Winter '99 Course Guide

Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

Winter Term, 1999 (January 6-April 29, 1999)

Take me to the Winter Term '99 Time Schedule for Philosophy.


Philosophy is about as broad a subject as one can find in a university curriculum. It addresses a wide array of questions, some quite familiar (Does God exist? Why be moral? What is art?), others less so (What is a thing? Is space a substance?). Philosophy includes the examination of its own methods, and its own history.

It also falls within philosophy to examine the methods and practices of virtually all academic disciplines. Because of this breadth, a person can study philosophy in ways involving the styles and techniques of thought of most other fields of inquiry. For example, the work of a philosopher concentrating in logic is much like that of the student of mathematics. A philosopher primarily interested in the philosophy of religion will often be doing much the same things as a theologian or a student of the history of religion. Political philosophy is regarded by some as including political activity itself. Many other such examples exist. In addition, Philosophy examines the practices of other activities, such as the fine arts, that are sometimes thought of as different from typical academic disciplines. However, for the most part the activities characteristic of philosophy are peculiar to the discipline. The only way to know what it's really like is to give it a try.

The Department offers a number of courses that do not carry prerequisites: (A) general introductions designed to acquaint students with a representative sample of philosophical problems (181, 202, 232, and 297); (B) introductions that focus on a particular branch of philosophy or area of human concern e.g., the mind and consciousness, the law, and literature designed for students who, having no previous background in philosophy, want to study these areas in a philosophical way (340, 359, and 370); and (C) introductions to logic and reasoning (180, 201, and 303).

(A) The general introductions deal, for example, with questions concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self and the mind, freedom, morality, society, and religion, but they differ in their instructional format and staffing. Philosophy 202 is taught by advanced graduate students in independent sections of 25 students. Philosophy 181 is taught by faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. In Philosophy 232, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of 25 for discussion sections led by graduate students. Finally, Philosophy 297, "Honors Introduction". is taught by a faculty member to a group of 25 students.

(B) Winter courses not carrying prerequisites that focus on a specific area of human concern or philosophical thought include "Mind, Matter, and Machines" (340), "Law and Philosophy" (359), and "Philosophical Aspects of Literature" (370). These courses do not require previous work in philosophy. Philosophy 370 is taught by a member of the faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 30 students. In Philosophy 340 and 359, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of 25 for discussion sections led by graduate students.

A number of Winter 300-level courses require only a single philosophy introduction as a prerequisite: "Language and Mind" (345), "Continental Philosophy" (385), and "History of Philosophy: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century" (389). All of these courses meet requirements for the concentration.

(C) Among the introductions to logic, Philosophy 180 is designed both to improve critical reasoning skills, and to provide an introduction to formal logic. Philosophy 201, is designed to improve critical reasoning skills, through an introduction to informal logic. Philosophy 303 is an introduction to formal or symbolic logic. Philosophy 180 and 303 are taught by faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. Philosophy 201 is taught by advanced graduate student teaching assistants in independent sections of 25 students.

There is additional information about the Department's curriculum in "The Undergraduate Program in Philosophy." This brochure contains information intended for students interested in taking philosophy courses, whether or not they are considering a Philosophy concentration. The Department also maintains a home page (http://www.lsa.umich.edu/philosophy/). Students considering a concentration in Philosophy are encouraged to make an appointment with a Philosophy concentration advisor; students considering an Honors concentration should consult with the Philosophy advisor for the Honors concentration. To request a copy of the undergraduate brochure, or to schedule an appointment with a concentration advisor, contact the Department Office (2215 Angell Hall, 764-6285). The Office can also provide information about the Department's Undergraduate Philosophy Club and undergraduate e-mail group.


Philo. 180. Introductory Logic.

Instructor(s): Schulz

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is designed both to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers, and to provide an introduction to formal logic. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning, some of the elements of formal (symbolic) logic, and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. The course gives some attention to issues in branches of philosophy germane to logic, for example, the theory of knowledge, philosophy of language, and metaphysics. There will be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. The course is limited to 50 students, which should permit opportunity for discussion. Texts and methods of evaluation to be determined.

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Philo. 181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction.

Instructor(s): Kendall Walton (klwalton@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course will introduce the student to several major areas of philosophy, including ethics, epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind, concentrating on issues concerning values and morality, our knowledge of the external world, the nature of persons, and relations between the mental and the physical. We will explore such questions as: How are we to decide what we ought to do and how to live our lives? Is there any such thing as "objective" morality? What is value? Is there a real world independent of our ways of thinking and talking about it? What kinds of evidence do we have about the world? How is a person's mental life, her thoughts, desires, intentions, etc. related to her physical and verbal behavior, and to her physiological or neurological states? Can machines think? Can we be mistaken about our own mental states? How can we know about the mental lives of other people? We will discuss what a number of philosophers have said on these topics, including important historical figures such as René Descartes, David Hume, and J.S. Mill and a variety of recent and contemporary philosophers. There will be two or three exams, and two papers.

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Philo. 181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction.

Instructor(s): Torek

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course examines some of the main problems of philosophy, such as: How do we know that anything exists, other than ourselves? Are minds immaterial spirits, or are minds brains and hence nothing but complex physical objects? If human actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is there any free will or moral responsibility? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Is the nature and extent of our moral obligations determined by our feelings, self-interest, social convention, Divine commands, or something else? What are the different kinds of social, political, and economic organization, and what reasons are there for preferring one to another? How should one live one's life? What is the meaning of life, and what does this question mean? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Students will write papers discussing a number of these topics.

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Philo. 196. First Year Seminar.

Section 001 Free Will

Instructor(s): Arpaly

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

In this course, we shall explore the philosophical problem of free will, determinism, and moral responsibility. Could we have moral responsibility if our actions are causally determined by environment and heredity, and hence by circumstances ultimately beyond our control? If so, how? We will look at various philosophical answers to these questions. Emphasis will be on class discussion more than on lecture, and evaluation will be based on research papers rather than exams.

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Philo. 201. Introduction to Logic.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course aims to give students a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument, and to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. Some elements of formal (symbolic) logic might be introduced. Though students will be expected to master some technical detail, the course emphasizes informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving and argument in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. The small section size (25 students) is conducive to informality and considerable student participation. There will also be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. Normally, there are weekly assignments, and short, periodic quizzes.

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Philo. 201. Introduction to Logic.

Instructor(s): Gerhard Nuffer (gnuffer@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~gnuffer/

This course aims to give students a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument, and to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. Some elements of formal (symbolic) logic might be introduced. Though students will be expected to master some technical detail, the course emphasizes informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving and argument in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. The small section size (25 students) is conducive to informality and considerable student participation. There will also be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. Normally, there are weekly assignments, and short, periodic quizzes.

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Philo. 202. Introduction to Philosophy.

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course introduces students to philosophy through an examination of some central philosophical problems. Topics might include: Are minds immaterial spirits, or are minds brains and hence nothing but complex physical objects? If human actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is there any moral responsibility? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Is the nature and extent of our moral obligations determined by our feelings, self-interest, social convention, Divine commands, or something else? What are the reasons for preferring one kind of social, political, and economic organization to another? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? How do we know that anything exists, other than ourselves? In addressing these questions, some sections focus on major historical figures, e.g., Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, and Kant; others focus on writings of twentieth century philosophers. Requirements usually include a number of short, critical papers.

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Philo. 202. Introduction to Philosophy.

Instructor(s): Katie McShane (katemcsh@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~katemcsh/202.htm

The purpose of this course is to introduce you to philosophy through the examination of issues in several major areas of philosophy, including ethics, epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of religion. Over the course of the term, we will consider the answers that philosophers have given to the following questions: How can we tell right from wrong and good from bad? Is there any such thing as "objective" morality? How can we distinguish appearance from reality? What kind of knowledge can we have about the world? Are there good reasons for thinking that God exists? Our readings will include mostly classical texts, among them works by Plato, Bentham, Mill, Kant, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Anselm, and Leibniz, although we will read the writings of a few contemporary philosophers as well. In this course you will learn how to think carefully about the most fundamental questions of human existence, and in doing so you will learn how to think critically, reason carefully, and write articulately.

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Philo. 202. Introduction to Philosophy.

Instructor(s): Karen Bennet (elizab@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~elizab/

This course is, to a certain extent, centered around the question of whether or not we have free will. However, we will not be discussing that question explicitly all semester. We will also be exploring various other issues which are in one way or another related to or raised by it. Thus we will be considering questions such as the following: how can there be room for freely choosing human beings in a world governed by strict physical laws? How do social and economic forces shape our characters, actions, and choices? To what extent are we morally responsible for what we do? Do these questions matter to the justification of punishment? Are certain family structures unjust? Can individual choices about the structure of one's own family truly be voluntary? What is the relationship between mind and body? Which views about this relationship are most amenable to freedom of the will? Do our beliefs and desires ever cause us to do anything? One of the goals of this course is to get you thinking about some of these difficult questions. However, another goal is to get you thinking about them well, to help you learn to read, write, and above all think about them critically. We will therefore start by spending a few days discussing logic and argumentation, and I will be emphasizing clarity and rigor throughout the semester.

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Philo. 232. Problems of Philosophy.

Instructor(s): James Joyce (jjoyce@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jjoyce/232/phil232.html

This course provides undergraduates with a broad overview of modern philosophy. Topics to be covered will include at least some of the following.

Students will be asked to read about 30 pages of material per week, to write three 7-8 page papers, and to take a midterm examination and a cumulative final exam.

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Philo. 297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.

Instructor(s): Jamie Tappenden (tappen@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course serves as an introduction to three of the perennial issues on which the finest minds in history have exercised their intelligence. The first topic is philosophical scepticism: the thesis that you are never correct if you say you know something. As with many philosophical issues, this one is hard to believe, but also difficult to refute. The second topic is the relationship of the mind to the body and its physical activity. Are mental events just physical events such as states of the nervous system, or do they have a distinctive nature of their own? Finally, we will take up the question of how (if at all) we can rightly be said to act on rational decisions, or on choices made by our free will when we are apparently physical organisms in a universe governed by brute, unreasoning laws of nature. There will be three short papers.

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Philo. 297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.

Instructor(s): Ian Proops (iproops@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course will provide an introduction to the problems and methods of contemporary philosophy through an examination of three central issues: (1) The existence of God: Are there plausible arguments for the existence of God? How can the existence of an omnipotent and loving Creator be reconciled with the existence of worldly evil? (2) Personal identity: What is a person? Are you the same person you were five years ago? If so, why? If not, then how can you be held morally responsible for your earlier actions? (3) Free will: Are our decisions about how to act just part of the chain of causes and effects? If so, does that mean we can never act freely?

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Philo. 303. Introduction to Symbolic Logic.

Instructor(s): Lawlor

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 203, 296 or 414. (3). (MSA). (BS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Historically, at least two concerns have driven the development of formal systems of logic to make explicit principles of good reasoning and to systematize inquiry in mathematics and the physical sciences. Central to these concerns is the idea that good reasoning is "truth-preserving" reasoning. ("Truth-preserving" reasoning cannot fail to take one from true premises to true conclusions.) One goal we have in the study of logic is to get a grasp on which forms of argument are truth-preserving and which are not. In this course we study two simple yet powerful systems of formal logic "sentential" logic, which takes sentences as the basic unit of logical analysis, and "predicate" logic, which takes predicates and terms as the basic units. In the course of learning these systems, we will have the chance to apply formal techniques in analyzing ordinary, garden-variety arguments, and in solving various practical problems. After mastering these logics, we'll raise some important questions concerning their power and dependability. In order to answer our questions we will have to develop a "meta-theory" for the systems we've studied. And along the way, we will learn to employ the extremely important tool of mathematical induction. No previous training in logic is required. Frequent homework assignments, two mid-term examinations and a final examination.

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Philo. 340. Mind, Matter, and Machines.

Instructor(s): Eric Lormand (lormand@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is about the mind/body problem and related philosophical challenges to our understanding of human minds. The main aim is for students to understand the difficulties with a number of initially attractive models of mind as brain, computer, soul, and social construct and why this matters to our conceptions of ourselves. Each of these models has been the subject of some of the most lively and accessible works in contemporary philosophy; we will supplement these with some ingenious science fiction short stories. Some questions considered are: Could the brain be the seat of feelings? Could nonbiological beings think? Could machines have free will, creativity, or consciousness? Could souls interact with the physical world? Could talk of the mind be merely a useful fiction? Your grade will depend on several short papers and class participation.

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Philo. 345. Language and Mind.

Instructor(s): Stephen Everson (everson@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy course. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

In this course, we shall focus on those issues in philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language which are most closely related to each other. Centrally, we shall be concerned with what is involved in the attribution of thoughts to people, both in virtue of their behavior generally, and of their specifically linguistic behavior. In the course of this, we shall consider such topics as assertion, truth, meaning, sense and reference, and physicalism.

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Philo. 359. Law and Philosophy.

Instructor(s): Elizabeth Anderson (eandersn@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (HU).

R&E Theme Semester

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~eandersn/phil359.99.htm

This course analyzes law and legal institutions from the perspective of moral and political philosophy, with particular attention to U.S. civil rights law in historical context. Topics studied in this course may include: methods of legal interpretation, equality and discrimination, democracy and voting rights, the tension between property rights and distributive justice, the tension between social control and liberty (including specific liberties, such as free speech), and the justification for punishing lawbreakers (or for imposing specific punishments, such as the death penalty). Readings will be drawn from historical figures (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel); from contemporary legal philosophers (H.L.A. Hart, Ronald Dworkin, Joel Feinberg, Jean Hampton); from texts in legal history, criminology, or sociology; and from statutes and court decisions.

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Philo. 370. Philosophical Aspects of Literature.

Instructor(s): David Hills (dhills@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (HU).

Foriegn Lit

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

A discussion of the nature, interest, and value of three main kinds of imaginative literature: prose fiction, drama, and poetry. How is our understanding of real people and things improved by attention to their made-up counterparts? How is the novel both like and unlike older, more obviously fabulous kinds of story? Why do we derive pleasure and solace from dramatic depictions of pain and disaster? How can theater promote emotional engagement and critical thinking, and must one of these good things come at the expense of the other? What is method acting, and does it make sound artistic sense? Is irony a way of employing words, a way of teasing one's audience, or a way of living one's life, and in any case, what good is it? Why is poetry both conspicuously figurative in the way it deploys meanings and conspicuously regular in the way it arranges the sounds and shapes of words? What is technology doing to our ability to read, and are changes in how we read causing changes in how literature works? We'll read and assess answers already given to such questions by writers, critics, and philosophers, testing them against particular twists and turns of particular works. Writing will consist of two extended papers (articulating and defending your own views on a general theoretical issue) and a half dozen brief experiments in creative writing and critical observation (each well under a page).

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Philo. 385. Continental Philosophy Since 1900.

Instructor(s): James Mangiafico (jmangia@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One course in philosophy. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is a general introduction to the French and German philosophy of the twentieth century. We will focus on some of the tradition's most important movements, including phenomenology, existentialism, structuralism and deconstruction. Most of our attention will be devoted to the works of Heidegger, Sartre, Foucault and Derrida, but we will also take a look at some lesser-known figures, such as Emmanual Levinas and Pierre Bourdieu, who have received much recent attention. Readings will likely include division one of Heidegger's Being and Time, Sartre's The Transcendence of the Ego, Levinas' Ethics as First Philosophy, Foucault's The Order of Things, Derrida's Plato's Pharmacy, and the first chapter of Bourdieu's Distinction. Students will be expected to write two substantial papers.

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Philo. 389. History of Philosophy: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.

Sections 003 and 004 may be elected ECB

Instructor(s): Louis Loeb (lloeb@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (4). (HU).

Upper-Level Writing

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course examines the development of modern philosophy in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Considerable attention is devoted to each of Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. The primary emphasis is placed upon philosophical and interpretive issues that arise in conjunction with the philosophers' works. The philosophical issues addressed are drawn from epistemology and metaphysics: skepticism about the existence of the material world, theories of perception and of the nature of material objects, the problem of induction, the nature and limits of a priori knowledge, innate knowledge, empiricist theories of meaning, analytic and synthetic truth, necessary and contingent truth, God, substance, causation, free will and determinism, the self, the relationship between mind and body, and personal identity. Students are evaluated on the basis of three papers and midterm and final examinations. There are three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

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Philo. 397. Topics in Philosophy.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Permission of concentration advisor and instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice with permission of concentration advisor.

Credits: (1-4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course number is designed to permit philosophy concentrators, upon recommendation of a concentration advisor, to elect a course a second time for credit when it has a different instructor and covers substantially different material.

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Philo. 399. Independent Study.

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected twice for a total of eight credits with permission of concentration advisor.

Credits: (1-4).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Independent study of a topic not otherwise available through a regular departmental offering.

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Philo. 402. Undergraduate Seminar in Philosophy.

Section 001 Philosophical Views of Nature

Instructor(s): Philip Ivanhoe (ivanhoe@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Open to junior and senior concentrators and to others by permission of concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Human beings are clearly a part of Nature and yet have the capacity and perhaps the propensity to see themselves as somehow distinct from the natural world. This has profound consequences for how we live and think about our lives and in particular how we regard and interact with the rest of the world. In this course, we examine a variety of philosophical views about the relationship between human beings and Nature. One section is devoted to exploring traditional Chinese views but most of our time will be spent on contemporary Western accounts, particularly those which explicitly seek to establish philosophical justifications for environmental concern.

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Philo. 405. Philosophy of Plato.

Instructor(s): Stephen Everson (everson@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

The course will provide a critical appraisal of Platonic metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. It will begin with a consideration of the 'Socratic' dialogues and will then focus on the arguments of the Meno, Republic, and Theaetetus. Passages from other dialogues will be used to cast light on these. Three papers will be required.

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Philo. 417. Logic and Artificial Intelligence.

Instructor(s): Richmond Thomason (rhthomas@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Philosophy 414 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Since its emergence in the nineteenth century, a dominant theme within modern logic has been its application to mathematical reasoning and metamathematical problems, together with the development of rigorous techniques for studying formalized languages. More recently, these techniques have been given a computational turn and have played an important part in the design of languages for specialized computational purposes. The discipline known as "philosophical logic" has been concerned to adapt the new logical ideas to study other types of reasoning than the axiomatic, deductive reasoning found in mathematics, and has sought for applications for logical techniques in temporal reasoning, ethical and practical reasoning, the philosophy of science, and many other areas. More recently, many of the ideas in this second area have also been given a computational turn, as a group of logicians working in the area of computer science known as "Artificial Intelligence" has realized the importance of logical techniques to a variety of common sense reasoning tasks. This work recapitulates many themes from philosophical logic, but deploys systematic formalisms on a scale that was not envisaged by the philosophers. It has led to useful applications and to important new technical ideas. As the field has expanded it has become one of the more active and important areas of contemporary logic. This course will survey work in the field, concentrating on applications to planning and temporal reasoning. Readings will include work by Michael Bratman, Ernest Davis, Joseph Halpern, Vladimir Lifschitz, John McCarthy, Leora Morgenstern, Ray Reiter, and Eric Sandelwall. The work in logic and artificial intelligence discussed in this course has a variety of important applications in the design of communications protocols, robotics, natural language interpretation and generation, and machine learning. Requirements: A mix of exercises, papers, and examinations.

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Philo. 420. Philosophy of Science.

Section 001 Meets with Nursing 570

Instructor(s): James Joyce (jjoyce@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: A course in logic. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jjoyce/420/phil420.html

This course provides upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students with a broad overview of the philosophy of science. It seeks to clarify the nature of the "scientific method" and to explain its success. Topics to be covered include: the process by which scientific hypotheses are confirmed by empirical evidence, the nature of scientific laws and their role in explanation, the logical and semantic structure of scientific theories, the "realism/anti-realism debate" concerning the nature of unobservable entities and processes, the objectivity of science, the distinction between science and nonscience. Students will be asked to read about 50 pages of material per week, to write two 10-12 page papers, and to take a midterm examination and a final.

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Philo. 428/Poli. Sci. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism.

Instructor(s): Pierre Landry (libite@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Upperclass standing. (4). (Excl).

Credits: (4; 3 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www.umich.edu/~compap/NEWhome/courses/PS428/main.html

See Political Science 428.001.

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Philo. 431. Normative Ethics.

Instructor(s): Arpaly

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Normative ethics is the search for basic principles that determine what kinds of acts are right and what kinds wrong, which humans make good people and which do not. The course will focus on three types of ethical theories utilitarian theories, Kantian theories, and virtue oriented theories. We shall ask how best to formulate these theories, and examine arguments for them and against them, with special attention to the way they try to account for the complexity of real-world moral lives. Classes will consist in lectures and discussion, and papers will be the main assignment.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 437/MHM 437. Philosophy of Music.

Instructor(s): Kendall Walton (klwalton@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: An introductory course in philosophy; or previous course work in music. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

A philosophical investigation of the nature and significance of music. What kind(s) of value does music have, and how is it important? Does its value lie merely in its structure, in the notes themselves? Does music have "meanings" of some sort? What is it for music to be expressive? What kinds of feelings or emotions does music evoke in listeners? Does it portray or represent feelings? Is music ever a source of knowledge or understanding or insight? Can it have (good or bad) moral effects on people? What are musical performances, and how do good performances differ from merely "correct" ones? What sorts of entities are musical works, and how are they related to performances and to musical scores? What is the role of music in song, opera, theater, film, dance? What functions does it serve in religious or cultural or social or political contexts?

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 457/Asian Studies 480/Buddhist Studies 480/Rel. 480. Topics in Buddhism.

Section 001 Women in Tantric Buddhism. Meets with Women's Studies 483.006 and Religion 402.002

Instructor(s): Janet Gyatso

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 230. (3). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy.

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Religion 480.001.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 2

Philo. 457/Asian Studies 480/Buddhist Studies 480/Rel. 480. Topics in Buddhism.

Section 002 Drawing Maps of the Spirit: Buddhist Debates on the Spiritual Path. Meets with Humanities Institute 411.001 and Religion 402.001

Instructor(s): Luis Gómez (lgomez@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 230. (3). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy.

Foriegn Lit

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Religion 480.002.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 2

Philo. 466. Topics in Continental Philosophy.

Instructor(s): David Hills (dhills@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One of Phil. 371, 375, 385, or 389. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

A detailed introduction to some important themes and thinkers in twentieth century continental philosophy. We'll be especially concerned with the novel understandings of time, language, and cultural power developed in various traditions of continental thought. The thinkers we'll study most closely are Heidegger, Benjamin, Saussure, Foucault, and Habermas. But we'll also read brief excerpts from their nineteenth century precursors Kant, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard and from some of their contemporary followers and critics. Written work for the course will consist of three short papers, on the order of ten pages each, due at intervals during the term.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 469/Chinese 469/Asian Studies 469. Later Chinese Thought.

Instructor(s): Philip Ivanhoe (ivanhoe@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

Foriegn Lit

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

See Chinese 469.001.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 475/Chinese 475/Hist. of Art 487/RC Hums. 475/Asian Studies 475. The Arts and Letters of China.

Instructor(s): Yi-tsi Mei Feuerwerker (ymfeuer@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (HU). May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy.

R&E Foriegn Lit

Credits: (4).

Course Homepage: http://www.umich.edu/~hartspc/histart/winter99/487-001.html

See Chinese 475.001.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 480. Philosophy of Religion.

Instructor(s): Edwin Curley (emcurley@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~emcurley/480syl99.htm

This course will take a more detailed look at some of the topics covered in the broader course in philosophy of religion offered at the 300-level. Specifically, we will consider recent discussions of (a) the classical arguments for the existence of God, (b) the problem of evil, (c) the free will defense, and (d) the question whether the most familiar versions of theism are logically coherent. The focus will be on Mackie, Plantinga, Swinburne & Kenny. It would be desirable to have taken Philosophy 365, but that is not required.

For further information about the basis of evaluation, required texts, and methods of instruction, please consult the course's homepage.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 499. Senior Honors in Philosophy.

Prerequisites & Distribution: By departmental permission only. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Students who wish to elect the Philosophy 498-499 sequence should consult with the departmental Honors advisor by the end of the preceding academic year.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4

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