Winter '99 Course Guide

Courses in Linguistics (Division 423)

Winter Term, 1999 (January 6-April 29, 1999)

Take me to the Winter Term '99 Time Schedule for Linguistics.


Ling. 102. First Year Seminar (Humanities).

Section 001 Languages & Peoples of Eastern Europe, Russia, and Caucasus

Instructor(s): Vitalij Shevoroshkin (vvs@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar, Theme Semester

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is a brief acquaintance with 150 languages and peoples of Eastern Europe, Russia, and Caucasus "a mountain of languages". Topics will include: Spread of the Russian language in Siberia. Caucasus, and Central Asia. as compared with the expansion of English in America; Russification policy in the former Soviet Union; Languages of Eastern Europe and Russia under dictatorship; Language as a weapon: forbidden books, songs, and anecdotes as a tool which ultimately brought down the Communist system in Eastern Europe and Russia; Cultural differences between peoples speaking different languages; National character as seen through the language: differences in the meaning of the words FREEDOM, FRIENDSHIP, EMOTION in Russian and in English; Russian and East European languages today: a massive borrowing from American English; Recent achievements in language study in Russia and Eastern Europe. Specialists in the area as well as singers of native songs will be invited. Several videofilms will be shown. Students will be evaluated by their discussion in class, as well as by their written homework.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 112. Languages of the World.

Instructor(s): Sarah Thomason

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (SS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Language, according to one prominent view, is what makes us human. Certainly it pervades virtually every aspect of human existence. But few people realize how rich the linguistic universe is until they consider the variety of linguistic devices and practices employed by speakers of the 5000-6000 known languages of the world. The goal of this course is to provide an understanding of, and appreciation for, the diversity of human languages and in this way to enhance students' sophistication about their own language(s) and culture(s). We will concentrate on two main questions: first, how do languages resemble, and differ from, each other in sounds, word structure, and sentence structure? And second, what are some linguistic and sociopolitical results of situations in which two or more languages come into contact? The context for these investigations will be a study of selected language families, both in class and in individual student projects. Course prerequisite: none. Course requirements: midterm (25% of course grade), final exam (30%), regular homework assignments (35%), class participation (10%).

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 119. Conversation.

Instructor(s): Deborah Keller-Cohen (dkc@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (SS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: http://www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Reserves/W99/LG119/index.html

At the core of contact between humans is face-to-face interaction. In recent years there has been substantial scholarly interest in conversation from scholars in anthropology, communication, education, linguistics, psychology, and sociology. This grows out of the recognition that conversation is not merely a conduit for information, but the site for expression of institutional identities, gender, and power. This course introduces students to principles for the study of conversation. Course members will be actively engaged in the analysis of existing data as well as gathering and studying data they collect. Course assignments will include the analysis of small problem sets based on audio and video taped interaction, designing and gathering a sample of conversation, and a small paper growing out of the data collection.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 210. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis.

Instructor(s): Teresa Satterfield (tsatter@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (SS).

Credits: (4).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Nothing is more distinctly human than our ability to use language. Because of that, we expect that the study of language can provide insight into "human nature." This course is an analytic introduction to the methods linguists use for describing languages (although general training in analytic thought is our ultimate goal). Drawing on examples from a large number of the world's languages, we will look at the sounds of language, how they are produced and how they pattern into words; we will study the diverse ways in which individual languages approach processes of word and sentence formation, while we ask whether there are processes universal to all languages. By focusing simultaneously on language data and on the techniques used by linguists to make sense of these data, we will see that our understanding of the object of inquiry (language) is influenced by our methods of inquiry. Requirements include problem-solving assignments, midterm and final exams; no prerequisites except an interest in language and thinking.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Ling. 211. Introduction to Language.

Instructor(s): Christina Tortora (ctortora@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (SS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~ctortora/211w99/

From time immemorial human beings have been curious about language about its structure, its diversity, its use, and its effects on others. In this course, we will explore the human capacity for language, beginning with the ways language differs from animal communication and with how children acquire language. We will then review major aspects of language structure (sounds, words, sentences) and apply them to discussions of current dialects of English such as Black English. After a brief investigation of the relationship between language and thought, we will consider social attitudes toward language. Here we will debate questions such as: Is sign language a real language or just pantomime? What is "Standard English" and is it better than "dialects" of English? Course work includes eight short homework assignments, one midterm, and a final exam.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Ling. 272/Anthro. 272. Language in Society.

Instructor(s): Anthony Berkley (aberkley@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Primarily for first- and second-year students. (4). (SS). (R&E).

R&E Theme Semester

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Cultural Anthropology 272.001.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 305. Advertising Rhetoric.

Instructor(s): Jeffrey Heath (jheath@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course considers how verbal and visual advertising messages are interpreted by consumers within a cultural context. About two fifths of the course are spent on cultural issues, and another two fifths on the technical analysis of advertisements (primarily magazine), leaving time for small-group creative competitions at the end. The rhetorical analysis emphasizes the inherent contradictions in most advertising messages. For example, products and institutions are often positioned as both old (hence trustworthy) and new (hence state-of-the-art and forward-looking). The advertisement itself is an impersonal monologue, but may simulate a more personal, interactive format. These rhetorical dilemmas influence the most minute formal features of an advertisement, ranging from typeface selection to photographic depth effects, and encourage the use of irony, fantasy, and humor. After analyzing advertising for culturally sensitive product types (cigarettes, liquor, lawn care, fragrances, diamonds, automobiles, corporate image, political campaigns), small teams of students will compete with each other in pitching sketched-out advertising campaigns to a corporate "client." The creative work will be technologically simple. Students with a strong graphics background are discouraged from enrolling. There is no quantitative marketing analysis.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 313. Sound Patterns.

Instructor(s): Jose Benki (benki@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Ling. 210 or 211. (3). (SS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~benki/L313/syll313.html

This course explores two fundamental aspects of the sounds of human languages: speech sounds as physical entities (phonetics) and speech sounds as linguistic units (phonology). In viewing sounds as physical elements, the focus is articulatory descriptions: How are speech sounds made? What types of articulatory movements and configurations are used to differentiate sounds in the world's languages? In this part of the course, the goal is to learn to produce, transcribe, and describe in articulatory terms many of the sounds known to occur in human languages. In the next part of the course, the focus is on sounds as members of a particular linguistic system. Phonological data from a wide range of languages are analyzed that is, regularities or patterns in sound distribution are extracted from the data set and then stated within a formal phonological framework. We will also construct arguments to support the proposed analyses, and will find that phonetic factors play a crucial role in validating phonological analyses. Throughout the course, a major emphasis is that speech sounds are simultaneously physical and linguistic elements, and that these two aspects of sound structure are interdependent. Class sessions will consist of lectures, phonetic practice, and discussion of phonological data sets. Course grades will be based on weekly assignments, midterm, and take-home final exam. Linguistics 210, 211, 411, or permission of instructor is required to take the course.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 315. Introduction to Sentence Analysis.

Instructor(s): Samuel Epstein (sepstein@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Ling. 210 or 211. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course introduces the foundations of generative syntactic inquiry. Methodological issues are first presented, including discussions of mentalism, cognitive capacities, mind vs. brain, knowledge vs. behavior, and the difference between studying "languages" as opposed to investigating human cognitive capacities such as the human capacity to acquire natural language systems. A formal syntactic analysis of certain central aspects of English syntax is constructed as a vehicle for presenting the fundamental aspects of contemporary syntactic theory, while concurrently illustrating the application of the methods discussed in the first part of the course.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 317. Language and History.

Instructor(s): William Baxter (wbaxter@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Ling. 210 or 211. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Languages enable us to record history, but languages themselves are also products of history, and of prehistory. Many clues about the past are to be found in the vocabulary and structure of individual languages. Much can also be deduced from how languages are distributed in space, and how they are related to each other. Through readings and hands-on exercises, this course will introduce students to the basic methods of historical linguistics (including reconstruction of extinct languages, dialect geography, and mathematical methods), and apply them to examples drawn from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, including areas of current research and controversy.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 318. Types of Languages.

Instructor(s): John Lawler (jlawler@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Ling. 210 or 211. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

One of the most fascinating parts of every Introductory Linguistics class is the morphology problems that provide glimpses into the many other ways that languages have developed for organizing and expressing the variety and richness of human ideas and experience. We will explore, in detail, the morphological, semantic, and epistemological dimensions of linguistic variation worldwide, with particular attention to highly inflected languages, and the ways in which language reflects and refracts culture, perception, and the human condition. Topics to be discussed include: semantic categories for entities (nominals), activities (verbals), and qualities (adjectivals); classifier systems; sound symbolism; metaphor; spatial, temporal, and body reference; morphological variation; agglutination and fusion; compounding; polysynthesis; predication; the relation of morphology to phonology, syntax, and semantics; cultural expressions like gender, kinship, emotion, and status. In addition to more substantive assignments, including analytic writing, take-home midterm and final exams, and large dataset analyses by groups, there will be frequent (often daily) homework problems, which will form the basis for class discussion. Active participation in class, and in a computer conference, are course requirements, in addition to other assignments. Required textbooks: Foley, Anthropological Linguistics; Frawley, Linguistic Semantics; Bateson, Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity; Lakoff & Johnson, Metaphors We Live By; plus course pack.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 351. Second Language Acquisition.

Instructor(s): Carolyn Madden (cagm@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Ling. 210 or 211. (3). (SS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This introductory course in second language acquisition will focus on current theories of second language acquisition and how they relate to second language learning and teaching. The course will cover some of the major historical highlights of SLA research and provide students with experience in data analysis and interpretation. While much of the literature focuses on the acquisition of English, examples and analysis of other language data will be discussed. The course is intended for all students interested in understanding and evaluating proposed models of second language acquisition.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 361. Studies in American Sign Language.

Instructor(s): Karen van Hoek (kvh@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Historically, most of what has been known about human language has come from the study of spoken languages. In the last three decades, linguists and psychologists have begun to study the properties of American Sign Language, a language which has developed independently of English, and which uses visual signals rather than sound to convey meaning. This course surveys the issues raised by the study of ASL, including questions such as, What is the evidence that ASL is a "real language". and what is its role in deaf culture? What are the properties which all human languages have in common, regardless of the medium in which they have developed? How do deaf children learn ASL, and how does normal ASL acquisition by children compare with the accomplishments of the "signing chimps"? What do studies of deaf stroke victims tell us about brain organization for language?

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 395. Individual Research.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

No Description Provided.

Check Times, Location, and Availability


Ling. 408/English 408. Varieties of English.

Instructor(s): Thomas Toon (ttoon@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See English 408.001.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Ling. 433/AAPTIS 433. Arabic Syntax and Semantics.

Instructor(s): Ali Farghaly (farghaly@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: AAPTIS 431, and AAPTIS 102 or 103. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Arabic, Armenian, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies 433.001.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 492. Topics in Linguistics.

Section 001 Topics in Applied Phonetics. Prerequisite: A basic course in phonetics

Instructor(s): Joan Morley (hjmorley@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Linguistics in general, and phonetics in particular, can have applications wherever language itself becomes a matter of practical concern, as it is in a wide variety of fields today. This course, Applied Phonetics, will take a broad focus that can encompass study of speech sounds and their patterning, in a range of areas: learning and teaching foreign second languages; dialect studies; 'accent' discrimination and legal implications; comparative phonetic/phonological analysis; applications in the field of speech pathology and audiology; broadcast, drama, and spoken language artistry, and more. Selected papers on a number of topics will be examined. Selected video programs will be analyzed. Invited experts will address specialty topics and report on work in their areas. Students will have opportunities to select an area of personal interest and read and report on key papers. Opportunities for observation of speech/pronunciation instruction in second language classes will also be made available. Course assignments will include individual and class project work.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 492. Topics in Linguistics.

Section 002 Computational and Statistical Approaches to Language

Instructor(s): Stefan Frisch (sfrisch@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sfrisch/L492_W99.html

This course provides an introduction to computational approaches to language and linguistics, part of the foundation of the interdisciplinary field of cognitive science. The course is divided into three sections: traditional symbolic systems, connectionism, and quantitative models. Theory and applications to phonetics/phonology, morphology, and syntax are discussed. The course covers models of linguistic competence (e.g., past tense formation in English), linguistic performance (e.g., spoken word recognition), and natural language processing (e.g., parsing in text-to-speech systems). Time permitting, the newest approach to language modeling, dynamical systems, will be introduced.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 492. Topics in Linguistics.

Section 003 Pragmatics

Instructor(s): Richmond Thomason (rhthomas@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course will explore ways in which context of utterance affects the content of what is said, relationships between language and human action and communication, and the reasoning processes involved in interpreting and generating utterances. Presupposition, conversational implicature, speech acts, nondeclarative sentences, deixis and anaphora, and discourse analysis of units larger than sentences will be among the phenomena we will consider. The literature that we will examine belongs to linguistics, philosophy, sociolinguistics, and computational linguistics. Pragmatics: Presupposition, Implicature, and Logical Form, by Gerald Gazdar (Academic Press, 1979), provides a survey of the issues and a useful bibliography. No specific prerequisites, but some of the material will be technical, and it will be assumed that students enrolled in the course will have experience with some theoretical approaches to human language. Requirements: Several shorter papers on specific topics and a term paper, no more than twenty-five pages long. Text for the course is Pragmatics, by Stephen C. Levinson, Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 494. Undergraduate Reading.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Permission of the concentration advisor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration advisor.

No Description Provided.

Check Times, Location, and Availability


Ling. 495. Senior Honors Reading Course.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Permission of concentration advisor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

No Description Provided.

Check Times, Location, and Availability


Ling. 496. Senior Honors Reading Course.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Permission of concentration advisor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

No Description Provided.

Check Times, Location, and Availability


Ling. 513(413). Phonology.

Instructor(s): San Duanmu (duanmu@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Ling. 313. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Phonology studies the sound system of human language. Topics to be addressed include distinctive features (which represent speech sounds), phonological rules (which describe sound changes), prosodic structure (syllable, stress, tone, intonation), multitiered phonology, feature geometry, and underspecification. Both theory and problem solving ability will be emphasized. Besides readings for class, weekly exercises constitute an important part of the course. In addition, there is a final project. Prerequisite: Ling 313 or 512, or by permission of instructor.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 514(414). Semantics and Pragmatics.

Instructor(s): Diana Cresti (dcresti@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Linguistics 314. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This is an introduction to semantics (literal meaning) and pragmatics (contextual and inferred meaning) with emphasis on applications to grammatical analysis. More than half of the course will be dedicated to semantics. We will explore the question of how people know the meanings of words and sentences of their language, and how semantics relates to syntax on the one hand and logic, mental representations, and the world on the other. Specific topics to be covered include: (1) ambiguities of structure and of meaning; (2) word meaning and compositionality; and (3) quantification and logical form. Pragmatic topics covered in reasonable depth include (1) indexicality; (2) presupposition; and (3) speech acts and conversational implicature. There will be weekly exercises, a midterm and a final exam. No specific prerequisites, though it is assumed that participants have a working knowledge of syntax. Designed for first-year graduate students; well-prepared undergraduates are welcomed, but Linguistics concentrators should take 314 to satisfy concentration requirements.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 517(417)/Anthro. 519/German 517. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics.

Instructor(s): Sarah Thomason

Prerequisites & Distribution: Graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is an introduction to the theories and methods that enable linguists to describe and explain processes of linguistic change and historical relationships among languages. The major topics to be covered are the emergence of language families and means of establishing family relationships; sound change; grammatical change, especially analogy; language change caused by culture contacts; the Comparative Method, through which prehistoric language states can be reconstructed with an impressive degree of accuracy; internal reconstruction, a less powerful but still important method for gaining information about linguistic prehistory; and ways in which the study of current dialect variation offers insights into processes of change. The course prerequisites this term are Graduate standing or permission of the instructor. Course requirements: midterm (25% of course grade), final exam (30%), regular homework assignments (35%), class participation (10%).

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 518(418). Linguistic Typology.

Instructor(s): Peter Hook (pehook@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Graduate standing; undergraduates with permission of department. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~pehook/518.html

While humans appear fairly alike in physical characteristics and mental capacity, their languages (and cultures) are extremely diverse. Is such diversity infinitely random and inherently unpredictable? Or can languages be divided into a small number of discrete types? Are there characteristics that all languages share? How are formal properties of human language related to or independent of its functions? These are some of the questions addressed by language typologists through a comparative methodology that depends on developing uniform definitions of grammatical categories and applying them across a number of languages. Linguistics 518 invites students to master this methodology by (1) having them investigate unfamiliar languages through study of published descriptive grammars and (2) relating this direct experience to the principle findings of contemporary typological research. Coursework consists of (1) readings and lectures on the major categories and parameters which are used to describe and classify languages, (2) a number of short reports on given phenomena as they are manifested in the languages that individual students adopt, (3) discussion and comparison of these findings in class, (4) a midterm exam, and (5) a final term paper treating a particular typological parameter in one or more languages. Students will make oral presentations based on pre-final versions of their term papers. Prerequisite: an introductory course in linguistics.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 532. Issues in Bilingualism.

Instructor(s): Jeffrey Heath (jheath@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

The course looks at bi- and multi-lingualism primarily from a synchronic rather than historical perspective. Topics include the psychology of bilingual individuals, the linguistic mechanics and pragmatic functions of code-switching, bicultural identities, diglossia, and the management of bilingualism by governments, schools, and literati. Open to graduate students in psychology and social sciences as well as linguistics and language/literature departments. Well-prepared undergraduates may enroll with the instructor's permission.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Ling. 555(455). Introduction to Cognitive Grammar.

Instructor(s): Karen van Hoek (kvh@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course examines the grammar of English from a cognitive perspective, focusing on questions such as: What is the nature of meaning? Can we talk about the meanings of words and sentences in a precise and revealing way? How does grammar function as a system for conveying complex meanings? The theory of Cognitive Grammar treats language as a symbolic system, in which the structure of a sentence symbolizes facets of its meaning. It describes grammatical notions such as "noun" and "verb" in terms of the subtly different meanings they convey claiming for example that the verb "destroy" and the noun "destruction" do not "mean the same thing". but rather present different images of the same scene. Course requirements include homework assignments, a midterm and a final exam.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

lsa logo

University of Michigan | College of LS&A | Student Academic Affairs | LS&A Bulletin Index

This page maintained by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, 1228 Angell Hall

Copyright © 1999 The Regents of the University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA +1 734 764-1817

Trademarks of the University of Michigan may not be electronically or otherwise altered or separated from this document or used for any non-University purpose.

This page was created at 11:29 AM on Fri, Feb 5, 1999.