Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for First- and Second-Year Students

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This introductory course will address critical issues in the history of modern Europe from the Scientific Revolution to the present. Topics will include: the replacement of "religion" by "science" as the common metaphor for understanding the world, the emergence of the industrial market economy, the making of modern gender and racial differences, the position of women in European society, the emergence of democratic and working class movements, the revolutions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, war and society, and cultural inventions of the past and future. We shall examine closely as well the ways that people in the past invented their worlds, their sensibility, and their sexuality. Students will be encouraged to develop critical historical analyses of their own, with particular focus upon the creation of historical arguments. Readings include a basic text, along with several novels and secondary works. (Frost)
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122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

The course treats the modern experience of China, Japan, and Korea. We shall discuss comparatively the social and political orders in each country in their Asian context, before the advent of a powerful Western intrusion, and then explore the ways that these old civilizations handled the new calculus of power in the 19th and 20th centuries. We will attempt a broad look at the many sources of change and the varieties of their expression in the modern period. Topics will include reform and revolution, colonialism and liberation, racism directed both against and by Asians, the changing roles of women, and the economic transformation of recent decades. Readings will be drawn from historical narratives and translated expressions of East Asian voices. There will be a midterm exam, a term paper, and a final exam. Cost:2 /3 WL:4 (Buoye)
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132/APTIS 100/ACABS 100/HJCS 100. Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

See APTIS 100.
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152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

Southeast Asia is one of the world's most culturally diverse regions, home to Buddhist, Muslim, Confucian, and Christian civilizations. It boasts ancient monuments of surpassing grandeur and symbolic complexity. It was the scene of the bloodiest conflict since 1945, the Vietnam War. Today it has the world's fastest growing regional economy and is an area of mounting importance to Japan as well as the United States. This course offers an introduction (and thus assumes no prior knowledge) to Southeast Asian history from the earliest civilizations, through the colonial conquest, the indigenous political reaction of which Vietnamese Communism and the Vietnam Wars were one expression and the contemporary economic explosion. The course seeks to define Southeast Asia's uniqueness as well as its evolving ties to the rest of the world. Midterm, final, and optional paper. Two lectures, one discussion section per week. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lieberman)
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160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

A survey of early American history from the period of initial colonization through the Civil War. The course will be organized around the interactions of the three dominant cultures which came together in early America: Native American, European, and African. We will explore the internal dynamics of each culture (family life, religious beliefs, political system, labor arrangements, gender roles) and how the clash of cultures shaped the experience of Americans in the colonial and national periods. Specific topics will include the problems of forming communities in an alien environment, the transition to slave labor and the origins of an African-American society, the American Revolution and the creation of the republic, the emergence of sectionalism, and the impact of early industrialism. Students will attend two lectures each week, and read a series of monographs and primary documents. A short paper and a final exam are required. Cost:4 WL:4 (Juster)
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161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 surveys the evolution of the United States from an agrarian nation with little concern for foreign affairs to the world's preeminent economic power with self-defined global interests. Within this context lectures, reading assignments, and discussion sections will stress the changing nature of the concept of freedom within the United States since 1865. This examination necessarily will focus on the lives of individual citizens, the transformation of the labor force and the workplace, and the role played by race, ethnicity, class, and gender in determining a person's place with the greater society. In so doing the course will address the era's major reform movements (Reconstruction, Populism, Progressivism, the New Deal, and the Great Society) as well as the nation's reaction to demands placed upon it in international affairs. Course requirements will include at least one essay, a one-hour midterm examination, and a two-hour final examination. (Fitzpatrick)
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196. First-Year Seminar. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Family and Conflict in African Society.
For Winter Term, 1998, this section is offered jointly with Afroamerican and African Studies 103.001. Cost:1 (Scarnecchia)

Section 002 Nationalism and Self-Determination in the Soviet Union: the Karabagh Movement in Armenia, 1988-1990. In 1988, a mass movement in support of national self-determination emerged in the Armenian Republic of the former Soviet Union. Triggered by conflict between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in Nagorno Karabagh an Armenian-populated autonomous region within the neighboring republic of Azerbaijan the movement was unprecedented in Soviet history in both its nature and scope. Over the course of two years, hundreds of thousands of Armenians demonstrated in demand for the transfer of Nagorno Karabagh from Azerbaijan to Armenia, the fulfillment of constitutional rights, and ultimately, the redress of historical grievances, and independence from the Soviet Union. This course will examine in detail the origins, evolution and outcome of the Karabagh Movement in Armenia between 1988 and 1990. Topics to be explored in depth include the movement in the context of Gorbachev's reforms; the movement in comparison with other national movements (particularly in, but not limited to, the Soviet Union); and the role of historical memory and historiography in the formulation of popular political consciousness. The role that the movement may have played in the disintegration of the Soviet Union also will be considered. Class presentations, midterm and final papers will be required. (Platz)

Section 003 The Creation and Destruction of Yugoslavia. This section will focus on the different peoples of what was to become Yugoslavia; the act of creating that state (at the end of World War I); the nature of the first (Royal) Yugoslavia 1918-41; the German/Italian invasion and break up of Yugoslavia into various entities under the occupiers; the Resistance movement under Tito and the opposition to it by the occupiers, the Serb nationalist Cetniks, and the Croat nationalist Ustase; Tito's triumph and the re-establishment of Yugoslavia as a socialist and federal state of 6 republics; the break with the Soviet bloc; the liberalization of the state; economic and other problems arising in the late 1960s; the return of nationalism; the difficulties of the 1980s, leading to the destruction of the state; the warfare and nature of the successor states. The course will be in seminar format, with weekly readings and discussions. There will be oral presentations and one or two papers the form these will take will depend upon class size. There will be no exams. (J. Fine)
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197. First-Year Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Construction and Deconstruction of Liberalism.
Liberalism is undeniably one of the central ideologies of the modern age, yet few intellectual traditions are so poorly understood, by supporters and critics alike. By studying some of the key texts of the liberal tradition from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, we will identify the ideas that have separated liberals from their opponents. We will also explore how alternative ideologies ranging from socialism to feminism to conservatism have been shaped by debates with liberalism, and how liberals have reconfigured their own thinking in response. Included in the reading list will be excerpts from the writing of John Locke, Adam Smith, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Pope Gregory XVI, Herbert Spencer, John Maynard Keynes, and more. Cost:2 WL:4 (Porter)

Section 003 Environment and History in Europe. This first-year seminar investigates the mutual interactions of European people an European natural environments, from ancient times to industrial ones (about 500 BC to 1800 AD). It shows how ecological systems shaped economic, social, and cultural patterns in the ancient Mediterranean, and in medieval and early modern European communities; and how people's choices and actions influenced their environments at the same time. Among the topics covered in readings, class discussions, and written assignments are "pollution" and environmental "degradation," population growth and its consequences for non-human communities, the wilderness in the European imagination, agriculture's impact on landscapes, religious attitudes to nature, and animals' roles in human societies. WL:4 (Squatriti)

Section 004 Selling It Like It Was: The American Experience of Popular History. We will explore the ways that Americans are deeply involved with their own history as entertainment, as nostalgia, as investment quite outside the academic study of history. Topics to be covered include: (1) historical theme parks, resorts, boats and trains, and historical vacation destinations; (2) amateur enthusiast groups, such as those who recreate medieval, revolutionary, and civil war battles; (3) organizations of collectors of historical artefacts, such as bottles, dolls, and guns; (4) historical romances and western novels; (5) the genealogy industry; (6) ethnic museums and ethnic stores; and (7) historic preservation of houses and districts and the relation of property values to "history". Through reading, interviews, discussion, and writing we will broadly examine what gets emphasized and what gets left out in each of these formulations of history and why. We will look at some struggles for a "right" story and "right" meaning. We will specifically consider corporate appropriation of history and its implications. (Gordon)
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200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201. Rome. (4). (HU).
Section 001 The Roman Empire and its Heirs.
A survey of Roman history from the consolidation of the Roman empire in the first century B.C. to the rise of its political heirs in the Mediterranean world in the eighth century A.D. Topics to be discussed include Rome's overseas expansion; the administration of a large empire; the impact of Christianity; the conversion of Constantine; heresy and the imposition of orthodoxy; barbarian kingdoms; Justinian's reconquest; the rise of Islam; and the coronation of Charlemagne as a revived Roman emperor. Readings will include many ancient texts in translation and some modern scholarship. Final grade is based on two tests, frequent written exercises, and participation in discussions. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost:1 , maybe 2 WL:1 (Van Dam)
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211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (4). (SS).

This course will investigate the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the opening of the second millennium through the fourteenth century. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Extensive readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.), a midterm, a final examination, and two short papers are required. WL:2 (Squatriti)
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221. Survey of British History from 1688. (4). (SS).

This lecture course covers the history of Britain in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Topics include: British society and politics in the 18th century; 18th century economic and cultural change; industrialization and the making of modern class identities; the impact of the French revolution on British politics; regional differences and the histories of Scotland and Wales; the "Irish question" in the 19th and 20th centuries; the development of working class politics; Liberalism, Conservatism, and the emergence of Labour politics; gender and the activities and ideas of women; sexuality in the 19th and 20th centuries; imperialism, science, and the ideas about race; the position and activities of Blacks and Asians in Britain; social and cultural modernity; the impact of the two world wars; Britain in the post-colonial era; British-American relations; youth in Britain in the post-war era; the sixties and seventies; Thatcherism; and contemporary British social, political, and cultural movements. Assignments will include several short papers; sections; and a take-home final. No special background is required, but familiarity with modern European history would be very useful. Readings will include both primary and secondary materials and both historical and literary sources. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)
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249/Korean 249. Introduction to Korean Civilization. (3). (HU).

See Korean 249. (Cho)
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265. A History of the University of Michigan. (4). (HU).

The University of Michigan has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will examine this heritage and history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, etc. It will explore the factors that have shaped the University and place it within the larger social, political, national, and international context. The only prerequisite is an interest in your University and its place in history. Presentation will be through lectures with slides. Grading will be based on essay/ objective exams; term project or research paper; photo quiz to acquaint students with central campus, its architecture and embellishment. Readings will be from a course pack and 2 or 3 required texts. Cost:2 WL:1 (Steneck)
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275/CAAS 231. Survey of Afro-American History, II. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 231. (Theoharis)
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300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

306/ACABS 321/Rel. 358. History and Religion of Ancient Israel. (3). (HU).

See ACABS 321. (Schmidt)
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309/Religion 309. The Christian Tradition in the West from Luther and Calvin to the Present. (3). (Excl).

See Religion 309. (Tentler)
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319. Europe Since 1945. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive critical introduction to European society, culture, and politics since the Second World War. Lectures and readings will cover both Eastern and Western Europe, the international arena and the national histories of particular countries, and social and cultural life as well as political developments. The course aims to explore the shaping of the contemporary world and to introduce students to societies and political cultures which are both structurally similar and fundamentally different from their own. Instruction will be via lectures and ad hoc discussion, evaluation via midterm exam and end-of-term essay. No special background is required; prejudices and preconceptions about European societies are enough. Cost:3 -4 WL:4 (Eley)
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333/Poli. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of East Central Europe. (4). (SS). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

See Russian and East European Studies 396. (Eagle)
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368/Amer. Cult. 342/WS 360. History of the Family in the U.S. (4). (SS).
Section 001 History of the Family in the United States, 1880 to the Present.
This course aims to help students gain a perspective on the contemporary family by studying the development of this important institution in the American past. Particular emphasis will be placed on changing attitudes towards and experiences of sex roles, sexuality, childrearing, work patterns, and relationships between men, women, and children. We will explore: race, ethnicity, and class; cover economic developments as well as shifting conceptions of the role of the state; and ask about the impact of these factors on family life. We will want to examine how much the family has changed over time and try to project, on the basis of historical evidence, whither the family is going. Cost:3 WL:4 (Morantz-Sanchez)
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371/WS 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (4). (Excl).

This course examines the experiences of women in America from the Civil War to the present, focusing on women as individuals, as a group with the shared experience of being female and as members of historically constructed racial, ethnic, economic, regional and self-defined communities. Our investigations will focus on the ways social constructions of gender, sexuality, race, ethnicity, class, region and nation have helped shaped women's participation in American society, as well as on the ways different women have pushed against boundaries of those social constructions and in that process have helped re-shape American society. Throughout the course, we will situate women's individual and collective experiences in the contexts of social, demographic, legal, political and economic transformations at the local, national, and global levels. (DuPuis)
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377/Amer. Cult. 312. History of Latinos in the U.S. (3). (Excl). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

This course is an exploration of the history and culture of Latinos in the United States from the colonial era to the present. We will examine the diversity among groups that make up the Latino population of the United States, paying particular attention to the three largest subgroups of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origin. Topics will include the varied experiences of colonialism and immigration; the role of race prejudice and discrimination in shaping social mobility; cultural transformation and regional variations in language, religion, and music; gender as a central variable in defining issues of identity and opportunity; and the birth of a Latino civil rights movement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Montoya)
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386. The Holocaust. (4). (Excl).

This course will attempt to answer some of the most vexing historical problems surrounding the Nazi regime's systematic extermination of six million Jews during World War II. For example: What role did Christian hostility to Judaism play in the growth of genocidal racism in Germany? How did German political traditions prepare the way for Nazi authoritarianism? Why did the German people acquiesce in the Nazi program of mass murder? Why did the American and British governments refuse to come to the aid of European Jews? How did European Jews behave in crisis and extremity? Was the Holocaust "unique"? There will be a midterm, a paper of 10 to 15 pages, and a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:1 (Endelman)
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391. Topics in European History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Visions of the Past.
This course rests on the proposition that most of what most people have ever known about the past has come from deliberated aesthetic forms such as monuments, paintings, novels, and films. Many more Americans have read or seen Gone with the Wind than have ever read a history of the Civil War; films like Schindler's List have been the primary means by which Americans and Europeans have conceptualized the destruction of European Jewry. This course, therefore, will examine how and why history is represented in the various aesthetic forms, and how those representations have created our sense of what is important in history. We shall read a half dozen novels and plays, see several films, look at a variety of art and architecture, and listen to several musical forms. Classes will be lecture and discussion, and there will be one or two papers besides a midterm and final. (Marwil)
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395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 credit course open only to history concentrators by written permission of the instructor.
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396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (SS). May be repeated for a total of twelve credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators needing ECB requirement and by override only. Apply for overrides at 1014 Tisch Hall on Monday, November 10 from 9 a.m. until 1 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action through Touch-tone Registration to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.
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Section 001 Old Age in American History. Being old in America in the 1990s is both remarkably similar to and incredibly different from conditions in past times. Americans have long perceived old age as a distinct stage of life, and they have always faced their own aging with ambivalence. But people in colonial times would be shocked to see Yuppies denounce their elders as "greedy geezers," they would find it hard to unravel the legal, medical, economic, and ethical issues that currently shape long-term care for the elderly in this country. Through weekly discussions of books and articles, we will try to understand such continuities and changes in the meanings and experiences of old age over time. There will be no exams. Cost:3 WL:1 (Achenbaum)

Section 002 History of the North American Environment. (Montoya)

Section 003 Social History of the U.S. Civil War. Although much has been written about the political and military aspects of the Civil War, scholars have almost completely ignored the social history of that conflict. This undergraduate research and writing seminar will try to advance our limited knowledge of this area by having the participants do original research on the social aspects of that struggle on the homefront and on the battlefield. After some introductory readings about the Civil War, each student will select a research topic. The course is designed to teach students how to do original research and to write a comprehensive research paper. The instructor and a graduate student assistant will work with the students on a series of short written assignments in preparation for their final paper. The final paper for the course will be approximately 30-50 pages long and will be based upon primary and secondary sources about the social history of the Civil War. WL:2 (Vinovskis)

Section 004 Health and Medicine in U.S. Culture since 1875. Unprecedented technical advances and cultural changes transformed the health of Americans and the power of the healing professions since 1875. This course examines how gender, race, ethnicity, economics, politics, and changing cultural meanings of disease and science combined with new technical discoveries to alter medicine, health, and society. Class is discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Students are expected to read and discuss thoughtfully about 150 pages per week, drawn from often-divergent sources. A 15 page paper based on original historical research, a weekly journal, and two 5-page book review papers are required. Those absent from the first class without advance permission WILL BE DROPPED from the course. Cost:1 -5. Required purchases cost about $25 but additional required reading available on reserve may be purchased for about $125. WL: 2 for history majors; 4 for all others. (Pernick)

Section 005 Constructing the Political, Part II: Representations of Power and the Idea of the Individual in Modern Political Thought. This course is intended to provide students with the opportunity to reflect upon some of the issues surrounding cultural diversity and the status of the "western tradition." The course centers on certain key themes visions of human nature, the good life, the practical and ethical dimensions of political and social organization. Members of the seminar will thus engage critically with the arguments of Rousseau, Burke, Smith, Hegel, Marx, Weber, Appiah and Bourdieu in order to see how it is that notions about male and female, class and status, nation and ethnicity, have underwritten constructions of both social and political order. Ultimately, our goal is to confront such arguments directly, in order to see how the very different understandings of the past - about the relationship between the family and the state, economy and society, ethics and politics have informed the visions of justice, political efficacy (power) and human happiness to which the western tradition is heir. There will be no exams. Active participation in weekly discussions and a set of frequent short papers (3-5 pp.) will determine one's grade. ECB students will be asked to expand two of those brief essays into longer (8-10 pp.) pieces. (Downs)

Section 006 Michigan in the Era of Industrialization. This course will focus on the period in Michigan history from 1880-1930. It will examine several themes in that period including immigration, industrialization, settlement patterns, etc. A general familiarity with United States history is required. History colloquia are conducted in the seminar format and are limited to a small number of students. As a result, emphasis is placed on student participation in discussions. Each student will be required to write a major research paper that will draw on the resources of the Bentley Historical Library, which contains original manuscripts and archives relating to the history of the state. The course provides an opportunity for students to gain familiarity with a critical period in the industrial and social history of the of the U.S. and do original historical research. Grades will be based on a midterm exam, class discussion, and a seminar paper. Cost:1 WL:2 (Blouin)

Section 007 Dreams and Visions in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. This seminar explores the nature and interpretation of dreams from late antiquity until Freud. It has several objectives. The first is to confront the problems and promises presented by dreams as an historical subject. The second is to follow the shifting debate that raged among Western intellectuals from the ancient Greeks until the 18th century about the origins of dreams and their possible prophetic and supernatural significance. The third goal is to understand how theories of dreaming were implicated in medieval, early modern and modern culture. A final goal is to demonstrate that history as a discipline is more than the study of events and processes in the past. Students will be asked to work on two writing assignments for this course, a diary of their own dreams and a term paper that analyzes an aspect of the subject of dreams and visions in depth. The dream diary will enable students to test some of modern day theories of dreams with which we shall open the course against his or her experience. The term paper must be a piece of original research based on primary sources or a rigorous analysis of historiographical, literary, artistic, or social scientific texts. Students will be assisted in preparing a bibliography, writing a draft, and revising and preparing a final version of this paper. (MacDonald)

Section 008 History and Identity in Armenia and Elsewhere. Memories and interpretations of the past figure prominently in most peoples' understandings of "who they are" and "how they came to be" that way. Yet accounts of the past whether personal or popular, individual or collective are inevitably selective. How are narratives of the past formed, how do they figure in the practice of daily life, how are they used or politicized by individuals, groups, and nations, and how are people influenced by them? Using Armenian historical consciousness in the late twentieth century as a case study to be explored in depth, this course will also examine in theoretical and comparative perspective the ways in which accounts of history can circumscribe or interact dynamically with conceptions of personal, ethnic or national identity. In readings and class discussion, particular attention will be paid to approaches to ethnicity and the relationships among history and territoriality; historiography, political philosophy, and nationalism; historical narratives and state-building; and ideologies of tradition and modernity. Students will write and revise two short (5-8 page) papers, and will write and revise one longer (10-15 page) final paper. (Platz)
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397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (HU). May be repeated for a total of twelve credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators and by override only. Apply for overrides at 1014 Tisch Hall on Monday, November 10 from 9 a.m. until 1 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action through Touch-tone Registration to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.
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Section 001 Anthropology and American Culture. Americans have contributed a lot to the formation of anthropology in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth century there are more anthropologists in America than in any other country. Anthropological writings have played important roles in American debates about the relations among European Americans, African Americans, and Native Americans. This course will examine the history of anthropology in America, and its connection with the great issues of public life, especially race relations. No prior background in anthropology is necessary. We will be reading the classic works of American anthropology, including writings of Thomas Jefferson, L.H. Morgan, Frederick Douglass, and Franz Boas. Students will choose topics for class presentations and term papers. (Trautmann)

Section 002 Law and Society in American History. This course deals with several major themes in American legal history from the Colonial period to the early twentieth century. The themes include: tensions between formal legal rules and widespread social attitudes in various settings, including the local community, the family, and the larger economic order; changes in concepts regarding the nature and source of law and the relationship between those concepts and the roles of legislation, judicial opinions, and informal or "customary norms"; concepts of human behavior as they relate to legal and social ideas regarding both the theory of criminal responsibility and the practical uses of institutions to enforce the law and to "correct" offenders; the relationship between socio-economic development and legal change regarding issues of class, gender, and race; the various meanings of the "rights tradition" in America. These subjects will be pursued through analysis of a selection of recent books (paperbacks) and articles. Attention will be paid both to the substantive matters listed above and to the manner in which historians have formulated issues and employed evidence in setting forth arguments regarding specific historical contexts. Students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. The term paper will be an analytical essay on one of the main themes of the course, and will draw upon several of the works read for the course. Cost:4 WL:2 ; The history department will create a waitlist; do not attend the first class meeting unless the instructor has admitted you to the course. (Green)

Section 003 State, Church, and Social Policy in Early Modern Europe. Social policy is high on the political agendas of industrialized countries worldwide. This was true of early modern Europe as well. All political entities sought to institutionalize the various forms of organized charity and considered social policy a vital governmental instrument, both for population-control and disciplining the poor. This social policy was financed mainly by raising voluntary contributions from the well-to-do. Their gifts were based on concepts of Christian charity. The various Christian churches had different ideas about the forms in which this charity should be expressed, and so shaped the instruments states had at their disposal to implement their social policies. The course will consist of a comparative study of organized charity in Protestant and Catholic states and cities. Its aim is to clarify the interrelations of two main aspects of early modern European history, state-formation and confessionalization, from the viewpoint of social policy. (Spaans)

Section 004 Medicine and Society in Japanese History. A guiding assumption of this course is that issues of medicine, disease, and definition of illness are fundamental elements of a society, and exercise a direct impact on areas such as life course decisions, reproductive strategies, and public policy. Social responses to conditions or afflictions also provide a window on prevailing values and understandings of the human condition, and are related to such things as possible treatments that may be available, and public health responses. In more recent times we encounter issues of "traditional" versus "scientific" knowledge, of "western" versus Sino-Japanese" notions of treatment, and the tension between competing medical systems. The course aims to examine a number of issues in a historical framework in order to, first, obtain a sense of the Japanese experience(s), and, second, provide the opportunity for students to develop an interpretative framework for understanding issues of illness, disease and medicine more generally. While some knowledge of Japanese history would be an advantage, it is not a prerequisite for the course. Students will take turns being "discussion leaders" for different weeks (though the instructor will assume this role in weeks four and five), but all are expected to be familiar with the readings, and be prepared to participate in the weekly discussions. In addition, students will be required to write a term paper of approximately 4500 words. The final version of the paper is due no later than 4/23, but students will need to have at least a substantial draft ready for circulation and discussion during the final two class periods (precise details will be finalized by 3/16). (Goble)

Section 005 Exploring 1950s U.S. Culture. For Winter Term, 1998, this section is offered jointly with American Culture 496.008. (Anderson)

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399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, Hist. 398, and senior standing. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (1-6). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

This course is a workshop for thesis writers. It concentrates on practical and theoretical problems of research and writing with special reference to methodological questions. (Scobey)
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412/MARC 414. Social and Intellectual History of the Florentine Renaissance. (3). (Excl).

How did a medieval city of bankers and cloth merchants become, in the fifteenth century, the center of an original humanist culture that offered Europeans new ways of seeing and portraying themselves and their society from artistic perspective to the writing of history? The course will trace the history of renaissance Florence not only as a chronicle of its development but also as the process by which it self-consciously constituted itself as a society and a history. Among the topics taken up will be the reshaping of the city, both physically and constitutionally; the transformation of the Medici from bankers to humanist rulers; the development of humanism into an enabling code for civil life; the new valuation of wealth and the civic use of magnificence (from palaces to wedding and funeral processions); social organization and changing attitudes toward the disempowered (slaves, Jews, the poor, women); and forms of religious expression, from confraternal devotions and processions to the fire and brimstone of prophetic preachers (e.g., Savonarola). Considerable use will be made of original sources (historical, literary, and visual). This is designed as a lecture course, but there will be ample time allotted for discussion. (Hughes)
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416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 German Thought from Marx to Wittgenstein.
Between the upheavals of the French Revolution and the First World War, the European nations witnessed an utter transformation of their world. The relations of the person to the nation, to the state, to history, and to the physical world were rethought from top to bottom. Our exploration of modern ideas will take us from rationalism to racism, and from utopian ideologies to the birth of psychoanalysis. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, a midterm exam, and a final paper. (Spector)
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427(508). Magic, Religion and Science in Early Modern England. Hist. 220 and junior standing are recommended. (3). (Excl).

This course is about the "first three minutes" of the modern mental universe in actuality, about three centuries of historical time (1500-1800). It concentrates on how the "big bang" of the Protestant Reformation blasted apart a world view and a culture that had slowly developed over a thousand years. The explosive force of that strangely contingent event, renewed by subsequent eruptions of religious conflict and civil war, divided the English people culturally as never before. Magic declined, miracles and malevolent witches disappeared, the prestige of the ancient sciences of astrology and alchemy eroded. New and powerful philosophical ideas about human understanding and physical reality flourished; scientific explanations for a vast array of celestial, earthly and mental phenomena proliferated and were embraced by laypersons as the basis of a new faith, the faith in (someone else's) reason. The world view that dominates modern English (and Western) culture emerged from almost three hundred years of charged conflict and began rapidly to evolve into contemporary scientism. And yet the shattering effect of the events that powered cultural change also made it impossible for secularization and rational religion fully to triumph. The hold of rational religion and secularism on the minds of the majority of ordinary men and women remained less complete than on the minds of the educated, governing classes. The result finally was a cultural and social realignment. The elite fashioned a "superculture" that is dominated by religious rationalism and scientistic faith; the dissenting sects, the lower classes and marginalized groups have sustained and created subcultures that are characterized by supernatural wonder and sudden infusions of spiritual and emotional energy. Much has changed since 1800 when this process was more or less completed, but these cultural and class divisions have not disappeared, and they have complicated ethnic relations as well as politics. In sum, this course is finally a meditation on how England lost its medieval mind and found its modern, divided sensibility. Principal readings will include all or part of Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars; Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic; James Sharpe, Instruments of Darkness: Witchcraft in England, 1550-1800; Peter French, John Dee: The Life of a Renaissance Magus; and Steven Shapin, The Scientific Revolution. A course pack of articles and original sources will also be required. Students will be asked to write three short (five page) papers on the readings for class; an in-class, midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. (MacDonald)
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429(143). Discovery. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The History, Art, and Cinema of Discovery and Exploration.
This course is suitable for first-year students. Travel, and a fascination for exploration, have been important determinants of European and American culture. This course explores the history of travel, discovery, and exploration through original accounts by travelers and explorers, through artistic depictions of travel, and through a series of movies about exploration and by explorers (some examples are "Grass," "King Kong," "Kamet Conquered," "Destination Moon"). The primary concern of our work will be the impact of travel, discovery, and exploration on the travelers themselves. We begin with the age of Marco Polo, move to the "New World," visit the North and South Poles, climb the highest mountains, and end with real and imagined space travel. Grades will be based on class participation, performance on a regular quiz, and the final examination. (Lindner)
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431(531). History of the Balkans Since 1878. (3). (Excl).

This is a lecture course which surveys the history of the modern Balkans the area which consists of the ex-Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1878 to the present. There are no prerequisites nor required background. Interested first-year students should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam, a one-hour written exam, writing on one essay question out of about four, one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor), and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonia problem, terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. Nationality problems, the break-up of Yugoslavia, and the ensuing wars. Cost:3 WL:4 (J. Fine)
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434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of fifteen independent republics, the experience of Communism in Russia and Eastern Europe is being rethought as if the seeds of destruction had been planted already in the revolution. This course looks at the complex evolution of political structures, social developments, and cultural responses during the 70 years of the Soviet system. Beginning with the prerevolutionary crises and political movements, it surveys the rise of Stalin, the building of a "totalitarian" state, and the successive reforms that ultimately unraveled the system. Students are required to attend two lectures and one discussion section each week, prepare a term project, and take two take-home examinations (midterm and final). WL:1 (Rosenberg)
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443/APTIS 487. Modern Middle East History. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course surveys the emergence of the modern Middle East from the three great Muslim empires of the early modern period, the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal. It discusses both indigenous developments and the Western impact in the nineteenth century, looking at reform bureaucracy and millenarian movements as responses to these changes. We then examine the rise of nationalism and the break-up of the Ottoman Empire during and after WW I, and these phenomena are seen as the context for the beginnings of the Palestine issue. Attention is paid to the interwar efforts at building strong states in the region, whether in the Turkey of Ataturk, the Iran of Reza Shah, or Wafdist Egypt. The last part of the course looks at the rise of socialist and pan-Arab ideologies, as well as of opposing ideologies such as Islamic activism after WW II. The impact of petroleum, the Palestinian issue, the turn toward bourgeois liberalism, and Shi`ite movements such as the Iranian Revolution and the Hizbullah phenomenon in Lebanon, and the Gulf War of 1991, will all be addressed in this section. Students will take a midterm and a final examination, and will write a ten-page term paper on a subject of their choosing. Reading in this class comes to about 150 pages per week. (Cole)
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448/CAAS 448. Africa Since 1850. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Wealth, Health, and Gender in Africa, 1850-2000.
This course will focus on the broad, linked themes of wealth and health as a way to study closely key moments and processes of the last 150 years of sub-Saharan African history. We will work to define these words wealth and health according to shifting and various African logics about power, gender, virtue, and human agency; and in relation to particular religious, cultural, and/or political formations, movements, performances, and expressions. Wealth, health, gender, and generation will also serve as beginning analytic terms for our readings and debates about power, bodies, prestige, fortunes, misfortune, money, gift-giving, healing, illness, violence, and work, leisure, and style in Africa's recent past. Primary sources will be about as numerous as secondary ones; films and novels will be included therein; some classes will be devoted to small group work; and we will spend about one third of the class on each five-decade segment, 1850-1900; 1900-1950; 1950-1997 (2000). (Hunt)
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450. Japan to 1800. (3). (Excl).

History 450 is an introductory survey of Japanese history from early times through 1800. The course covers some broader political, religious and social topics within a chronological framework, and is divided into five segments. First, society and state formation to the end of the eighth century; second, the appearance of distinctive political and social patterns developed by a hereditary aristocracy from the ninth through twelfth centuries (the Heian period); third, developments coincident with the emergence of the warrior class onto the national political stage from the late 1100s to early 1300s (the Kamakura period); fourth, the medieval age from roughly 1300-1600 (the Muromachi and Azuchi-Momoyama periods) dominated by warfare, social change, and extensive overseas contacts; and, lastly, the early modern era from 1600 through roughly 1800 (Edo or Tokugawa period, generally dated 1600-1868) characterized by peace, urbanism, economic growth, and a vibrant popular culture. Evaluation: One midterm exam (25%) one final exam (35%); a term paper of no less than 3000 words (40%). (Goble)
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461. The American Revolution. (3). (SS).

This is a lecture course that covers the half-century of North American history between the Seven Years War and the War of 1812. It is not a course in military history but rather a detailed examination of the origins, character, and results of the American Revolution. During the term, we will revisit many of the familiar themes of this period the rise of opposition to Britain, the nature of the military conflict that ensued, the republican experiment that followed the Treaty of Paris in 1783, and the new order established by the Constitution. Much of our inquiry will focus, however, on other crucial issues, as we examine the Revolution to quote an early historian "as a social movement." To what extent did the Revolution act as a force for change within America? What role did conflicts over class, gender, and race play? Throughout the term, a central challenge will be to keep the diversity of America's social structure in view, to consider the experience of women as well as men, of the rank- and-file as well as members of the elite, of Native Americans and African Americans as well as Europeans. Readings, which include several monographs and a course pack of documents, total about 150 pages per week. Written assignments include two in-class exams and a comprehensive final. In addition, two essays (6-8 pp., double-spaced) will be assigned. (J.Scott)
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467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, the new feminism and women's liberation); the war in Vietnam; Nixon and the Watergate affair; the 1980s and the Reagan presidency; and the presidencies of Bush and Clinton. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Cost:3 WL:4 , a student may also visit the faculty office to see about getting on a Waitlist into the course. (S. Fine)
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477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is both thematic and chronological, focusing on: (1) the colonial heritage, political independence, and the development of new forms of political rule; (2) agrarian transformations and labor systems; (3) urban growth and industrialization; (4) nationalism and struggles to define national cultures; (5) social constructions of racial, ethnic and gender identities; and (6) revolutionary movements and military responses. Selected regions will be discussed under each topic, with a particular emphasis on Haiti, Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, the Andean republics, and Central America. (Caulfield)
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Section 004 Languages Across the Curriculum. Students who enroll in this section should also enroll in University Course 490.001, a one-credit course will count towards a certificate in advanced second-language competence. Students will complete extra reading and writing assignments in Spanish and discussion will be conducted in both Spanish and English. Please note meeting time for this section is longer. This is for undergraduates. Students should have 4th-term Spanish competency. PLEASE NOTE YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ENROLL IN UC 490.001 UNTIL AFTER THE TERM BEGINS. Instructions on how to do this will be explained in the first few class meetings. (Caulfield)
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491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 101 or 102. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 491. (Whatley)
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A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

537/APTIS 463. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

See APTIS 463.
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538. The Ottoman Enterprise. Hist. 110. (3). (Excl).

Beginning in the later Middle Ages, a series of great transformations changed the aspect of our world: printing from movable type, a demographic catastrophe and rebound, the circumnavigation of the world, a revolution in warfare, the rise of the individual as a force in art, changes in the life of families, and the rise of the individual as a force in art, changes in the life of families, and the rise of a scientific attitude. How the Near East contributed to and was affected by these changes is the core issue discussed in this course, which uses the great empire of the Ottomans (1299-1923) as its base. Class work will include lectures, slide demonstrations, and discussions of contemporary sources. In addition to the final there will be a midterm and a book report. (Lindner)
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550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (3). (HU).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, people, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: (1) the concept and structure of empire; (2) emperors and political culture; (3) great thinkers, influential political leaders, and powerful rebels; (4) wars and foreigners; (5) Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; (6) class, gender, and race; (7) writers, literature, and the structure of feeling; (8) science and technology; and (9) eating culture, art of entertainment, and daily life. Special features of the course include reading of Classical Chinese poetry, singing of Peking opera, and discussion of the Scientific Revolution and the birth of "Modern China" in the 17th century. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. Cost:3 WL:1 (Chang)
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569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, and a multitude of recent business developments and trends. Cost:1 WL:3 (Lewis)
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572/Amer. Cult. 533/CAAS 533. Black Civil Rights from 1900. (3). (Excl).

This seminar will provide an in-depth study of Black struggles for freedom during the 1950s, 60s, and early 70s. Specifically we will focus on the origins of these struggles, their continuities and differences from previous struggles, the variety of goals and leadership used, the experiences and backgrounds of the participants, and these movements' successes and failures. We will pay particular attention to the roles of women and men in the movement and the ways that ideology changed, shifted, and indeed remained constant throughout the struggle. In doing this, we will seek to rewrite the history of the United States during this period and examine how the these movements have been remembered and memorialized in popular culture, the academy, and contemporary culture today. Students must have ample background in African American history to take this course. Cost:2 WL:4 (Theoharis)
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591. Topics in European History. Juniors, seniors, and graduate students. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 The Emergence of Modern Missions and the Creation of a Christian Public.
Till the end of the eighteenth century, the spread of Christianity was usually linked with political expansion. Engaging in missions in a modern sense, as an undertaking formally distinguished from politics, is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Modern missions were organized by new Christian bodies, either new churches, religious societies, or new (Catholic) orders. Support of the laity was vital, and modern missionary organizations have always focused upon raising support among the population of Christian countries, pioneering new forms of communication, publicity campaigns, funding-raising techniques and various forms of organizational renewal. Both by their organization inventions, which created a Christian public, and their massive disseminating of new images of the way in which Christianity moved in the world, modern missionary movements were an important aspect of the transformation western Christianity underwent in the wake of the rise of the nation state. (van Rooden)
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592. Topics in Asian History. Juniors, seniors, and graduate students. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 The Opium War to the New Open Door: Economic History of Modern China.
This course examines the origins and development of China's modern economy from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The course will examine the historical antecedents of economic growth in China as well as the cultural, economic, and political institutions that have shaped the course of modern Chinese economic history. Beginning with the traditional agrarian economy of the early nineteenth century, we will trace China's economic development from the era of foreign imperialism under the treaty port system, to the struggle for economic and political stability in the early twentieth century, to the Maoist strategies of the Communist era and the past decade of market reform. Topics will include importance of political and economic institutions, demographic history, social costs of economic change, foreign imperialism, and the role of the West in the economic development of East Asia. Grading will be based on class participation, research paper, and an in-class presentation. (Buoye)
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593. Topics in U.S. History. Juniors, seniors and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Approaches to Asian American History.
For Winter Term, 1998, this section is offered jointly with American Culture 496.006. (Nomura)

Section 002 Engendering Imperialism: America in the Pacific, 1898. 1998 marks the centennial of America's formal colonialist expansion into the North Pacific through its territorial annexations of Hawaii, Guam and the Philippines. This seminar explores gendered discourses and discourses about gender that were central to America's dominance of these Pacific sites at the turn of the century. In part, our investigation will focus on the functions of gendered and racialized discourses as technologies of American imperialism and in the debates over the meaning of America as a colonial power which occurred during this period. Readings thus will include a variety of 19th- and 20th-century documents written by both pro- and anti-imperialist Americans. As well, however, we will investigate the function of gender and race in discourses of resistance to American imperialism, reading a selection of English-language and translated sources written by indigenous Pacific islanders. Throughout the course, we will be concerned with understanding the relationships between gendered and racialized technologies of power and of resistance as they were enacted both in America and at these Pacific sites during the period. The class will be open to graduate students and upper-level undergraduates with permission of instructor. Several short response papers and an end-of-term analytical research paper will be required. Cost:3 WL:1 (DuPuis)
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595/CAAS 595. Topics in African History. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 African Nationalist Life Histories.
This course will investigate the historical contacts of African nationalism through the autobiographies and biographies of Nationalist leaders, presidents, trade unionists, and political activists. Three generations of African leaders will be discussed based on their own portrayals in autobiographies, including the first generation of nationalist such as Nkrumah, Azikiwe, Kenyatta, Senghor, Lumumba, Mugabe, and others; the second generation of Moi, Mobutu, Mengistu, Rawlings, Amin, and others; and the third generation including Kabila, Meles, Museveni, and Kagame. The "founding fathers" trope will be explored over the three generations of leaders, as well as among autobiographies of activists and leaders in South Africa. These works will be contrasted with the writings and life histories of opposition leaders and non-elite participants in African nationalist movements. Students are encouraged to compare course readings with the writings of African-American leaders and other nationalists leaders in the African Diaspora. Requirements include a number of review essays and a substantial research paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Scarnecchia)
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