center as much in the mechanics of writing as in some contemporary controversies and debates around migration. Though international migration will be placed center-stage, we will also examine evidence of migration within the United States - in particular, 20th century lesbian and gay migration to urban centers. The course requirements will emphasize writing as a variable and varied activity. Assignments will include three 2-3 page essays, two 5-7 page essays and one 10-12 page final paper. Students will also be responsible for writing short weekly assignments and workshopping the papers of their fellow students. (Textor)

Section 052. This class seeks to expand students' writing capabilities in a variety of ways. First of all, students are required to write four formal essays (in varying styles) over the course of the term. In addition, they will be asked to read and respond in writing to their classmates' writing. Aside from these formal styles of writing, students will complete many different pieces each directed towards a specific writing goal. Because this class has a writing-intensive focus, readings for the class will not follow a central, unifying theme. Rather, I hope the variety will appeal to the multiple academic backgrounds represented by the students and will underline the importance of the writing skills we will develop as they prepare to apply them to the writing requirements in the rest of their college career. We will be reading essays and excerpts from such writers as Edith Wharton, Annie Dillard, Stanley Crouch, George Orwell, Cardinal Newman, and Zora Neale Hurston. (McArthur)

Section 068 Personal Narrative and History. This course will explore the relationship between personal narrative and historical text. It will focus on your own personal and social experience as a form of history. Moreover, through an analysis of your own personal writing, we will examine what constitutes "history," and challenge what we perceive of as "history." Throughout the term we will examine both writing and history as an on-going process. We will also explore the role the individual plays in constructing history via the development of ideas, analysis, and argument. This course requires writing several short papers which, by the end of the term, will form a larger "final" paper. Though some reading will be assigned, the class mainly involves your own autobiographical writing and library research. Part of this course will also focus on the research and library skills needed to write an analytic or research paper. (Rosecrans)

Section 072 Scandals, Courtroom Dramas, and the Mass Media. Why is American culture so saturated with scandals, so fascinated by a good courtroom drama? What kinds of national and personal concerns do scandals and courtroom dramas produce and mobilize? And what role does the mass media play? In this introductory course on college writing, we will study some of the functions of mass media in American culture by examining moments of disruption or transgression moral transgressions that result in scandal, legal transgressions that lead to a courtroom trial. Topics include a unit on courtroom dramas in feature films; a unit on sexual harassment drawing on Jane Gallop's book, Feminist Accused of Sexual Harassment, and the Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas hearings; and a unit on cross-dressing and spying centering on David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly. The course will emphasize the critical analysis of culture as the focus for writing essays; written requirements include three essays and a take-home final. (Gordon)

Section 073. English 125 is a writing course designed to prepare you for the kinds of writing that you will do throughout your college career. The goal of this course is for students to become analytical readers and to improve their ability to write clear, forceful prose. The course will emphasize revision of students' work, a writing journal, and will require analysis of both assigned readings and the writing of fellow students. Most classtime will be spent in workshops or discussions of the assigned reading rather than lectures. (Harper)

Section 075 Writing Detroit History. In this course we will write about Detroit history. We will use primary documents to explore critical events in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s and we will write a series of short papers about these events. Each of these papers will have a defined focus. For example, one of the papers will be about point of view you will examine how different people's observations about history are shaped by their relationship to the event. In another paper, you will be required to write a narrative history about a topic of your choice along with a justification of why you wrote the history the way you did. Examples of topics we may discuss include but are not limited to the Detroit riots of 1967, a case about busing and school de-segregation from the 1970s, the decision to build the Renaissance center. Since this is a writing course, we will focus on analyzing, understanding and writing about the materials that we consider. We will also read and discuss each other's work. (Miller)

Section 076 What is Knowledge? What Does it Mean to Know? In this course, we will be investigating cross-disciplinary bodies of knowledge, reading and discussing essays from disciplines ranging from the humanities to the social and physical sciences. An essential part of becoming a stronger writer is becoming a more critical reader and thinker. Thus, as we examine these essays, we will investigate how the authors authorize themselves, how they position themselves in relationship to bodies of knowledge, and how they, at times, challenge the integrity of "accepted knowledge." Our readings will provide you with both subject matter and rhetorical models for your own writing. Through implementing the techniques you see others use, you will learn how to use language to shape ideas and thoughts not just to convey them, but to influence them. Through the term-long process of reading, discussing, drafting, and revising and revising again you will learn how to refine your control of the written word, enabling you to present our ideas in a clear, sophisticated, and powerful way. (M. Herrman)

Section 079 The Idea of the University. This section of English 125 will focus on the idea of the University, with a particular focus on the role of the Humanities (literature, history, philosophy, and the arts) therein. What is the University for, and what arguments arise when we try to answer that sort of question? What about the debates raging now over questions of multiculturalism, the literary canon, "political correctness" (whatever that means), and the meaning of education? Is the University more than just an intellectual shopping mall? Our focus will be on writing. By looking at a number of influential contemporary and classic works on the idea of the University, we will explore the means of argument by which the questions are posed in the first place. Student essays will engage directly with these prior texts; in this way, you will learn to practice a sort of "criticism of criticism." Course requirements include four 5-7 page essays, frequent in-class writing assignments, and daily attendance. (Roberts)

Section 083 The Wonderful World of Writing. Despite what the grapevine may have told you at some point or another, writing is not just for English majors and coffeehouse poets. It is a critical tool that we will all, sooner or later, need in order to convey our thoughts, intentions, and ideas to loved ones, graduate programs, and prospective employers. By the end of this term, we should all have successfully refitted our writing abilities to better meet the needs and standards of the University and future circumstances, whatever they may be. I won't lie to you. There will be lots of writing in this class. To make the task a bit more enjoyable, we will be reading articles and essays on Popular Culture, a subject we are already very familiar with. Our writing will be geared primarily towards analyzing and arguing for or against the assigned readings, so expect to engage with the assignments at point blank range. Also, expect a few in-class screenings of Daria, The Simpsons, and the documentaries History and Memory and Roger and Me. (Silva)
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140(126). First-Year Literary Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Comic Responses to Catastrophe.
Study of post World War II texts and films which take thematic material traditionally treated with "high seriousness," cast it in an essentially comic mode, and keep us laughing all the way to the grave. We will try to determine how and why these works are comic, to discover why, in our time, their mostly grisly subject matter elicits comic responses, and to define and describe the nature of comedy. About six books and two or three films; I will post the list outside my office [3180 Angell Hall] by early December. Students also read a four-page anthology of comic theory covering a mere 2,500 years. After introductory material, the seminar will be mostly discussion. Requirements: three or four short essays and your actively and intelligently participating presence. The course is suitable for anyone who enjoys literature and films, then analyzing, talking and writing about them while discovering why we laugh at other people's pain. (Bauland)

Section 002 Comparative Literature in Asia, America, Africa. We will look at six texts, two from each of three geographical areas, and try to answer some of the following questions in comparative ways: What is the function of literature? How does it relate to social conditions? What value derives from the way in which the writer or artist conceives of her art? What connections, if any, exist between, say, an Arthur Miller and a Wole Soyinka (of Nigeria) both of them modern playwrights? Between an American poet, say, Walt Whitman, and one from Kenya or Egypt? In what kinds of traditions do these cultures find their inspiration and confirm their various identities? Here, the examples may involve the influence of, say, Christian, Islamic, or Hindu cultures; Native American or Yoruba imagery. We'll try to see if anything at all provides bridges between the regions that we'll cover during the term. (Johnson)

Section 003 Gothic Bodies. We will start by reading the quintessential Gothic text, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818). But our exploration will broaden out from there to consider the use of Gothic motifs - haunted houses, locked rooms, and, most importantly, monstrous bodies in a range of texts drawn from a number of different periods and cultural contexts. We shall consider how the Gothic as a genre has been used to express or work through anxieties about sexuality, race, and class, as well as asking questions about the politics of the Gothic in its many manifestations. Authors will probably include Mary Shelley, Bram Stoker, Daphne du Maurier, Ira Levin, Bessie Head, and Stephen King, but we shall also watch films by Alfred Hitchcock and others. Course requirements will include: vigorous class participation, several short papers, a midterm and a final. (Raitt)
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217. Literature Seminar. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Ripening Memories: The Making Of Meaning.
In some significant ways a literary text may serve its reader very similarly to a past life remembered, a memory, a dream. In this seminar we will want to concentrate our attention on how that process might work. How does an author carve a living, changing world out of print and paper? How do we carve our lives out of past lives our own and others? What do we choose to remember? To forget? The process of forgetting is often what authors take the most pains to understand. A.S. Byatt begins to understand her own process of composing, I think, when she says: "...the text appeared to be wholly new, never before seen, followed, almost immediately, by the sense that it was always there...." As readers of texts (and authors of our own life-stories), we want to understand how and why our authors reveal this very human process of selecting and repossessing memories. Coursework includes two 8-page papers and a final exam. Cost:2 (Back)
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223. Creative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (CE). May not be repeated for credit.
Section 001.
This introductory course is for anyone with an open mind towards language and an interest in learning how to transform experiences and ideas into successful creative works. We will focus on poetry and fiction, with an emphasis on poetry. Class time will be spent workshopping each other's stories and poems, exploring individual and collaborative writing exercises, and discussing issues of craft. We will read numerous published authors, but the course's focus will be on your work. Our goal is to not only fall in love with language, but also to discover how surprise and disorder in language can vitalize a work. To this end, we will consider non-traditional sources of inspiration and some "experimental" ways to start writing. Attendance and active participation are required. By the term's end, you will have generated at least 7-10 poems and two revised short stories. (Singh)

Section 002. "A poem should not mean, but be." - Archibald MacLeish. Whether or not you believe that, you will find this class a place to explore your own writing of fiction and poetry. What may seem reckless at first will be crafted, through revision and thoughtful criticism, into a final portfolio of at least ten pages of poetry and about 20 pages of fiction. While the focus of the class will be on your writing, with slightly more emphasis on poetry, we will also read a range of works by contemporary authors and discuss ideas concerning style, language, and why it is we write. Other requirements: keeping a writer's journal, active participation, commitment to your writing, and reading responses. Bring your open minds, voices, histories, and passions. No need to worry about inspiration; we'll be finding ways to create it. (Nguyen)

Section 003. This introductory creative writing course will give students tools and strategies to jump-start the imagination and craft meaningful fiction and poetry. Although the emphasis will be on developing each student's own writing voice, along the way we'll read work by a diversity of authors, and shamelessly steal their techniques. Students will learn how to discuss and critique each other's writing in ways that will be helpful for everyone. We'll also concentrate on deepening and improving writing through revision. By the end of the term, each student will have 25+ pages of revised fiction and 6 revised poems. Each student will keep a writer's journal as a resource, in order to jot down ideas, memories, dreams, and observations. Brief in-class writing exercises and attendance at two public readings will complement the work. Class attendance and participation are key. (Nyren)

Section 004. You can live all the lives you can imagine. In this creative writing workshop, which will emphasize fiction, you can explore what you find funny, sad, truthful, strange, comforting, vivid, memorable, human, and meaningful in fiction and poetry. We'll read a diverse set of stories and poems to learn techniques and possibilities. You'll begin to develop your own voice as you write not only fiction and poetry but exercises, critiques, and a journal of reading responses, observations, free writings, and ideas. In workshopping each writer's stories and poetry, we'll offer compassionate, clear-sighted criticism. During the term, you'll discover the benefits and pleasures of revision and how re-imagining a work can deepen and strengthen it. You'll also attend at least two public readings, and, by the end of the class, have completed portfolios of 20-35 pages of revised fiction and 5-8 pages of revised poetry. (Stone)

Section 005. "The hush of reverence is inappropriate for literature; great writing makes a great noise in the mind, the heart. There are those who believe that persecution is good for writers. This is false." Salman Rushdie. In this writers' workshop, efforts will be equally balanced in composing poetry and prose. We'll read a broad range of writers: a springboard for discussing narrative art and craft. Think: open season on the canon. (Song lyrics will be examined, for instance.) You'll encourage and support one another in conceiving drafts and polishing them. Attendance and earnest participation are essentials; you'll also be responsible for attending two local readings and offering a relevant response. You will write in class and out, maintain a Nonsense Notebook, and assemble a 30-35 page portfolio that makes a great noise (be it wind chimes or thunder) and when the class is over? You will want to write more. (Bhattacharya)

Section 007. Prepare to be moved! This introductory course in creative writing will be both rewarding and strenuous as we will seek to become better writers and better witnesses. We will be inspired not only by the works of prominent authors but also by the world around us. Never lazy, we will on occasion go in search of (and find) inspiration in the streets, the museum, the cafe, the salt mines. Though we will focus primarily on reading and writing poetry, we will also spend a significant amount of time examining and creating fictional pieces. Whether working in poetry or prose, our mission will remain the same: we will seek to create powerful and sustaining writings. Much of our time will be spent considering the elements of craft in a workshop setting wherein students will comment thoughtfully and thoroughly on each others' work with an eye toward revision. Each student will complete seven poems, two short prose sketches and one 10-15 page story. All works will be revised and polished for inclusion in a cumulative portfolio. Passion, a love of language, vocal participation, and attendance are all mandatory. (Breedon)

Section 010. This introductory workshop in fiction and playwriting will emphasize the student as writer, without ignoring the student as reader. We will read plays and short fiction that reflect the diversity of voices available in writing today as a means to access the unique voice each of us brings to the classroom. The workshop structure requires attendance and close reading of student work and graceful and constructive criticism of that work. Along with writing 2-3 short stories and dramatic scenes, students will examine various issues of craft to learn how the writer can get the images and emotions in his or her head onto the printed page. Requirements include a 25-35 pages of revised work, timely production of writing assignments, classroom involvement, and a writer's journal. Bring your life, your imagination, and your sense of fun and we'll take it from there. (Trujillo)

Section 011. "The main element is verve, movement, have to hit and keep on hitting, sharp, hard, make it crackle, make it brilliant," says poet Hayden Carruth. This introductory course is designed to help you listen for and discover new possibilities for developing your own writing voice. Although we will explore technique in both poetry and fiction, slightly more emphasis will be placed on poetry. The focus will be on your writing. "Surprise" exercises will help break new creative ground and hone tools for shaping your words into art. We will explore lyric and narrative and experiment with syntax, meter, and dialogue (techniques employed in both genres). Some authors we will read include stories by Ansay, Kincaid, Agee, Wolff, and Carver, and poems by poets such as Brooks, Doty, Berryman, Dove, and Kinnell. To help you develop a more critical ear and eye, you will write constructive and encouraging critiques of each other's stories and poems as they are presented for workshop. Requirements: attendance/participation, written/oral comments on colleagues' work, 35-50 pages revised final portfolio (i.e., 8-10 poems, 15-30 pages short fiction), and attendance of at least two public readings. (Allen)

Section 012. Speak: articulate, assert, expatiate, gab, gas, pop off. As a writer, who is your speaker? What do you want your speaker to do for you? Through in-class exercises, the workshopping and revision of assigned writing, close readings of poetry, fiction, and the musings of writers on the arts of the craft, we will prospect the vast terrain inhabited by the concept of "voice" and map an understanding of the skills and strategies appropriate to moving through this terrain. Where appropriate, we will draw on microfiction and dramatic monologue to enrich our understanding of the well-realized speaker. The focus will be on your own creative work; the main goals of the course will be to strengthen your grasp of the available tools and your skills in using them. Course requirements: class attendance; active participation during in-class exercises and workshops; six revised poems, 20 pages of revised fiction, and a writer's journal; one 1-page essay on a public reading. Required texts: to be announced. (Kremer)

Section 013. This is an introductory writers' workshop in poetry and fiction, with an emphasis on fiction. We will read and discuss several published short stories and poems to learn what we can about the crafts of fiction and poetry. Class time will be devoted to discussions of the readings, occasional written exercises, and critiques of classmates' work. Attendance and active participation will be mandatory. Students will be expected to take their own creative work seriously and revise it based on in-class discussions, other students' comments, and the required reading assignments. Students will be asked to write and revise 5-10 poems and 25-30 pages of fiction, offer written and oral critiques of classmates' work, and attend two readings by local or visiting writers. (Ponyicsanyl)
Section 014. This course is structured to foster the beginning writer's creative imagination and artistic potential. Emphasis will be on developing an altertness to the observed world and a feel for the vividness and accuracy of language. Our work will center on fictional and autobiographical traditions. While we will primarily focus on student work, we will also read short stories and essays by Anton Chekov, James Baldwin, Michael Ondaatje, Katherine Anne Porter, Flannery O'Connor, and Lucy Grealy. Class time will consist of close, critical reading of student work, writing exercises, and discussion. In addition to reading assignments, students are responsible for midterm and final portfolios (twenty page minimum for each), weekly writing "sketches," at least one student-teacher conference, and consistent class attendance. There is no final exam. Required Texts: The Story and its Writer: An Introduction to Short Fiction Ann Charters, editor, and a course pack. (Stanton)

Section 017. The object of this introductory workshop in creative writing is to write what moves you, whether it be autobiographical or fully imagined, traditional or experimental, strident or quiet, domestic or grand. While there will be assigned readings and specific writing exercises, and while we will discuss various techniques, strategies, and styles in a more or less structured atmosphere, the course will not insist on any one way of writing. Our readings and creative work should be as broad and diverse as the lives we bring to them. In workshopping each other's poems and stories we will offer thoughtful, considered criticism, reading each piece on its own terms. The first half of the term will be devoted to poetry and the second half to prose. Required work: 30-35 pages of writing (includes 5 revised poems and 3 short poetry exercises, 2 revised stories and 4 short fiction exercises). Required texts: one poetry anthology, one story anthology. (Shreve)
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225. Argumentative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (HU).
This course furthers the aims of English 124 and 125 in helping to analyze the various claims of a given issue and to develop ways of exploring and defending positions, ideas, and beliefs in writing. Careful attention will be paid to the process of reasoning, the testing of assumptions and claims, the questioning of beliefs, and the discovery of ideas and evidence through analysis and rigorous articulation in written discourse. The course will also focus on considerations of style, formal strategy techniques, and revision as integral to precision in making points and developing argumentative ideas both for purposes of individual reflection as well as for the purpose of persuading an audience. Section descriptions can be found on the department's Web page.

Section 002, 012, and 017. The course, using the workshop approach to the teaching of writing, is designed to help you improve your writing read rewriting - by writing argumentative essays. (For a more detailed description of this course, see my Policy Statement.) When I use the word "argumentative," I don't employ it in the normal sense to refer to fighting or bickering; rather, I use it to refer to your taking a stance on a controversial or ambiguous issue and then defending, in readable English, your position by supporting it with specific details and/or logical reasons. Truth to tell, I should much prefer this course be English 225 Persuasive Writing. The stress is heavily upon "writing" rather than on "argumentative." The aim of the course is, finally, to teach you to think logically and then to express your thoughts in clear, readable prose. This should be a fun and an interesting class; indeed, I love teaching this course. I view my role as that of a devil's advocate a gadfly and my observations and comments a few of which might strike you as somewhat bizarre. I, for one, intend to have a good time. (If you think I jest, ask any of my former students.) You can also enjoy the class and learn something too. Utile dulci, as they say ("they" being, in this case, Horace in Ars Poetica ). (Rubadeau)

Section 006 Advanced Argumentation and the Avant-Garde. During our term together, we will explore the intersections among the argumentative strategies that are favored by academic disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and "hard" sciences," and the strategies of shock, aggression, and absurdity that may be discovered when we examine the history of experimental writing, painting, and performance. To understand the former, students will be expected to bring to the class examples of excellent argumentative writing in their major fields. To understand the latter, we will read from a diverse number of experimental literary and creative traditions, including work by Jonathan Swift, Leslie Marmon Silko, Edgar Allan Poe, and Yoko Ono, in addition to essays on city design, aesthetic theory, and guerrilla warfare. Comparing these two bodies of expression, we will define the nature of audience, authority, and evidence and devise a number of "major" and "minor" techniques that will allow us to communicate more effectively in our own fields of study while maintaining close contact with other worlds and other ways of seeing. (Sell)

Section 007. This course is centered on the First Amendment and free speech issues. The rights guaranteed by the First Amendment effect us directly as students and citizens, from what we say on the Diag to the email messages we send via the Internet. Indeed, we might view our other course aims to write persuasively and debate ideas in a public forum as one big exercise in free speech. Of course, the actual issues that surround the First Amendment are a good deal more complicated. As we all know, not all "speech" is speech (consider pornogrphy and burning the U.S. flag,for example), just as not all speech is "free" (quite literally: a 30 second ad on the Oprah Winfrey show costs $65,000). Thus, while we examine the individual provisions of the 1st A (religious freedom, free speech and freedom of the press, the right to peaceful assembly and to petition the government), we will examine what is at stake in the idea itself, and try to answer why it is still at the center of so many debates about American society. Course requirements include five papers (frequent rewrites), short writing assignments, an annotated bibliography, and active class participation. (Ramsburgh)

Section 008 Individual Goals/Social Responsibility. What happens when individual goals and social responsibility clash? Before exploring this question, we'll first spend some time examining what makes a good argument and analyzing what it is that each of us finds persuasive and why. Then, we'll look at several current issues involving the above moral dilemma, and you will choose those of particular interest to you and write about them, getting extensive feedback from readers as you construct extended arguments, test your evidence, question your assumptions, and search for ways to make your point of view clear, credible, and convincing. Readings will include classic persuasive writings such as Martin Luther King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail and Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own as well as more recent writings such as Jon Krakauer's Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mount Everest Disaster. Writings will include four essays, revised through several drafts, exploratory writings, freewritings, in-class exercises, conversation papers, reading responses, letters to other students about their drafts, and analyses of the writing process. (Berggren)

Section 009 and 010 Understanding Argument. What is an argument? Is it a battle? a dance? a journey? What do we talk about when we talk about argument? We all have commonsensical notions about argument, but we often don't have a precise idea of what an argument actually involves. What makes an argument succeed, and how can you tell? This course aims to demystify argument. Our basic assumption will be that an argument can be analyzed into its parts, and by the same token, deliberately developed and controlled through a series of careful choices. We'll consider how you can convince others by presenting a logical case, persuading them of your credibility, and appealing to their emotions. Throughout the term, we'll be looking at a diverse array of essays by, among others, Martin Luther King, Jr., Virginia Woolf, John F. Kennedy, Adrienne Rich, George Orwell, Patricia Williams, Toni Morrison and Abraham Lincoln. (Hickman)

Section 012. See English 225.002. (Rubedeau)

Section 016 Writing and Service Learning. This course will provide opportunities for students both to engage in community service and to think and write about this experience as part of their course work. Each week students will spend time in Ann Arbor working with members of the community on selected common projects. Projects could include creating newspapers and bulletins for non-profit organizations, writing handbooks for after-school tutors, conducting ethnographic research for a local community group, or serving as a tutor for elementary or intermediate students. In-class readings and writing as well as class discussions will inform and be informed by the practical experiences gained at the service site. To help in the process of creating, exploring, and maintaining connections between the writing and the discussions occurring inside the classroom with those occurring within the community, course readings will revolve around topics such as literacy, ethnography, and the growing field of service learning. (Sinor)

Section 017. See English 225.002. (Rubedeau)

Section 018. We will focus on the three basic, interrelated components of successful argumentative writing: development of a convincing persona, responsiveness to an audience's needs, and presentation of well-formulated and -supported claims. Although we will use several recent essays by professional writers about education policy, welfare reform, assisted suicide and other current controversies as models of certain rhetorical and argumentative strategies, most of our time will go to the practice of writing. During the term, students will write and rewrite four separate 5-7 page essays. Students will also keep journals, make brief presentations on key terms of argumentation, and workshop papers in progress. To enrich our understanding of the issues under debate we will host three guest speakers (a journalist, a lawyer, and a community development consultant) who have written persuasively about these issues themselves. Course materials will include a rhetoric reader and a course pack (both required), as well as a grammar handbook and an argumentation primer (recommended). (Daligga)

Section 019. This course begins with the assumption that almost any kind of writing is argumentative, if an argument is a particular way of interpreting and understanding the world and its workings. An argument's success depends on an audience's expectations and thus on our ability as writers to anticipate and address those expectations. (We will not always choose to address such expectations by meeting them.) We will begin the term by asking and, I hope, arguing about the nature of argument: what do arguments assume about and expect from their audiences? how do they create their effects? how successful are those effects at persuading an audience? In addition to reading and analyzing a wide range of exemplary argumentative writing, you will workshop your own and your classmates' papers. The goal of the workshop format is to establish a supportive community of writers who care enough about each others' writing to argue about it fruitfully. Requirements include three formal papers (5-7pp, 7-9pp, 3-5pp), one analysis of a classmate's paper, periodic self-analyses of your own work, in-class writing exercises, and a willingness to contribute to workshops and class discussions. (Fluhr)

Section 022. This course's primary goal is to hone the skills of argument which students acquired in English Composition 124 or 125. Writing assignments will focus on the various components of successful argument: effective rhetorical strategy, sound logical reasoning, clear and persuasive supporting evidence, and skillful use of the English language. We will use a textbook on argumentative writing. Our other readings will focus on the nature and role of horror in society. We will read and watch some primary "horror" texts (for example, Grimm's fairy tales and Hitchcock's Psycho, as well as study various arguments about horror by writers such as Sigmund Freud, Stephen King, Carol Clover, Roger Ebert, and Kaja Silverman. (Crutchfield)
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227. Introductory Playwriting. (3). (CE).
In this course, we will write a one act play. We will start with the first whisperings of an idea, then nurture it, develop it, workshop it, and by the end of the term we will share our work with an audience of friends. Class time will be divided in three ways: (1) Writing games to stir imagination, touch passion, inspire ideas, explore voice. (2) Lectures on story telling principles and dramatic structure common to plays, screenplays and teleplays. (3) Discussions of student writing. Other assignments will include reading plays, keeping a journal, and meeting regularly with the teacher. Ambitious students are encouraged to write more than a one act play, e.g., a series of 10 minute plays or a first draft of a full length play. (Hammond)
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230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).
Rather than a comprehensive survey of the short story and novel, this course offers an introduction to the basic techniques of analyzing prose fiction. Beginning with short stories, students learn to define questions of narrative construction, voice, characterization, theme, and style. As critical facility increases, the course will consider more challenging and in some cases experimental fiction. At least three novels will be read in addition to numerous short stories. Student should expect to read substantial amounts of fiction, to participate in class discussions, and to write several short literary analyses. Section descriptions can be found on the department's Web page.

Section 001 Rebellions Large and Small. Many writers explore the conflict between the individual's desire for personal freedom and the expectations of that person's family and culture. Resistance, small or large, to following a role or outright rebellion against conformity is an important literary theme. In this class, we will assess the writer's convictions about the value of rebellion. We will consider the history and culture which influence the characters and the authors, as well as literary questions about the way the stories are told. Readings will include novels and short stories by Oates, Faulkner, Baldwin, Le Guin, and others. We will also explore the theme of resistance in some popular genres, such as science fiction and mysteries. To support and enhance these reading experiences, students will keep journals and write several short papers and one longer final paper. The emphasis of the class will be on collaboration, discussion, and group work. (Reeves)

Section 002 Poetry and Its Possibility after the Holocaust. How can we describe indescribable pain, render imaginable unimaginable cruelty, and recreate destruction so great that the mind cannot grasp its magnitude? Even more importantly, why would we want to? In this course, we will consider why writers would want to turn the most shocking events of history into story, and what we in turn get out of reading these stories. For not only do we learn from such texts, we derive pleasure from them; horrific though their subject matter, all the works we will be reading are, in their different ways, enthralling, and at times surprisingly easy to read. Works include Joseph Heller's Catch-22 , Art Spiegelman's comic book Maus, Toni Morrison's Beloved and, as a counterpoint to these texts portraying actual events, Stephen King's Carrie. Course requirements are class participation, three short responses, two papers, and a midterm and a final. (Yoshikawa)

Section 003 From Pulp to Paperback: American Crime Fiction, 1920-60. This course explores the development of American crime fiction from the pulp magazine stories of the 20's and 30's to the novels of the post-War era. We begin by studying the "hard-boiled" stories of Black Mask and other early American pulps. We then read several important crime novels of the 40's and 50's by authors such as Jim Thompson, Patricia Highsmith, and Chester Himes. The course ends with a section on contemporary revisions of the pulp and hard-boiled aesthetic (perhaps a Walter Mosley novel or a Quentin Tarantino film). In addition to our reading, we will study the cover art and front-cover blurbs from a number of different paperbacks (1940-60) and discuss the methods publishers used to represent (and sell) their products to the public. Course requirements: active participation in class discussions, one short paper (5pp.), one longer paper (10pp.), and one class presentation. (Sharp)
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239. What is Literature? Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
"There's no there there," Gertrude Stein said dismissively about her hometown (Oakland, California). So, nearly a century ago, she set out for Paris and became famous. For her, there was elsewhere. Too often, I think, Michiganders fail to see there's a here right here, a place that writers have used as the foundation for literary invention. So in our search for answers to the question that titles this course, we will read writers who have made our part of the world into fictional worlds. We will read novels and short stories by Sherwood Anderson, Charles Baxter, Theodore Dreiser, Stuart Dybek, Jim Harrison, Sinclair Lewis, Alice Munroe, Toni Morrison, and Richard Wright. A midterm, final, and a series of 3-5 page papers will be required. We will learn about literature by writing and talking about it. (Bailey)

Section 002. This section of "What is Literature?" focuses on the ways in which literary texts can be seen to rewrite, reinterpret, and respond to one another. Beginning with the assumption that it is very difficult if not impossible to pinpoint the original creator of any narrative, trope, or theme, we will instead consider authors as figures who borrow from, transform, and play off each other's efforts. Focusing on pairs of related texts, we will read William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! alongside Toni Morrison's Beloved, both of which examine race, history, and the power of the dead; Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre and Jean Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea, which address women's place in society; George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion and David Mamet's Oleanna, which explore the power relations between teacher and student; and Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Francis Ford Coppola's film Apocalypse Now, which problematize the concepts of civilization and barbarism. Coursework includes three papers and five quizzes. Cost:2 (Egger)

Section 005 Honors. This course will serve as an introduction to a broad range of approaches to the study of literature. The course will focus on three texts that represent three important moments in literary history: Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Shelley's novel Frankenstein, and Pater's art-historical treatise The Renaissance. In each case we will begin with a close structural analysis of the text followed by an examination of the way the text itself represents the act of artistic production. We will then bring to bear on the text a variety of critical approaches, discussing the piece's relation to its historical context, the allusive connections it establishes with other pieces of literature, and its representation of economic, political, familial, and gender relations. As we follow these various lines of inquiry, we will read a selection of relevant literary, philosophical, historical, and critical writings, in addition to studying related dramatic and pictorial material. (Henderson)

Section 006. This course will address the question of why and how we read literature, not by providing an answer to "what is literature?" but by considering the historical and cultural implications of reading. Why do we tell stories? Who decides what stories should be told when and which ones should be told again and again? How do we decide what stories mean? The course will introduce students to the purpose and function of literary criticism as well as to an understanding of how we are everywhere interpreting signs that involve a process of "reading," from fashion items to sports events. Readings will include various literary critical approaches to a classic text, a film adaptation of a novel, a 20th century rewriting of a 19th century text, and a story based on a real event. Writing assignments will include response papers, a literary critical essay, and a take-home final. (Herrmann)

Section 007. How do you decide, when you open a book, whether what you are reading counts as "literature" or not? How do we decide what a story means? This class is designed to explore and challenge common assumptions about literature, language, and culture; to disclose the active role of narrative in shaping self and society; and to open up a critical perspective on the workings of our own culture. We will approach these topics through a wide variety of readings, including fiction (Austen, Morrison), drama (Shakespeare, Césaire) and cultural theory. Format: discussion. This class is designed to encourage critical thinking; it will even be all right for students to question the accuracy of the teacher's views at least, I will do my best to remain calm. Students' responsibilities: punctual completion of reading assignments, class participation, an oral presentation, three short papers, one examination. (Howard)

Section 008. We will approach the question "what is literature?" by focusing on the encounter between literary works and their readers. The course will be organized around three important works that thematize in different ways this problem of encounter: Shakespeare's The Tempest, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, and Kerouac's On the Road. We will take our time with each book, considering questions of how meanings are produced in literature and what is involved in interpreting them. We will then move on in each case to subsequent works (including short stories, poems, popular films, and essays) that respond in powerful ways to the original text. This will enable us to refine our understandings of the process of interpretation by considering how and why readers' encounters with a given work change over time, and how it is that certain works, by provoking vigorous new responses with each passing generation, never seem to grow old. Coursework includes two essays and a final exam. Cost:1 (Porter)

Section 009. The classics and trash is the title under which somebody recently examined "tradition" and "taboo" in "high" and "popular" literatures. What do all these categories mean? How fixed are they? Why does it seem, or become, important to make the kinds of distinction that they imply? And what roles do such places as University Departments of English, airport concession stands, and book publishers play in the making of "classics" and of "trash"? Indeed, what roles do such things as essays and final exams written by students and the grades and college degrees that they then receive contribute to the picture? There is, too, the matter of how all of this relates to why writers write. What does it mean that sometimes some folks get quite opposite "messages" from reading the same texts; that sometimes the reactions simply defy what a writer openly says her intention was? We'll make use of publications (why "publications"?) from a variety of cultures and times to tackle some of these issues. (Johnson)

Section 010. This is an introductory course in the reading of fictional literature. Its purpose is to equip you with the basic tools of literary criticism. We will read a number of works that deal with relations between "the West" and non-Western cultures. The authors to be read include Shakespeare, Brontë, Conrad, Rhys, and Salih. We will ask such questions as: How do these works of literature portray race and gender differences? What, according to these authors, does it mean to be human? What values do these works give expression to? Are these "universal" values or "local" ones? Is there a contradiction between "national" culture and general "human" aspirations? Is it possible to write about a culture other than your own? We will also watch a number of films based on the novels and plays we are reading, in order to understand how fictions are transformed when they are made into films. (Mufti)

Section 011 Telling Stories: A Need to Narrate. We will want to, in this class, think about the power and the connectedness that the act of telling stories might provide. For example a character in Ursula Hegi's Stones From the River thinks: Every time I take a story and let it stream through my mind from beginning to end, it grows fuller, richer, feeding on my visions of those people the story belonged to until it leaves its bed like the river I love. And then I have to tell the story to someone. Our readings will often focus on the dynamics of the imaginative process our own as well as the author's. As we begin the course by reading and discussing a masterly short piece by Borges entitled "Borges and I" in which the author-narrator begins to question where his identity begins and his characters' end. As the term continues and we discuss various 20th-century literature (mostly), we will find ourselves grappling with issues as basic as what defines the dimensions of a character and the place that character makes in his or her world. We want to understand how an author has prepared these amazing creations to speak to us. Although the complete syllabus decisions are yet to be made, I'm sure we will want to read the following novels to help us unfold the ingenious visions of those who seek to "tell us stories": French Lieutenant's Woman; A Prayer For Owen Meany; Mama Day; and Stones From the River. (Back)

Section 012 and 013. The purpose of this section is to introduce you to a wide range of the critical concepts and issues you are likely to encounter in other English courses. To that end, we will read some very different works a couple of "classics" and some contemporary works along with various critical responses. The course will also have a practical research component, including a field trip to the library. Texts (at Shamman Drum): Hamlet, Endgame, Cloud 9, Wuthering Heights, Beloved, and a course pack (at Accucopy). Requirements: faithful and enthusiastic attendance, participation, three short exercises, an eight-page paper, an oral report, a midterm, and a final. (Herold)
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240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
English 240 is a prerequisite for English concentrators, and it is a good course to help you decide whether you wish to concentrate in English. Poetry is a game and a source of pleasure, and to understand a poem fully, just as to understand any complex game, we need to acquire knowledge and skill: fluency. We will read aloud, memorize, analyze, discuss. There will be frequent short writings, and a few longer papers, a computer conference, and, probably, a midterm and a final. Regular attendance and active participation in class meetings are required. Cost:1 (Cloyd)

Section 002. The aim of this course is to learn to read poetry by doing it together. We shall give close attention to a series of poems drawn from different periods and genres. Our focus will be on what makes each poem work as a poem: its formal and metric structure, its imagery, the tensions between its rhythms and those of ordinary speech, its tones of voice and imagined speakers, its ironies, ambiguities, allusions, and surprises. Our central questions will be what kind of meaning each poem has and how that meaning is made. This is a discussion class and your attendance and participation are strictly required. There will be two or three long papers, a midterm, a final, and a series of short written exercises. The text required is the Norton Anthology of Poetry. (White)

Section 003 and 007. An introduction to poetry: its traditional forms, themes, techniques and uses of language; its historical and geographical range; and its twentieth century diversity. The course will include discussion of oral and written traditions, and the place of performance in contemporary poetry; the kinds of power (from the magical to the political) which have often been associated with poetry; the relationships between secular and sacred traditions in poetry; and the varying roles of audiences and readers in the traditions of poetry. There will be discussion of the function of historical and national categories, as well as those of race and gender and class. (Goodison)

Section 004. Is poetry different language? Why does it sing to us, resist us, move us to a place where words either sting or seem solid, like stone? Does poetry have a politics? Why does it invoke, so consistently, dreams of a female muse, of carpe diem, of male mastery? How have Western expectations of "the poetic" changed over time? In this course we will examine four centuries of Anglo-American poetry, with an emphasis on form (that is, on defining traditional poetic forms and seeing how they have changed over time) and on the relations between form and culture. (Yaeger)

Section 005. A course in ways to understand, feel, enjoy, evaluate, and interpret poems. Poetry differs from ordinary language and from prose in certain fairly conventional and (for poetry) advantageous ways, and we shall try to understand how it does so. As we look at and hear poems, we shall consider such things as sound, diction, rhythm, figures of speech, the line, form, and genre, authorship, audience, and context. Our readings will come from various cultures, old and now; most readings will be British and American, most of these recent or contemporary. We'll pay some attention to the histories of poetry, and try to get a feel for the contemporary poetry scene. Texts: an Introduction to Poetry book, and an anthology, both in course pack form. Everyone will write three essays on increasingly challenging topics. There will be a test on "technical terms," another on the course readings, and a final exam asking for the interpretation and evaluation of some new poetry. (M. Smith)

Section 007. See English 240.003. (Goodison)

Section 008. This course will provide an introduction to poetry, emphasizing the association of form and content and their link to the historical context in which poems were originally written. Our poets will range from Shakespeare to Christina Rossetti to Seamus Heaney. The course will, for the most part, be organized chronologically, but we will on occasion trace certain themes, techniques, and forms as they appear in a cluster of poems of different periods. We will also use other cultural artifacts to illuminate the workings of the poems of particular eras. The class will discuss, for instance, the common features of Renaissance poems and paintings, and the relationship between twentieth-century impressionism and the poetry of Wallace Stevens. Course requirements include active class participation, several short papers, and a final exam. (Henderson)

Section 009. This introduction to lyric poetry will draw its reading from a wide historical range, from the earliest poetry in English to the present. Its aim is to teach you how to read poetry with understanding and delight; to this end, we will attend closely to the techniques and resources of language that poets use to articulate their visions of experience. We will consider especially matters of form (including diction, prosody, tone, and figurative language) and the way they shape themes, voice, intertextual connections, and poetic traditions. Classes will proceed mainly by intensive discussion of a few poems each day. Assignments to include short exercises, some memorizing, three or four short papers, and a final. (Taylor)

Section 010. The aim of this course is to introduce you to the art of poetry so that you can read and discuss any poem with understanding and delight. During the term, we will move from a general survey of poetic techniques and forms to a more detailed study of the work of a selection of authors from the Renaissance to the present. For the former, we will use Western Wind by John Frederick Nims. For the latter, we will use The Norton Anthology of Poetry. Formal writing will include four (ungraded) exercises in poetic analysis and four (graded) papers (3-5 pages) on individual authors and poems. Cost:2 (Cureton)

Section 011. This course will practice the skills of reading, listening to and voicing poetry (broadly defined) for purposes of appreciation and understanding, including: description, interpretation, explanation, and evaluation. We will also deal with procedures of communication, role-taking, memorization, performance, and short essay writing. Requirements: a journal; write-ups and small group interpretation projects; and three or four 3-5 page essays. (Wright)
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245/RC Hums. 280/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in RC Hums. 281. (4). (HU).
See Theatre and Drama 211. (Cardullo)
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267(326). Introduction to Shakespeare. Completion of Introductory Composition. (4). (HU).
Section 001 The Pleasures of the (Performed) Text.
The big name in drama, Shakespeare appears as a character in most controversies having to do with the study of a canon consisting of white male Europeans, usually in the role of literary genius. In this course we will explore the work of Shakespeare the playwright, the writer for the stage whose creations have been revived again and again to be played throughout the world. Does the nature of revival and performance enliven the relevance of the works? Why do contemporary writers about gender, race, and sexual orientation find the stuff that critical dreams are made of in the 38 plays? Requirements include extensive reading, short writing assignments, mandatory attendance, and a longer project paper. (Skantze)
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270. Introduction to American Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Idea of the South.
This course will approach the study of American literature and culture by examining in some detail the culture of one region, the American South. We will first study popular interpretations of the South the film and novel versions of Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird and Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind and then compare them with more complex novels, stories, plays, and films by Frederick Douglass, Kate Chopin, William Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, Toni Morrison, Zora Neale Hurston, Tennessee Williams, and others. By examining these works we will learn how one region of America has struggled with its problems and its identity, and in the process we may learn a little bit more about what it means to be an American in the last part of the twentieth century. (Harrison)
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Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

308. History of the English Language. (3). (HU).
Our language has changed dramatically in the twelve hundred years of its recorded history. We would not recognize speech (Old English) of the first Germanic peoples who migrated to post-Roman Britain in the fifth century; Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (Middle English) might seem to be written in a foreign language; even Shakespeare's (early Modern) English requires special efforts. Our main task will be to understand something of sounds, words and structure of English at each of these earlier periods, but especially we will work to understand why and how a language changes (or doesn't). Course work will consist of frequent short assignments, group tasks, in class workshops, a midterm and final. The major prerequisite is that you come prepared to have fun. This course satisfies the requirement for a course in language for English concentrators in the Teaching Certification Program and satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Toon)
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309. American English. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Talking the Talk.
Where is the language of power spoken in America? Where does it come from and how is it maintained? Who regulates speaking and writing? We will answer these questions by examining closely issues of schooling (including the role of school books), free speech (how is this "freedom" limited?), electronic and print literacy (who gets access and for what purposes?). Some varieties of English in America are marginalized and some voices are silenced. What are these varieties, and how are they connected in stereotype and in fact with women, African-Americans, Hispanics, and other groups? Our course will have a midterm and final, regular in-class paragraph-long essays to stimulate discussion, and a research paper of 8-10 typewritten pages. Regular attendance will be required. (Bailey)
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313. Topics in Literary Studies. (4). (HU). May be repeated for a total of eight credits.
Section 001 Science Fiction.
This is an elective course for upperclass students. There are no prerequisites. We will examine both the history and the diversity of science fiction prose by reading a representative international sampling of some of the best examples written since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Generally, we will approach each primary text in three ways: through a consideration of its backgrounds (scientific, mythic, and so forth), through specific questions the text raises (moral questions, questions of plausibility, and so forth), and through the traditional discipline of criticism (what is science fiction? what is the relationship of character to theme? and so forth). The written work for the course will revolve around weekly, short papers, and two longer papers. There are no exams. Authors studied include Mary Shelley, Poe, Hawthorne, Wells, Zamiatin, Capek, Stapledon, Bradbury, Clarke, Miller, Dick, LeGuin, Lem, and Gibson. Cost:3 (Rabkin)

Section 007 Warriors, Priests, Poets, and Vikings: The Literary World of Pre-Conquest England. This course will explore the most ancient stratum of our English literary heritage: the Anglo-Saxon culture in England from its origins until the Norman Conquest in 1066. As we approach the next millennium, becoming ever more preoccupied with our present and future, this course affords you the opportune to look deep into the past without assuming any prior study of medieval languages or history. Besides Beowulf, which deals with the legendary pre-history of the Germanic tribes, we will read selections from Bede's History of the English Church and People (the story of the conversion of the English from their native paganism), a poetic saint's Life known as Elene, which tells of the miraculous discovery of Christ's cross in the Holy Land, and a selection of shorter texts on matters such as romantic love and loss, magic charms, and the mysteries of the Runic alphabet. Finally we will explore the world of the Norse Vikings cousins and sometime enemies of the English through the remarkable tale known as Egil's Saga. The course requires attendance at two lectures and one discussion section per week. Written work will consist of two medium length essays and occasional shorter response papers. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Tanke)

Section 010 Winter and Spring. "Winter and Spring" is a literature course offered as part of the Winter 98 Environmental Theme Semester. As an exercise in creating parallels between the books we read and the weather we experience during winter term, the plan in this class is to read from a diverse range of cultures - fiction, poetry, and essays that put us in touch with the natural world as it passes from the season of snow and ice to the return of warmth and greenery. The hope is that by the time spring arrives, we will feel something in common with Robert Frost, who wrote in his poem "Tree at My Window":

That day she put our heads together,
Fate had her imagination about her,
Your head so much concerned with outer,
Mine with inner, weather.

Coursework includes one 5 page paper, one 10 page paper, a quiz, a midterm, and a take-home final exam. (Tillinghast)

Section 017 Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance. What images are conjured up by that phrase: the blues trailing out of smoky after-hours clubs; Renaissance men like Rudolph Fisher, medical doctor and mystery writer; brash Southern migrants like Zora Neale Hurston; The Dark Tower and Nigger Heaven; hair straightening magnate A'Lelia Walker and "voluntary" Negro Walter White. In this course, we'll aim for a "thick description" of a bygone, possibly magic age, drawing on historical accounts, music, art, and, of course, a wealth of literary expression. We will read the works of writers such as Wallace Thurman, Jessie Fauset, Langston Hughes, and Marita Bonner. Course requirements: consistent attendance and class participation, two papers, and two examinations. This course satisfies the American Literature and New Traditions requirements for English concentrators. (Zafar)
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315/WS 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Women and Modernism.
This course will examine the contribution of women writers to modernism (1910-45), the aesthetic and ideological movement that attempted to reinvent literature and the arts in this century. Along with such male contemporaries as Joyce, Faulkner and Pound, key female authors produced an impressive body of adventurous, experimental, indeed ground-breaking work frequently using that work to explore and further their own explicitly feminist ideals. Placing our study in the context of a tumultuous cultural landscape marked by two world wars, the rise of consumer culture, the development of the cosmopolitan city, the creation of an international avant-garde, and the disruption of conventional gender roles, we will examine the contribution of women writers to the exciting, confusing, frequently violent cultural ferment that surrounded them. Writers will include Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Jean Rhys, H.D., Nella Larsen, and Dorothy Richardson, as well as a few key male authors. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Coursework includes two papers, periodic quizzes, and a final examination. Cost:2 (Egger)

Section 002 African American Women Writers in the 20th Century. The explosion of African American women's literature that began in the early 1970s came as a surprise to many. Yet the ground for this contemporary work had been prepared by a tradition of Black women's literary productions extending back into the eighteenth century. This course will examine fiction, poetry, and drama by twentieth-century Black women writers, with particular attention to the influence of nineteenth-century writers upon more recent works. Through our close readings, we will trace thematic and stylistic continuities and discontinuities between the texts under study, and we will consider the socio-economic and political factors that established the parameters of African American women's creative expression, including the legacies of slavery, stereotypes of Black women, sexual violence, and the civil-rights and feminist movements. Critical essays will accompany our readings of primary texts. We will also view two contemporary films written and directed by African American women. This course satisfies the American Literature and New Traditions requirements for English concentrators. Cost:2 (Keizer)
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317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

Section 001 Changing Attitudes Toward Nature. This course will consider some of the major perspectives on nature and human relationships to nature between Shakespeare's time and our own, as reflected in British and American literature and films. It will consider how both scientific discoveries and theories and religious beliefs have affected our attitudes toward nature. Authors and works will be drawn from a list which includes Shakespeare's Sonnets and King Lear; Epistle I of Pope, Essay on Man; Defoe, Robinson Crusoe; Shelley, Frankenstein; selections from Wordsworth, Whitman, Thoreau, Tennyson, Huxley, and Hopkins; Welles, Island of Dr. Moreau; Golding, Lord of the Flies; Faulkner, The Bear; Bellow, Henderson the Rain King; Silko, Ceremony; and selections from Frost, cummings, Jeffers, Snyder, and Levertov. This class will be conducted mainly by discussion. There will be several shorter papers and a final examination. This course is part of the Winter '98 Environmental Theme Semester. (Howes)

Section 002 Modern Jewish Literature. We will study selected texts written by Jews from the mid-nineteenth century until the eve of World War II, a period marked by the breakdown of traditional Jewish culture and by the construction and questioning of modern Jewish identities. To explore this cultural landscape that transcends linguistic and national boundaries, we will ask such questions as: how can we define Jewish literature? How is Jewish modernity understood and configured in these texts? How do writers from the diaspora relate to a Jewish homeland, to Jewish tradition and history, to other national literatures, to the various languages in which they write? Possible authors will include: Sholem Aleykhem, I.L. Peretz, Franz Kafka, Isaac Babel, Bruno Schulz, Albert Cohen, Edmond Fleg, Alberto Moravia, Israel Zangwill, H.N. Bialik, S.Y. Agnon, I.B. Singer, Arthur Schnitzler, Else Lasker-Schuler, Gertrud Kolmar, Anzia Yezierska. When appropriate, we will also draw on examples from film, music, and the visual arts. Requirements: participation, one group-led discussion (if class size permits), frequent short response papers, one longer paper, and a final. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 -3 (Nyselholc)

Section 003 High Culture/Low Culture. Complaints about American cultural decline have often been expressed as laments over the "feminization" or commercialization of U.S. culture and society. In this class, we will explore why and how the distinction between "high" and "low" culture gets coded in gendered and class terms, and ask: Why is mass culture so often imagined as "feminine" or "feminizing"? How do aesthetic judgments about the value of cultural products reveal gender and class hierarchies? Is it desirable (or even possible) to uphold a high/low culture distinction in late twentieth-century consumer culture? What social anxieties lurk behind claims about the "dumbing down" of America? Texts from both sides of the high/low divide (Lolita and Misery, e.g.) and those that place the distinction in question (works sometimes maligned, sometimes celebrated, as "postmodernist"); readings on topics including the recent NEA controversies, "Disneyfication," intellectual property, the pleasures and dangers of romance fiction. Weekly "culture reports," two papers, exam. (Robinson)

Section 004 Colonialism in Asian/Pacific American Literature. While much in this course comes under a category of Asian/Pacific American literature of Hawaii and North America, its scope is also global. In 1898, among the lands the United States colonized were Hawaii and the Philippines. This course is a study of literary interpretations of changes surrounding 1898, by the poet and queen Lili'uokalani in Hawaii, Melville in the Pacific, Rizal in the Philippines, and contemporary writers such as Jessica Hagedorn, N.V.M. Gonzalez, Bienvenido Santos, John Dominis Holt, Lois-Ann Yamanaka, and Gary Pak. South Asian colonization and diaspora and questions about the participation of Asians in the colonizing of "American" lands will also be discussed in view of the larger themes of the course beyond 1898. Two essays of 5 pp. each plus one of 10 pp., and a series of quizzes. This course satisfies the New Traditions and American Literature requirements for English concentrators Cost:3 (Sumida)

Section 005 Writing is Murder. This writing-intensive seminar explores the crime scene as a locus for writing the research-based essay. The study of crime and crime writing is by nature cross-disciplinary, leading to behavioral psychology, sociology, history, jurisprudence, literary studies, and cultural criticism. The course reading list is substantial, ranging from classic to popular texts. This section meets in a networked computer lab, and so a major component of the course will be writing and research on the Internet, including an introduction to hypertext mark-up language and the multimedia essay. (Gernes)
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319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Theater and Social Change.
This course teaches students how to use their creative skills and social commitments to facilitate the powerful expressiveness of high school youth and of incarcerated youth and adults. In-class exercises, improvisations, and discussion of theater and pedagogical texts prepare us to assist workshop participants in imagining and shaping their own plays. Students will work an average of two to three hours a week in one of a number of state correctional facilities located in Adrian, Coldwater, Detroit, Jackson, Ionia, Ypsilanti, Saginaw, and Plymouth, or at Henry Ford High School in Detroit, or at one of four juvenile training schools or centers. An additional two hours is spent in class meetings, and a further hour is devoted to meetings between each site team and the instructor. No exams. Admission to the class is by permission of instructor. Check 3275 Angell for specially posted hours for interviews for this course. Cost:2 (Alexander)
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323. Creative Writing. English 223, junior standing, and written permission of instructor. (3). (CE). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

Students must bring proof of having taken 223 to the first class meeting.

Section 001 Fiction.
This workshop will concentrate on the reading and writing of a variety of fictional forms, including short shorts, traditional, and broken narratives. In an atmosphere of mutual respect, light heartedness and intensity, we will produce daily writing and weekly stories, develop critical understanding, and create a portfolio of polished fiction. What is required is openness to experience, effort (the best writer who doesn't, isn't), attendance and participation, reading and responding to all assigned materials, attendance at four public fiction readings by published writers, and desire. Evaluation on individual progress and quality of final portfolio. (Agee)

Section 002 Fiction. In this workshop we will focus on writing fiction, studying short stories selected from an anthology titled You've Got to Read This, and critiquing one another's works with thoughtfulness and intelligence. Evaluation will be based on workshop participation, written critiques, and a final fiction portfolio of approximately fifty pages. Cost:1 (Marshall)

Section 003 and 004 Fiction. Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Cost:1 (O'Dowd)

Section 005 Creative Writing and the Other Arts. A course in mixed media composition, especially combinations of poetry, drama, and fiction with graphic arts, painting, music, dance, and photography. Prerequisite: experience with one or more of these art forms and interest in exploring their relations with other forms of art. Permission of instructor to be obtained before CRISP registration by conference hours (posted on door of 4200 Angell Hall). Requirements are explained in detail during the pre-election interview. They include maintaining a journal of varied writing and other forms of composition and completing a series of weekly composition projects, individual and collaborative. Cost:2 (Wright)

Section 006 Poetry. This course is designed to help aspiring poets to develop their own voices. It will introduce them to new ways of seeing and shaping into poetry the everyday wonders which influence our lives. It will also suggest new ways of using literary and local language as part of the poetic craft. (Goodison)
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325. Essay Writing: The Art of Exposition. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 The Dwarf, The Demon, and The Divided Self.
"Works of fiction exist in a space between the Double and the Other. To enter into a work of fiction is in a sense to transform the Other into a Double," writes Professor Coates. Our seminar will concentrate on how authors involve us in the most unlikely identifications. How, for example, does John Irving, in A Prayer For Owen Meany, create a hero for us out of a little guy who looks translucent (his blue veins show through his skin), has a strange sounding voice, and is extremely manipulative. We will be reading works that help us make meaning and connections out of the three unlikely joined subjects in the title of this class. We will want to consider the ways in which we, in the process of reading and writing, actually create the text and recreate our "selves." Coursework includes five 8-page essays with revisions. Cost:2 (Back)

Section 002 and 003 Learning About Writing. This section will explore questions of how people learn and how people write by doing a lot of reading and writing on the topics of education and composition. Using materials as diverse as Plato's Phaedrus and Elbow's Writing Without Teachers, we will consider how students and teachers are "constructed" and how they stand in relation to each other. Stories about teaching, such as Tompkin's "Pedagogy of the Distressed" and Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed," will help us reflect on our own educational experiences. Stories about learning such as Percy's "The Loss of the Creature" and Rodriguez' "Hunger of Memory" and films such as Fast Times at Ridgemont High, Dead Poet's Society, and Educating Rita will help us explore additional issues in education. Come prepared to write about your own educational philosophy or at least your ideas about education and about your own educational (not just formal school!!) experiences. Writing assignments: 25 pieces of polished prose which has been worked through several drafts, ten 2 pp. critiques, informal weekly writing on COW (a computer conference on the web). Cost:1 (Kowalski)

Section 004. The goal of this course is to provide opportunities for students to learn to write with increased insight, power, and assurance. Given that goal, I've tried to create a course (1) that gives students much writing practice (though not always as formal papers), (2) that allows students to work independently on topics of their own choosing, (3) that offers examples and inspiration from some of the finest prose stylists, and (4) that keeps the whole class sharing ideas and helping each other with writing throughout the term. Readings, discussion, in-class writings, and workshopping of one another's papers will be the primary focus in the classroom. Attendance and participation are essential, given the collaborative nature of the work. (Livesay)

Section 005 First Person, Singular. In this composition course, we will follow paths that take writers from what is personal to them, what they care about and know, to writing essays about issues that will matter to others. This course will operate from several premises: that lodged in a first person perspective is the potential for a fresh (because singular to the writer) point of view; that good writers inevitably walk the path from personal to public whether their subject is history and culture or the obviously more personal subjects of ethics or identity; that writing improves when the connection between what is personal and what is public is noted and examined. Our texts will include fiction and memoirs that allow us to see connections between how people think, what they've lived, and what they say. Requirements will include four 6-8 page essays, weekly writing on the texts, responses to each other's writing, participation in class discussion, and regular attendance. (Wolk)

Section 006 A Nation of Immigrants. Central to the myth of the American Dream is the construct of the immigrant, those "tired" and "poor," welcomed to our shores, expecting to find "streets paved with gold," and "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" limited only by their own energy and desire. Not surprisingly, some of America's most compelling literature is about and by immigrants who write of the promise and disappointment of that dream and of the inevitable conflicts between old world ethics and new. This composition class will make their writings and the essays you compose in response to their ideas its focus. We will read texts by Alvarez, Puzo, Doctorow, Morrison, Hong Kingston and other professional writers and by the writers in this class. Requirements include four 6-8 page essays, weekly writings on the readings, responses to each others' essays, active participation in class discussion, and regular attendance. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. (Wolk)

Section 007 Rhetoric and Reasoning in Written and Visual Communication. Social critic Raymond Williams reminds us that communication is not a static concept; discourse is a continuously evolving and transformative integration of languages and signs and symbols. We will be examining various forms of inquiry and argumentation and creativity, applying research and insight to the process of discovery, analysis, and interpretation. We will be asking ourselves questions as we work through issues of logic, perspective, and representation: How does writing reflect its author and the society from which it is produced? How do media influence the public imagination? How does a writer master form and retain originality? Upon what assumptions do we base our criticism of what we write or read? How can we account for opinions which vary from our own and upon what evidence do we base our acceptance or rejection of the positions of others? Can individuals collaborate successfully? In what ways might writing inspire thoughtful reflection? Several papers require argumentative inquiry while others are dependent upon research and interpretation. Four papers of 5-6 pages and a final 10-15 page essay. Revision may be needed, and the class requires discussions and some oral presentations. (Morris)
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327. Playwriting. Engl. 227. (3). (Excl).

In this course, we will write the first act of a full length play, though ambitious students are encouraged to write a draft of a whole play. We will start with an idea, grapple with it, fill it out, focus it, create a theatrical world and develop a narrative throughline. Students will read from their plays in class and the work will be discussed. Writing games will be used to explore character, relationship, action, and to help get through blind spots and blocks. Other assignments will include reading plays, seeing plays, keeping a journal, and meeting regularly with the teacher. At the end of the term we will give staged readings of our work for an audience of friends. (Hammond)
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English 350 & 351

This two-term sequence is designed to give students a principled sense of the range of literary works written in English; the first term will characteristically deal with works produced before the later seventeenth century to the time of Milton, that is; the second term will begin at that point and proceed to the present. These courses will be open to English concentrators and to non-concentrators alike.

351. Literature in English after 1660. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 Pictures of Modern Identity.
Who invented you? What does it mean to be you, or any one person, apart from others of your kind? The works we will be studying are the building blocks of our concepts of identity. They provide a diverse picture of who we are and what we do: the self as castaway or genius, as solitary thinker or alienated victim, as moral superior or criminal. We will read works both of great artistic innovation and of the popular imagination, our one requirement being that they have had a lasting impact on the way we imagine ourselves. Works include Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver's Travels, The Lyrical Ballads, Mansfield Park, Walden, Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde, The Wasteland, A Room Of One's Own, The Invisible Man, In Cold Blood. Two lectures and one discussion weekly. Requirements are three papers, midterm, and final. This satisfies the Pre-1830 and American Literature requirements for English concentrators. (Siebers)
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367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (4). (HU).

The family, its formation, tenderness, strains, collapse, and reformation, is perhaps Shakespeare's favorite form, social and symbolic, for the construction of meaning and evocation of feeling. We will especially observe his ceaseless exploration of the dynamics of the family in our reading of a selection of history plays, comedies, tragedies, and romances, from the whole span of his career. Other foci for discussion will include his dramaturgy, and his matchless way with words. Plays to be read will include: Richard II, I&II Henry IV, Henry V, Twelfth Night, As You Like It, Othello, King Lear, Hamlet, Antony and Cleopatra, Measure for Measure, A Winter's Tale, and The Tempest. Course requirements will include lively engagement in discussion, three essays (4-6 pp. each), and two examinations. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. (Williams)
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English 370, 371, & 372

Each of these courses will range over the materials of the periods indicated below in one or more of a variety of ways. Some may be multi-generic surveys; some may focus on the development during the period of specific genres; some may be topical, others formal in their principle of organization. All sections will emphasize the development of student skill in writing essays analyzing the materials and evaluating the approaches in question.

370. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 The English Imagination to 1600.
Our topic is "The English Imagination to 1600". Yes, there was such a thing, and we'll try to understand its various manifestations. The explosion of literary creativity immediately after 1600 - Shakespeare, Jonson, Donne, Herbert, Milton didn't come out of nowhere; we'll look for clues about its origins, but we'll also try to appreciate the earlier period for its own sake (as Shakespeare, Milton, etc. did). We'll read some of the basic texts that anyone should know from the period before 1600, and try to understand them in terms of the prevailing culture, and we'll do all this in a spirit of free enquiry but predicated on your readiness to care about the material, and to read, think, discuss, and write about it. There will be regular brief in-class reports, regular short papers, and a final exam. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:1 (Ingram)

Section 003 Honors: Literary History Beyond Kings, Popes and Wars. Sometimes literary history is about Great Art by dead white men; sometimes it's about the deeds (mostly wars) of kings and popes; sometimes it's even about women. In this course, we will sample these and other stories about early English literature in order to appreciate the various contexts into which we can place texts and to understand how context affects interpretation. We will also, of course, study some Great Art and some perhaps not so great. After we have finished reading many texts, we will visit Special Collections in Hatcher Library and there examine manuscripts and early print editions of familiar and a few unfamiliar works. Our class time will be spent in lectures, discussions, small group activities, individual and group reports with an occasional foray into music and film. Required work: a group presentation on a particular literary history, an individual report on a manuscript or early print edition, three interpretive essays, and an essay evaluating several literary histories. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Tinkle)

Section 004. Texts inform and are informed by the world in which they are produced and circulated. The two hundred year period covered by this course was one of dramatic social and artistic change. In our analysis of texts, we will return frequently to issues such as the redefinition of kingship and rule, peasant unrest, religious schism, and women's changing familial and economic roles. Readings will include mystery plays and Shakespearean drama, texts by women mystics, and works by Chaucer, Skelton, and Spenser. Requirements include active participation, three 6-8 page papers, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Warren)
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371. Studies in Literature, 1600-1830. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 002 18th Century Travel Literature.
Ideas of the foreign, both real and imaginary, exerted a profound influence on eighteenth-century letters in both England and France. In this course we will examine the development of this fascination with travel and cultural difference through readings of fictional and journalistic accounts by some of the major writers of the period, including Defoe, Swift, Johnson, Montagu, and Voltaire. We will consider topics including the use of travel narrative as a form of social commentary, the role of travel accounts in the development of Enlightenment thought, the aesthetics of the exotic, and relations of power and mastery in encounters with the cultural "other." The class will be conducted as a seminar with an emphasis on discussion and the development of individual research projects. No previous background in the period is required. Coursework includes two essays and a final exam. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 (Porter)

Section 003 Squeaking Boy/Roaring Girl. Like most public theatrical practices, cross-dressing as an act of display and disguise changed in the period 1600-1830 from the public, ribald, outlaw practice adopted by actors and libertines to a more private literary act. The class will consider the period by tracing the intricate idiosyncrasies of "acting the self" as it was represented by cross-dressed players and "multiply dressed" characters in plays that will include: Antony and Cleopatra, Epicoene, The Roaring Girl, The Younger Brother, A Bold Stroke for a Wife, The Way of the World, The Beggar's Opera, The Rivals. Texts in which we will consider the theatrical creation of the "I" taking place in English letters - often "I's in Drag" include: selections from "The Tatler" and "The Spectator," Moll Flanders, The Female Quixote, selections from Tristram Shandy and Clarissa, Blake's poetry, The Mysteries of Udolpho, The Cenci, Mansfield Park. Throughout the course we will consider cultural clues about the creation of the self in the shifts in theatrical acting styles, portraiture, legislation governing the dress and behavior of men and women. Requirements include short papers, longer essays, sprightly class participation, and a midterm. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. (Skantze)

Section 004 Honors. The second term of a two-term sequence running from the Middle Ages through the Romantic poets. Students electing this section should have taken the fall term of the same section. In the winter term, we shall complete Paradise Lost, continue our study of Dryden, and engage such eighteenth-century writers as Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Anne Finch (Countess of Winchilsea), John Gay, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, Daniel Defoe, Eliza Haywood, Henry Fielding, Thomas Gray, William Collins, and Samuel Johnson. A final unit on Romantic poetry will consider William Blake, Samuel Coleridge, and William Wordsworth. Continuing close attention to political, religious, and artistic contexts. Requirements: several brief oral presentations, two papers. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. (Winn)
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372. Studies in Literature, 1830-Present. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 What Was Modernism?
This course will explore Modernism the style/movement that dominated the "high" art of the first decades of this century. While we will read a few poems (Eliot, Yeats) and glance briefly at some of the art and music, the focus of the course will fall primarily on fiction. Works to be read include Conrad's Heart of Darkness, Mann's Death in Venice, Joyce's Portrait of the Artist, Kafka's The Metamorphosis, Woolf's To the Lighthouse, Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover, Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, and Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. Course grades will depend on two essay exams, and frequent short, informal writing assignments. Regular attendance is essential. Cost:2 (Beauchamp)

Section 002 Reforming Literature. How can works of literature respond to political realities, such as class and gender roles, or revise social or scientific orthodoxies? And how can literature make us rethink the means and ends of literature itself? These questions have everything to do with what we might expect from any literature, so here we make the topics manageable by examining a chronological sequence of British writings, beginning with social-problem texts of the 1830s that aim to show political injustices, and ending up with early twentieth-century works that approach the same themes very differently, implicitly rejecting the more direct nineteenth-century notions of literary representation. We read canonical authors such as Dickens, Gaskell, George Eliot, and Woolf; we also examine Victorian periodicals and a number of less "high-canonical" authors, such as Olive Schreiner and Georges du Maurier. The course requires three 5-6 page papers and a report on Victorian periodical debates. (Thomas)
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384/CAAS 384/Amer. Cult. 406. Topics in Caribbean Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits with department permission.
Section 001 Colonial Encounters.
From that fateful night in 1492 when Columbus lost his way in the New World, the islands of the Caribbean have provided a stage in which different cultures have meet and reshaped their identities and destinies. This course is an examination of the images, texts, and ideologies which have emerged out of these colonial encounters. From a selection of readings ranging from Columbus' diaries and fictions on the 1790s revolution in Haiti, to novels on nationalism and postcolonialism, we will examine how ideas about the Caribbean were central to European notions of self and modernity. Using different media - films, videos, and paintings we shall see how the shaping of slave society in the Caribbean was as much about African slaves as it was about European and American ideals. The course will conclude with an examination of narratives of Caribbean migration to Europe and the United States. Course requirements: short writing assignments and a final examination. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 (Gikandi)
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401/Rel. 481. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

The Bible is a book, a text: it is also a collection of texts of the most astonishing variety and range. Our first task will be to try to understand these works in terms both of form and content and then of the circumstances which occasioned and shaped them. We will also study how the Bible came to have its present form(s), and consider its transmission as text and as cultural influence. Students will be encouraged to study especially the literary influences of the Bible in authors of interest to them. The particular readings will be influenced by class needs: we shall surely include Genesis, Exodus, Job, the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Isaiah, Hosea, Mark, The Acts of the Apostles, Romans, and the Apocalypse. Writing requirements: three essays of moderate length, a midterm, and a final. Class attendance and participation essential. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Williams)
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406/Ling. 406. Modern English Grammar. (3). (Excl).

This is an advanced survey of descriptive English grammar. We will look closely at the formal and semantic motivations for basic grammatical categories and processes in English (words, phrases, clauses, and sentences) and we will discuss how these structures contribute to the expressive potential of the system. There will be daily practice in grammatical parsing, weekly quizzes, and a final exam. The course should be attractive to those professionally interested in English education, practical criticism, or further work in linguistic theory as well as those generally interested in becoming more articulate about the structure of our language. Texts: Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum, A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English and John Algeo, Exercises in Contemporary English. Cost:2 (Cureton)
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411. Art of the Film. (3). (HU). Laboratory fee ($35) required. May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Prison and the Artist.
The United States is the most incarcerating nation in the world. Twelve percent of the U.S. population, African-Americans are 50.8% of our prison population. In 1979 one in 14 Michigan state workers were employed in the state prison system; it is now 1 in 4. Michigan has built 30 prisons in the past 15 years. Several states have brought back prison stripes, chain gangs, and rock breaking. Yet to most of us prisons remain invisible places we ignore or know only through rumors, myths, and the speeches of politicians. This course will address prison reality and culture and the ways in which prisons are represented to us and to others. Discussions will focus on the works and their implications about personal attitudes and behavior and about social institutions. Journals and final project, no exams. A longer description listing texts is posted on the door of 3275 AH, and on the World Wide Web. Cost:2 (Alexander)
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412/Film-Video 412. Major Directors. (3). (HU). Laboratory fee ($35) required. May be repeated for a total of nine credits with department permission.
Section 001 American Comic Masters Since the 60's: Allen, Brooks, Edwards, and Ashby.
Representative films, about half by Allen, spanning the careers of these contrasting yet complementary American masters. Emphasis on their cinematic "languages" and dramatic themes the relationship between what they say and how they say it and the nature of their comedy. One film per week; three lecture hours; mandatory small discussion groups. Course may be repeated if content differs from previous election. No prerequisites, but the course is not "An Introduction to the movies." The course's reading, Giannetti's Understanding Movies, will give beginners a solid foundation. Alternate text for seasoned veterans. Purchase of a pass admits you to all screenings, almost all at the Michigan Theater. Rigorous writing with high standards for analytical/critical prose. Two 2-page papers; two 5-page papers; final exam. Those who insist that "media" agrees with a singular verb flunk. Cost:2 [includes cost of film pass] (Bauland)

Section 002 Masters of Suspense: Alfred Hitchcock, Otto Preminger, and Fritz Lang. From the time early filmmakers learned to cut back and forth between converging lines of action, suspense has been a central element in popular movies, expressed visually through the distinctive properties of film style as well as dramatically through the conventions of film's melodramatic inheritance. There is suspense in practically every Hollywood genre, ranging from last-minute Cavalry rescues in Westerns to spectacular physical mishaps in slapstick comedy. Yet some films are so permeated with this dramatic quality, they are known simply as "suspense films." This course will focus on three directors who specialized in suspense, yet treated it differently in their films: from Alfred Hitchcock's heightened drama through Fritz Lang's grim matter-of-factness to Otto Preminger's quietly creepy ambiguity. The course will consist of one film a week plus critical readings on the three directors. Frequent written analyses of the films with a close attention to visual style will be required. (Paul)
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417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. May not be repeated for credit. (4). (Excl).
Section 002 Aesthetic Culture.
If it is clear that we all admire beauty, it is not so clear what kind of "value" beauty actually can have. The question is personal: Why do I find this individual or story strikingly beautiful? And it's very public: Why should we fund the arts, and how? After surveying critical discussions of beauty from Kant in the eighteenth century to Derrida and Bourdieu in our own period, we focus historically on Britain from 1850 to 1900. We examine a mixture of literary texts, visual arts and popular periodical debates, including Pre-Raphaelite artists and British aestheticists like Pater and Wilde. We also study how these figures are involved with broad cultural concerns of the time, such as the New Woman, sexual politics, the rise of institutional criticism, and debates over "culture" itself. One short paper, one research paper, and a periodical report. (Thomas)

Section 003 Turning Points: Intersections Among the Creative Arts. Designed as a cross-disciplinary project, this creative writing course will foster collaboration among English students, composition students from the School of Music and visual artists from the School of Art. Art and music students will meet together with our class on a regular basis. We will start off writing poems roughly responding to an exhibition of paintings, "Turning Point: Monet's Debacles at Vetheuil," running at the Museum of Art from January 24-March 15, and then attempt multimedia collaborations incorporating art and music. The aim is for students working in different art forms to inspire each other by their individual work and also to work jointly on projects that bring together two or more disciplines. We expect that Monet's paintings will provide inspiration for some projects; but other works might have nothing to do with Monet at all. Admission by permission of instructor. Submit a sample of no more than 6 poems if possible by the 10th of December, no later than the first day of class to Professor Tillinghast's mailbox (3161 Angell Hall). (Tillinghast)

Section 004 Protest in Native American Literature. This seminar will examine the "Indian" in 19th century America from the perspective of Native American writers. Some of the questions we will ask of these writings are: What does it mean to write as a Native American writer in the 19th century, a time of native removal and reservation installation? How is gender accommodated in these texts? How are Native American writers able to voice protest without alienating their white audience? Most of the texts we will be using are autobiographical and chart the transition of Native American cultures from oral and traditional to literate and pan-tribal. As such they trace the "birth" of modern Native American identity and nation. Students will be asked to do one presentation and a research paper. This course satisfies the American Literature and New Traditions requirements for English concentrators. (Bell)
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423. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001.
Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in the course should get on the waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to class the first evening. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. Cost:1 WL:1 (O'Dowd)

Section 002. This course will focus on student work. Each student will write three new stories during the term and rewrite at least two of these stories. Students must also be committed to helping their classmates improve their work through honest yet compassionate responses to their manuscripts. To inspire ourselves to write and help us study various aspects of form and technique, we will also be reading the works of published authors. A major emphasis of this section will be on structure and theme not in the sense of obeying conventional narrative modes or inserting messages, morals, sermons and symbols into a text, but in the sense of figuring out a way to unify a story around a central conflict and question, of discovering why a given story is worth telling. Interested students should get on the waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to the first class period. Cost:1 WL:1 (Pollack)
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425. Advanced Essay Writing. Open only to seniors and graduate students. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 My Life/Our World: The Arc of Narration in Essay Writing.
"Why you're only a sort of thing in his dream. . . . If that there King was to wake you'd go out BANG just like a candle!" says Tweedledum to Alice in Through The Looking Glass. Our work in this writing seminar will be to explore the dynamics of the imaginative process; we want to learn how the blurring of distinctions between imagination and reality, between my life and our worlds can evoke a creative process in us that allows for superb analytical writing. Although our writing may begin with our own experience, we want to find ways in which we can create a rhetorical "I" who tells the tale with a convincing voice and a significant argument. Coursework includes five 8-page essays. Cost:2 (Back)
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428. Senior Writing Tutorial. English 223, 323, and 423/429. (3). (Excl).

This course is a thesis tutorial for undergraduate students who are in their last year at Michigan, have taken the 200-, 300- and 400-level writing workshops and have been accepted into the Creative Writing Subconcentration. Working closely with the writing faculty, students will complete a major manuscript of fiction and/or poetry and an essay exploring a specific question about writing or the writer's life that perplexes them. The course will culminate in a reading series in which students present their best work to the public. All students should attend the first class meeting; thereafter, biweekly tutorials will be scheduled according to the convenience of the instructor and students. (Pollack)
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429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

This is an advanced workshop for those who have written and read a significant amount of poetry. English 223 or 323 are recommended preliminaries. The class will focus on student poems and discussion of six assigned books by contemporary poets. Students must make thoughtful contributions to all discussions and lead one or two sessions. Other requirements include weekly poems, exercises, and short written responses to the assigned books. The class will participate in an online poetry discussion group and will post reviews on the web. To be considered please leave the following in the professor's mailbox in 3161 Angell Hall by Monday, Jan. 5: five to ten pages of your poetry; your name, concentration, year of study, previous exposure to poetry; a brief explanation of why you love to read poetry and why you want to take this class. Prospective students must attend the first class meeting. Cost:3 (Fulton)
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432. The American Novel. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 You Can't Get There in Your Father's Oldsmobile.
Since the beginning, our fiction has been written as if "the frontier" were as much a state of mind as a physical reality, and long after the actual place had gone defunct, these novels continue to live on the frontier of consciousness. Believing their words are the first and last utterance to emerge from "the wilderness", they reimagine and restore the mysterious shape of a world they claim as their own. While these novels constitute a literature of uniqueness, they share an attempt to locate the continuing crisis inherent in a democratic vision that often pits individuals against society, materialism against spirituality, domesticity against liberation, diversity against cohesion. The novels we will read in this course include: The Scarlet Letter, Huckleberry Finn, The Wings of the Dove, Song of the Lark, Go Down Moses, The Great Gatsby, Song of Solomon, Ceremony, and The Moviegoer. Work requirements include two essays, midterm, and final exam. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. (Agee)
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433. The Modern Novel. (4). (Excl).

We shall begin with Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov and examine the author's impact on fiction and modern thought. We shall then explore the nightmare portrayal of human psychology and society in Kafka's The Trial. We shall spend a number of weeks on Joyce's Ulysses, trying to understand the full dimension of this monumental work. Virginia Woolf's To The Lighthouse will extend our discussion of such issues as identity, time, and eternity, and Camus' The Stranger will lead us to problems concerning existence and action. Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! will force us to confront our own American dilemma, while allowing us to make a final assessment of the accomplishments of the modern novel. The writing assignments will be three 5-page papers as well as a midterm and final examination. Cost:2 (Konigsberg)
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434. The Contemporary Novel. (4). (Excl).

Although offered under the general rubric of "Contemporary Fiction," this course will differ from the standard such offering in several ways. First; it will attempt no survey; the curriculum has been designed around those authors who have agreed to participate in the class itself. The aim of the course is to provide the student as reader with a "living" sense of the writer to have the latter literally in the room with the former. The syllabus has been organized accordingly; we will read the work of those authors (Lee K. Abbott, Andrea Barrett, John Barth, Grace Paley, etc.) who are scheduled to visit campus next winter. Resident faculty (Jonis Agee, Charles Baxter, etc.) have also agreed to appear. Written questions submitted to each author will be part of the coursework, as will be a journal and essay. (Delbanco)
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444/Theatre 322. History of Theatre II. (3). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 322. (Walsh)
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449/Theatre 423. American Theatre and Drama. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
The purpose of this course is to look deeply at what in American culture and theatre has gone before you, what your heritage is as a theatre artist, what has influenced you. We will read and discuss the plays and times of American artists such as O'Neill, Hellman, Williams, Miller, Albee, but will focus most intensely on theatre in the last 40 years, on the Living Theatre, the Open Theatre, the Bread and Puppet Theatre, the Negro Ensemble Theatre, and the Public Theatre since George Wolfe became Artistic Director, as well as playwrights Irene Fornes, Sam Shepard, David Mamet, Tina Howe, John Patrick Shanley, Nicky Silver, David Greenspan, Dara Cloud, Eduardo Machado, Elizabeth Egloff, Paula Vogel, Robbie Baitz, Migdalia Cruz, Connie Congdon, Tony Kushner, Len Jenkin, Mac Wellman, and others. (Get ready! There's a lot of reading!) By the end of the semester you will have a clear sense of what has been done before in American drama, and how you might contribute to the future. (Hammond)

Section 002 American Drama: Before O'Neill/After Shepard. See Theatre and Drama 423.002. (Brater)
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465/MARC 465. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales. (3). (Excl).

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales is an anthology of stories varying in style and genre, told by similarly diverse fictional narrators. Including both the stateliness of the Knight's Tale and the ribaldry of the Miller's Tale, it creates a new audience in English for a literature simultaneously playful and serious. We will read most of the Tales, paying attention to the work's qualities as an innovative story collection. Central questions will include: How does the Canterbury Tales address its audience? What is the purpose of its interpretative openness? What relations develop between literary style and social position? We will focus especially on narrative voices and the effects they create in their readers; audio tapes will help us hear these voices in Middle English. One or two short papers, one longer paper, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 (Taylor)
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467. Topics in Shakespeare. Prior course work in Shakespeare is recommended. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Gender and Power in Shakespeare's Plays.
Designed for students who have already done college-level work in Shakespeare (normally English 367) and who want to do more advanced work, this seminar will focus on issues of gender and power in Shakespeare's plays and in 16th and 17th century England. In addition to the plays we will be reading widely in recent literary criticism and learning about different approaches to literary and cultural studies. This will be a discussion course, with everyone expected to participate daily. Plays to be read might include Titus Andronicus, Taming of the Shrew, Much Ado About Nothing, Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night, Macbeth, Anthony and Cleopatra, and The Winter's Tale. Text: The Riverside Shakespeare, available at Shaman Drum bookshop for those who do not already own it. There will be two short essays and one longer, critical essay due during the term. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. (Mullaney)
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479/CAAS 489. Topics in Afro-American Literature. English 274 and/or 320 strongly recommended. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 The Slave's Story: History, Memory, Imagination.
For more than a century, in magazines and in separately published books, former slaves told a common story of captivity and forced labor. The narrators did, nonetheless, strike a variety of notes - sorrow, despair, intrigue, triumph. To this day these earliest African-American autobiographies lay claim to the nation's collective imagination; the serious student of African-American literature must be conversant with this tradition. We will read many of the original narratives, from Briton Hammon to Harriet Jacobs, as well as fictional reimaginings from Wells Brown's "Clotel" to Sherley Ann Williams' "Meditations on History." Readings from historical and theoretical sources will also be included. At least one previous course in African-American literature is strongly recommended. Written requirements: a minimum of three papers and one final examination. This course satisfies both the New Traditions and American Literature Requirements for English concentrators. Cost:2 (Zafar)
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482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Samuel Johnson.
Samuel Johnson remains among the most eminent figures of English literature, whether we consider him as a contributor to or a subject of that literature. Coming out of the struggles of poverty and handicap, he rose through his own often despairing efforts to produce the first comprehensive dictionary in English, and some of the finest poetry, literary criticism, and fiction in English. The course will be built around Johnson, but we'll read and discuss the works of his friends as well: James Boswell's London Journal and Life of Johnson, Edmund Burke's Enquiry Into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, and Fanny Burney's Evelina. Computer conference, "Notes and Queries," a couple of essays, and a final exam. And, oh yes, an eighteenth-century dance seminar. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. (Cloyd)

Section 002 Toni Morrison as Novelist and Critic. In an interview from the early 1980s, Toni Morrison states that "narrative remains the best way to learn anything. . .so I continue with narrative form." The aim of this course is to explain, in detail, Morrison's uses of narrative form and figurative language. We will read virtually all of Morrison's novels, examining the development of themes and formal strategies. We will also read Morrison's literary and cultural criticism, paying particular attention to the ways in which issues in the novels are addressed in these non-fiction works. Among the questions we will attempt to answer by reading the novels and criticism together is the question of how narrative might function as a form of theory. Other ongoing concerns of the class will be to situate Morrison's work in the African American and American literary traditions and to investigate the connections between her aesthetics and those evident in African American music. This course satisfies the American Literature and New Traditions requirements for English concentrators. (Keizer)
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483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Primo Levi and the Memory of Auschwitz.
Primo Levi was a Jew from Torino who survived a year in Auschwitz. His books, which deal recurrently with this experience, arguably constitute one of the major moral and stylistic projects of this century. In this course we will discuss five of them: Survival at Auschwitz, The Reawakening, The Monkey's Wrench, The Periodic Table, and The Drowned and The Saved. We will also read selections from his poems. We will examine in particular his understanding of the role of memory and remembering in constituting social experience, and observe the ways in which he confronts the problem of writing about the unspeakable. Coursework includes one 8-page essay and a final exam. Cost:2 (Williams)
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484. Issues in Criticism. (3). (Excl).

Section 001 Romantic Nature. This course is part of the Winter 98 Environmental Theme Semester. We all know that the Romantics loved nature, but how did they change the meaning of it? How did their love of the earth contribute to our love of nature, for example, to the ecology movement? We will study how the idea of nature changes within Romantic literature and its criticism. More importantly, we will study how the Romantic idea of nature transformed modern art and ecological consciousness. We will begin by looking at the writings of Rousseau, Goethe, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, Shelley, and their critics. We will end by looking at current ideas about land art, deforestation, strip mining, and the bomb. The course will also include visits from local artists interested in the relation between art and the environment. Each student will do a major project. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. (Siebers)
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486. History of Criticism. (3). (Excl).

This will be an introductory survey of developments in literary theory during the past two centuries, with emphasis on the sweeping changes that have taken place in the past twenty-five years. Major areas of study will include romanticism, modernism, New Criticism, post-structuralism, materialism, feminism, and multiculturalism. We will be using various kinds of literary theory to help us answer basic questions about what and why we read, questions like: What is literary pleasure? Do authors determine the meaning of their texts, or do readers? In what ways are texts embedded in society and politics? Can pornography be literature? Are male readers/writers different from female readers/writers? On what principles was our literary canon established, and should it be revised? Our focus will be on the usefulness theory might have for readers, whether they be students or literary critics. Mix of lecture/ discussion, but with a strong emphasis on student participation. Two, possibly three short papers, and a final project. Cost:4 (Kucich)
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497. Honors Seminar. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001 Women Poets and Feminist Critics.
Over the past two decades, feminist critics have turned to women poets to explore questions about female subjectivity, to construct alternative literary traditions, and to imagine new feminist poetics. We will read poetry written in English by women from the Renaissance to the present, in order to historicize the emergence of "the woman poet" as a category and to analyze how particular women poets have become significant figures within feminist literary criticism. Rather than tracing a single poetic tradition or defining a common feminist perspective, we will compare different ideas about women poets in their own writing and within the work of influential feminist critics. Our goal throughout the term will be to combine careful readings of poems with an awareness of different interpretive frames, and to develop an appreciation for the complexity of writing in and on poetry by women. Seminar satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 (Prins)
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