The Physics Department discourages students from changing midstream
from Physics 140 to Physics 125 or from Physics 240 to Physics
126, so it is important that students choose the first course
of a physics sequence with care. Prospective engineers, physicists, and chemists should elect Physics 140/240 rather than Physics
125/126 because concentration programs in these areas require the Physics 140/240 sequence. In the case of some departmental
concentration programs * (e.g., * biology) or in special
individual circumstances, students can elect or are encouraged
to elect the Physics 125/126 sequence. Some advisors will advise
all students who have had calculus to elect Physics 140/240. Physics
140/240 can be elected by all students who have had calculus, but it should be elected only by students who enjoy solving difficult
problems and who think that they will be good at it. Physics 145
is a three-credit version of Physics 140. The difference between
Physics 140 and Physics 145 is that Physics 140 meets in two lectures
and two discussion sessions per week, while Physics 145 has three
lectures per week and no discussion sessions. The same topics
are covered in both courses, and the final exam is common for
Physics 140 and Physics 145. Physics 145 is primarily intended
for students in the College of Engineering who have a limit on their number of credit hours, although it is not restricted to
Engineering students.

Note: If the Waitlist code on a Physics course is WL:5, then both sign on the waitlist through Touch-tone Registration and contact the department office.

**106. Everyday Physics. *** (3).
(NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required.
*This course examines everyday phenomena and current technology
in terms of physical concepts and laws. The subjects examined
are wide ranging, and the discussion focuses on discovering common
underlying themes. Examples of topics covered include: lasers, tornadoes, rainbows, computers, and satellites. This class emphasizes
concepts rather than mathematical models. Grades are based on
homework and exams. Curiosity is the major prerequisite. Cost:2
WL:5

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**115. Living with Physics.
*** Two and one-half years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry. No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in Phys. 125, 140, or 160. (3). (NS). (BS).
*Physics 115 is a descriptive introduction to physics for
non-science concentrators who do not have an extensive mathematical
background. Students will be exposed to both classical and modern
conceptions of the physical world. Critical evaluation of ideas through the use of the scientific method will be stressed. Classical
concepts involving easily measurable physical quantities will
be related to everyday life through a series of lecture demonstrations, take-home exercises, and experiments. At the same time, modern
ideas ranging from the nature and evolution of the universe, to the world of the atom and of elementary particles will be discussed.
It is hoped that students who complete the course will be in a
better position to evaluate new and existing ideas in all areas
of life by applying those methods which are used in the evaluation
of physical theories. The final course grade will be based on
homework assignments, a midterm exam, and a final exam. Cost:2
WL:4 (Ross)

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**125. General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, and Heat. *** Two and one-half years of high school
mathematics, including trigonometry. Phys. 125 and 127 are normally
elected concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in 140, 145, or 160. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1).
*Physics 125 and 126 constitute a two-term sequence offered
primarily for students concentrating in the natural sciences, architecture, pharmacy, or natural resources; and for preprofessional
students preparing for medicine, dentistry, or related health
sciences. Physics 125 and 126 are an appropriate sequence for
any student wanting a quantitative introduction to the basic principles
of physics but without the mathematical sophistication of Physics
140 and 240. Strong emphasis is placed on problem solving, and skills in elementary algebra and trigonometry are assumed. While
a high school level background in physics is not assumed, it is
helpful. Physics 125 and 126 are

PHYSICS 125 covers classical mechanics (laws of motion, force, energy, and power) and mechanical wave motion (including sound
waves). The final course grade is based on three one-hour evening
examinations, class performance, and a final examination. Physics
127 should be taken concurrently. Cost:3
WL:5 (McKay)

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**126. General Physics: Electricity
and Light. *** Physics 125. Phys. 126 and 128 are normally
elected concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in 240 or 260. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1).
*See Physics 125 for a general description of this introductory
sequence of courses.

Physics 126 is a continuation of Physics 125; it covers electricity
and magnetism, the nature of light, and briefly introduces atomic
and nuclear phenomena. The final course grade is based on three
one-hour evening examinations, class performance, and a final
examination. Physics 128 should be taken concurrently. Cost:3
WL:5 (Gray)

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**127. Mechanics, Heat, and Sound Lab. *** Concurrent election with Phys. 125 is
strongly recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in Phys. 141. (1). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee
($25) required.
*Physics 127 is a laboratory course intended to accompany
Physics 125 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental
science. Macintosh computers are used for data acquisition and analysis. Evaluation is based on participation and performance
in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2
WL:5

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**128. Electricity and Light
Lab. *** Concurrent election with Phys. 126 is strongly
recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in Phys. 241. (1). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25)
required.
*Physics 128 is a laboratory course intended to accompany
Physics 126 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental
science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance
in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2
WL:5

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**140. General Physics I.
*** Math. 115. Physics 140 and 141 are normally elected
concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in Phys. 125, 145, or 160. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1).
*Physics 140, 240, and 340 constitute a three-term sequence
which examines concepts in physics fundamental to the physical
sciences and engineering. This introductory sequence uses calculus.
The introductory sequence is primarily designed to develop a skill: the skill to solve simple problems by means of mathematics. Developing this skill requires daily practice and a sense for the meaning
of statements and formulas, as well as awareness of when one understands
a statement, proof, or problem solution and when one does not.
Thus one learns to know what one knows in a disciplined way.

The topics in Physics 140 include: vectors, motion in one dimension, circular motion, projectile motion, relative velocity and acceleration, Newton's laws, particle dynamics, work and energy, linear momentum, torque, angular momentum of a particle, simple harmonic motion, gravitation, planetary motion, pressure and density of fluids, and Archimedes' principle. Evaluation is based on performance
on three evening hourly examinations (see * Time Schedule *
for dates and times) and a final examination. Cost:3
WL:5 (Evrard)

*Sections 035 and 036 – Keller Plan. * Certain sections
of Physics 140 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program
without formal lectures. These sections are marked PSI in the * Time Schedule. * An information sheet describing the format
of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics Student Services
Office (2061 Randall Lab). Students who want to elect Physics
140 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering.

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**141. Elementary Laboratory
I. *** Concurrent election with Phys. 140 or 145 is strongly
recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in 127. (1). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required.
*Physics 141 is a laboratory course intended to accompany
Physics 140 or 145 and provide a perspective on physics as an
experimental science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory
reports and quizzes. Macintosh computers are used for data acquisition
and analysis. Cost:2
WL:5

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**160. Honors Physics I.
*** Math. 115. Students should elect Physics 141 concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled
in Phys. 125, 140, or 145. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1).
*Physics 160 is a rigorous introduction to particle mechanics
and the motion of extended objects. Particular topics include
vectors, one- and two-dimensional motion, conservation of laws, linear and rotational dynamics, gravitation, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics. Students should also elect a Physics 141 laboratory.
Cost:3 (Stuart)

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**214/RC Nat. Sci. 214. The
Physicists and the Bomb. *** High school mathematics.
(4). (NS). (BS).
*See RC Natural Science 214. (Sanders)

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**240. General Physics II.
*** Physics 140, 145 or 160; and Math. 116. Physics 240
and 241 are normally elected concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 126 or 260. (4). (NS).
(BS). (QR/1).
*See Physics 140 for a general description of the introductory
physics sequence.

The topics covered in PHYSICS 240 include (1) classical electromagnetism:
charge, Coulomb's Law, electric fields, Gauss' Law, electric potential, capacitors and dielectrics, current and resistance, electromotive
force and circuits, magnetic fields, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere's
Law, Faraday's Law of induction, simple AC circuits; and (2) geometrical
and physical optics. There will be three evening hourly examinations
(see * Time Schedule * for dates and times) and a final examination.
Cost:3 WL:5

* Sections 035 and 036 – Keller Plan. * Certain sections
of Physics 240 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program
without formal lectures. These sections are marked in the * Time
Schedule. * An information sheet describing the format of Keller
Plan offerings is available in the Physics Student Services Office
(2061 Randall Lab). Students who want to elect Physics 240 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering.
(Dierker)

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**241. Elementary Laboratory
II. *** Concurrent election with Phys. 240 is strongly
recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or
are enrolled in 128. (1). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required.
*Physics 241 is a laboratory course intended to accompany
Physics 240 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental
science. Evaluation is based on participation and performance
in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory reports and quizzes. Cost:2
WL:5

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**260. Honors Physics II.
*** Physics 140, 145, or 160; and Math. 116. Students
should elect Physics 241 concurrently. No credit granted to those
who have completed or are enrolled in Phys. 240. (4). (NS). (BS).
(QR/1).
*Physics 260 is a rigorous introduction to the theory of electromagnetic
phenomena, involving a great deal of student participation. Topics
include electric and magnetic fields and potentials, DC and AC
circuits, inductance and Maxwell's equations. Students should
elect Physics 241 laboratory. Cost:3
(Williams)

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**288. Physics of Music.
*** (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/1).
*The purpose of this course is to study the physical aspects
of the phenomena that make up the practice and experience of music, as well as to get a glimpse into physics as a mental activity.
No previous expertise in either physics or music is required.
The main emphasis will be on lecture demonstrations with student
participation where feasible. Topics to be covered include: the
nature of sound; mechanics of vibration; musical tones and intervals;
scales and temperaments; wave motion, interference, and diffraction;
propagation of sound through pipes; physics of brass instruments;
physics of woodwind instruments; physics of string instruments;
physics of the piano; and high-fidelity sound reproduction. A
graduate-credit option (Physics 489) is available by supplementing the regular course with an appropriate independent project. Cost:3 WL:3 (Axelrod)

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**290. Physics of the Body
and Mind. *** Physics 125 or 140, and prior or concurrent
enrollment in 126 or 240. (3). (NS). (QR/2).
*This course is intended for students interested in the application
of physics to biology, biochemistry, physiology, psychology, genetics, medicine, bioengineering, and related life sciences. It provides
an introduction to topics in biomechanics, biophysics, and medical
physics including biosensors (EKG, EMG,...) and medical imaging
(X- rays, CT, PET, MRI, ultrasound,...). The lectures will include
interactive demonstrations requiring student participation and related audio-visual/CAI material will be provided for take-home
assignments. Selected visits to related UM research facilities

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**333. Keller Tutor 140.
*** Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). This is
a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).
*Students work as tutors in Physics 140 Keller sections. One
to three credits may be earned while providing tutoring on one-to-one
basis under the supervision of the faculty member. Tutors are
expected to spend three clock hours per week for each credit earned.
Registration requires instructor approval, and the appropriate
application forms are available in the Physics Student Services
Office, 2061 Randall Lab.

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**334. Keller Tutor 240.
*** Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). This is
a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).
*Students work as tutors in Physics 240 Keller sections. See
Physics 333.

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**340. Waves, Heat, and Light.
*** Physics 240 or 260, and Math 215. Concurrent election
of Physics 341 is strongly recommended. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*This course is the third in a three-term introductory physics
sequence, and is required of all physics concentrators. The topics
covered in this course include thermodynamics, light and optics, and special relativity. The Wave equation is treated in detail.
The class meets in lecture, with applications and demonstrations
of the topics covered. (Myers)

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**341. Waves, Heat, and Light
Lab. *** Physics 240 or 260. Concurrent election of Physics
340 is strongly recommended. (2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee
($25) required.
*Physics 341 is a laboratory course intended to accompany
Physics 340 and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental
science. The experiments performed cover topics that include temperature
measurement, black body radiation, optics, interference, diffraction, and the speed of light. Evaluation is based on participation and performance in the laboratory classes, and on written laboratory
reports. (Akerlof)

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**390. Introduction to Modern
Physics. *** Physics 340 and Math 216. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*This course is a quantitative introduction to modern physics
and includes a review of special relativity, the relationship
of particles and waves, the Schrödinger equation applied
to barrier problems, atomic structure and the interpretation of
quantum numbers, the exclusion principle and its applications, structure of solids. This course includes a survey of the topics
and techniques in several subfields of physics, including Solid
State, Atomic, Nuclear, and Particle Physics. The class will meet
as a lecture group. Applications of the principles will be considered
in the lecture section on a regular basis. (Gray)

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**401. Intermediate Mechanics.
*** Physics 126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216. (3). (Excl).
(BS). (QR/1).
*This course is required for physics concentrators. It presents
a systematic development of Newtonian mechanics beginning with
single particle motion in one dimension and extending through
multiparticle systems moving in three dimensions. The conservation
laws of energy and linear and angular momentum are emphasized.
Lagrangian mechanics is introduced, and Hamiltonian mechanics

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**405. Intermediate Electricity
and Magnetism. *** Physics 126/128 or 240/241, and Math.
216. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*This is a second course on the classical theory of electromagnetism.
Familiarity with Maxwell's equations at the level of 240 is assumed.
Physics 340 is strongly recommended. The course elaborates on the theoretical content of the Maxwell theory as well as practical
application. Topics: review of vector analysis; electrostatic
boundary value problems; magnetostatics; dielectric and magnetic
materials; Maxwell's equations and electrodynamics; the wave equation, electromagnetic waves in free space, waves in conducting and dielectric
media; guided waves; electromagnetic radiation, sources of EM
radiation. Cost:3
WL:4 (Qian)

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**406. Statistical and Thermal
Physics. *** Physics 126/128 or 240/241, and Math. 216.
(3). (Excl). (BS).
*An introduction to the thermal and other macroscopic properties
of matter, their description in terms of classical thermodynamics, and their microscopic interpretation from the perspective of statistical
mechanics. Techniques from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and elementary quantum mechanics will be used. Frequent
homework problem assignments, at least one hour exam, and a final
examination will be given. Cost:2
WL:4 (Allen)

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**415. Special Problems for
Undergraduates. *** Permission of instructor. (1-6).
(Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
*This course emphasizes experimental or theoretical research
under the supervision of a faculty member. Generally a small facet
of a large research undertaking is investigated in detail. This
is an independent study course, and instructor permission is required.
The appropriate form is available in the Physics Student Services
Office, 2061 Randall Lab.

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**417/Chem. 417. Dynamical
Processes in Biophysics. *** Math. 216, and Physics 340
or Chem. 463 (or 468). (3). (Excl). (BS).
*Topics include diffusion in biology (electrical potentials
across membranes, nerve action potentials, neuromuscular synapses, the physics of chemoreception, and reaction rate theory); optical
techniques (visible and ultraviolet light absorption, fluorescence
and phosphorescence); and random processes in biophysics (mathematics
of random noise, membrane electrical fluctuations, quasielastic
light scattering fluctuations, fluorescence fluctuations, and chaotic processes). This course is intended primarily for biophysics
students, but it may be used as one of the two courses needed
to satisfy requirement (4) of the physics concentration. (Axelrod)

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**420. Living with Physics
for Elementary Teachers. *** Concurrent registration
in Physics 421. Open only to elementary education concentrators.
(3). (Excl).
*Physics 420 is a survey course designed for concentrators
in elementary education. It focuses on material to be used in the elementary classroom. Cost:2
WL:4 (Krisch)

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**421. Living with Physics
for Elementary Teachers-Lab. *** Concurrent registration
in Physics 420. Open only to elementary education concentrators.
(1). (Excl). Laboratory fee ($25) required.
*Physics 421 is a laboratory course accompanying Physics 420.
Students will do experiments designed to increase their understanding
of physics. Emphasis is placed on the development of demonstrations
and activities for use in the elementary school classroom. Cost:1 WL:3 (Krisch)

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**438. Electromagnetic Radiation.
*** Physics 405. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*Topics of study include: electromagnetic waves in free space;
propagation of electromagnetic waves in matter; reflection and refraction by dielectrics, conductors and ionized gases; dispersion;
waves guides, cavity resonators and transmission lines; absorption
and scattering of light; radiation by dipoles and antennas; radiation
by moving charges: Bremsstrahlung; syncroton radiation and Cerenkov
radiation. WL:3 (Ward)

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**442. Advanced Laboratory
II. *** Physics 390 and any Physics 400-level course.
(2). (Excl). (BS).
*This is an advanced laboratory course. A wide selection of
individual experiments are offered. Students are required to select
5 experiments in consultation with the lab instruction. Experiments
are to be selected from several different areas of physics.

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**452. Methods of Theoretical
Physics. *** Physics 451. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*Physics 451 and 452 constitute a two-term sequence in mathematical
methods of physics. Among various textbooks, G. Arfken,

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**453. Quantum Mechanics.
*** Physics 390. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*This course begins with an overview of the experimental and theoretical foundations for quantum mechanics. The theory is developed
and applied to simple physical systems, with examples taken from
atomic, molecular, condensed matter, nuclear, and particle physics.
Topics include: basics of the Schrödinger equations and its
solutions in rectangular and spherical coordinates; properties, uses, and interpretations of state functions; expectation values
and physical observables; coherence, correlation, and interference.
Other topics include spin, the exclusion principle, and some quantum
statistical mechanics. (Tomozawa)

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**457. Subatomic Physics.
*** Physics 453. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*Topics of study will include: (1) nuclear structure – binding
energies, size and shape, angular momentum, parity, isopin, magnetic
moments, electric quadrupole moments, statistical, shell and collective
models for the nucleus; (2) nuclear decays, radioactivity, barrier
penetration and alpha-particle decay, the weak interaction and beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei; (3) nuclear
interactions – basic properties of the nuclear force, nucleon-nucleon
scattering, the deuteron, nuclear reactions and reaction models;
and (4) nuclear radiation – interaction of charged particles, gamma-rays and neutrons with matter, nuclear radiation detectors.
The basic elements of quantum mechanics are used. Cost:2
WL:4 (Roe)

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**460. Quantum Mechanics
II. *** Physics 453. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*This course is a sequel to Physics 453, and continues to
develop non-relativistic quantum mechanics from the perspective
of atomic physics. Topics covered: quantum mechanics of the hydrogen
atom; solving Schrödinger's equation for a single electron
atom; spectra of alkali atoms: the quantum defect; orbital and spin magnetism; Fine structure; atoms in magnetic fields; quantum
mechanics of atoms in magnetic fields; the Bloch equations; a
brief look at relativity in quantum mechanics; atoms in electric
fields, and introduction to perturbation theory; atoms in time-varying
electric fields; time-dependent perturbation theory in a 2- level
system; spin and photon echos; field quantization – why excited
states decay. A peek at quantum electrodynamics: mass renormalization
and the Lamb shift; optical transitions; theory of lineshape;
multi-electron atoms; angular momentum coupling schemes; X- rays
and inner shell spectroscopy; ground state configurations and terms; a peek at group theory; Hartree and Hartree Fock methods
of calculating wave functions; nuclear spin and the hyperfine
interaction; lasers; modern spectroscopy; chemical bonds. Cost:4 WL:4 (Yao)

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**463. Introduction to Solid
State Physics. *** Physics 453. (3). (Excl). (BS).
*Main topics to be covered are cohesion in solids; Free Electron
Theory in Metals; Periodicity in Solids, Crystal Structure, Symmetry, Reciprocal Lattice, Diffraction Methods, Electrons in Periodic
Structures; Band Theory of Solids and Fermi Surfaces; Phonons, Thermal Effects; Applications to Semiconductor Devices. Students
should have a background in thermodynamics, elementary statistical
mechanics, plus a little quantum mechanics. There are three lectures
per week, one of which may be a discussion period. Student evaluation
is based on midterm and final exams; occasional short tests and weekly problem sets. Cost:3
WL:4 (Rojo)

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**465. Senior Seminar. *** Open
to junior and senior Physics concentrators. (2). (Excl). (BS).
Meets the Junior-Senior writing requirement.
*In this seminar students explore topics chosen on the basis
of their importance and interest to physics and on the basis of
student and faculty interest. Seminar members read in the research
literature, write extensively, and contribute to discussions led
by seminar members or visitors. Cost:1
WL:3 (Becchetti)

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**489. Physics of Music. *** Permission
of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). May not be included
in a concentration plan in physics.
*See Physics 288. (Axelrod)

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**496. Senior Thesis I. *** Permission
of departmental concentration advisor. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).
*Students get introductory experience and research work with
faculty, the results of which could provide the basis for a senior thesis project. If work is not completed in the Fall Term, student
would register for 497 in the Winter Term.

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**497. Senior Thesis II.
*** Permission of departmental concentration advisor.
(2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).
*A continuation of Physics 496. Students who do not complete their thesis research in Physics 496 may continue to 497. If continuing, a grade of Y is given for Physics 496 and a final senior thesis
grade is given upon completion of the research.

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**498. Introduction to Research
for Honors Students. *** Permission of departmental concentration
advisor. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).
*Honors students get introductory experience with research
work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis
for a thesis used to satisfy that part of the Honors requirement.
If work is not completed in Fall Term, the student would register
for 499 in Winter Term.

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**499. Introduction to Research
for Honors Students. *** Permission of physics concentration
advisor. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).
*Honors students get introductory experience with research
work with faculty, the results of which could provide the basis
for a thesis used to satisfy the part of the Honors requirement.

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