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Birds :: Michigan Birds :: Checklist

By: Robert B. Payne
© University of Michigan, 2001

(revised from Univ. of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publication no. 164, 1983)

Please note: for updates on rare species, name changes, or new additions to the list, please see the Michigan Bird Records Committee web page at http://www.umd.umich.edu/dept/rouge_river/Checklist.html

INTRODUCTION

This checklist is a summary of the occurrence, breeding status, migration, and distribution of birds in Michigan. Used with one of the popular field guides to North American birds, the checklist should be helpful in identifying birds in the field in Michigan.

All species known to occur in the state and documented with specimens, photographs, or tape recordings are included in the checklist. I have accepted only the birds known in the past or at the present time from these permanent reference sources. Museum specimens are the primary sources of information about bird species, and they are the original reference material used in distributional works and field guides. In recent years the biology and distribution of birds have increasingly been determined with field observations, and museum collecting is done only under special circumstances. Most recent information on birds in Michigan is from field observations.

A number of interesting new distributional records have been reported in recent years. Most have not been accompanied by adequate detailed descriptions made at the time of sighting in the field. Field observations have not been accepted for the first record of a species in Michigan, unless accompanied by a recognizable photograph or tape recording.

Fig. 1. Map of Michigan indicating the counties. Choose large format, entire state; Lower Peninsula; Upper Peninsula (these last two will fit on one page when printed).

NAMES

Names follow the American Ornithologists' Union (1983). Subspecies names are included only where they differ from those used in works cited in Payne (1983).

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

The list includes the migratory and breeding status of Michigan birds and the seasons of occurrence and their regularity and abundance. Introduced birds and exotics are included only if they have established breeding populations.

  •  Indicates a known breeding record.
  • Hypothetical. Indicates those birds not represented by specimens, recognizable photographs, tape recordings, or verified banding recoveries.

The categories used to describe status are:

  • vagrant, one to four records for the state
  • occasional, 5-40 records
  • uncommon, sparse population but usually seen in every year
  • common, regularly occurring in the state in numbers in every year in suitable habitat.

Estimates of population numbers of breeding birds are included where available, as are the migration routes and wintering areas determined from recoveries of banded birds. "Transient" indicates that the species occurs in migration, but unless noted otherwise it does not nest in the state. "Summer resident" indicates that the species occurs in Michigan during the breeding season and that most or all individuals migrate out of the state during the colder time of year. "Regular" birds are seen every year or nearly every year. "Irregular" birds are seen in some years but not in others. "Irruptive" birds occur in large numbers in some years and usually few or none in other years; these are mainly wintering visitors from the northern coniferous forests. The details of seasonal occurrence are available in the seasonal summaries of the Jack-Pine Warbler, Wood (1951), The Goldeneye and annual Field Notes of the Berrien Audubon Society, and Mlodinow (1984).

"Hypotheticals" are those species reported only as sight records but not documented with specimens or photographs. Several of these are reasonable identifications and are supported by detailed written field descriptions. Further field work likely will confirm their occurrence with good photographs or museum specimens.

CHECKLIST

  • Red-throated Loon, Gavia stellata
    • Uncommon transient. Most sightings and specimens were on the Great Lakes in spring or autumn. A few recorded into summer (JPW 44:51, 1966). Occasional in winter.
  • Pacific Loon, Gavia pacifica
    • Hypothetical. One was identified on 12 and 18 May 1983 at Whitefish Point (Chippewa County) (MAS; AB 37:872, 1983), another at the same site on 26 May 1984, well-described at the time (AB 38:913, 1984; MORC), but Arctic Loons G. arctica and Pacific Loons are now considered distinct species (Auk 106:680-686, 1965), differing mainly in the gloss of the blackish throat patch.
  •  Common Loon, Gavia immer
    • Common transient, uncommon summer nesting resident in northern Michigan, sometimes nesting on small islands in ponds several miles from their feeding areas on larger lakes. More than 1000 loons have been seen in a good migration day on Lake Superior at Whitefish Point (JPW 62:80, 1984). Occasional in summer in southern Michigan, nesting once in Oakland County (Kelley, 1978), also recent nesting records in Barry County (KNC; UMMZ). Occasional in winter.
  •  Pied-billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
    • Common transient and summer resident, local in northern part of state. Population is mainly migratory but a few birds are observed in winter where open water is available.
  • Horned Grebe, Podiceps auritus
    • Common transient. Sometimes in large flocks, 1000+ birds (AB 37:872, 1983). Summer observations in the Upper Peninsula. Early winter records on Little Traverse Bay, in Berrien County, in Kalamazoo County (into January), near Lansing (Ingham County) (McWhirter and Beaver l977), and on the Detroit River.
  •  Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps grisegena
    • Uncommon transient, most often observed on Great Lakes. Occasional summer resident in the Upper Peninsula. Uncommon in winter. Late summer records (Cheboygan County, Isle Royale) (Wood, 1951; Nelson, 1956) may refer mainly to early autumn migrants. One nesting record, successful, at Cedarville, Mackinac County, in 1975 (Wilson Bull. 89:33-46, 1977).
  • Eared Grebe, Podiceps nigricollis
    • Occasional transient. Two specimens, UMMZ 224552, at Black Lake, Ottawa County, on 19 October 1909, and 208557, south of Marlette, Lapeer County, on 20 January 1965. Rarely seen in Winter: observed in Berrien County on 18 December 1982 (AB 37:600, 1983) and in December 1983 and February 1984 (AB 38:319, 1984). Photograph (UMMZ) of bird in breeding plumage at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 25 May 1981. Another late spring record: Fremont sewage ponds, Newaygo County, on 13 June 1984 (JPW 62:107, 1984). About 30 observations, mainly from St. Joseph, Berrien County (Goldeneye 20(4):5, 1981) and the Muskegon sewage ponds (AB 35:941, 1981; 38:913, 1022, 1984; 39:55, 1985; DNR).
  • Western Grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis
    • Occasional transient. One specimen in adult plumage, GRPM 100009, at Fox Station, Cascade Township, Kent County, on 17 February 1917. Observed in the Lower Peninsula in Berrien County at St. Joseph OBC 9:1, 1970; 14:1, 1975), Muskegon sewage ponds (through summer) (JPW 59:142, 1981), Kalamazoo County (JPW 56:153, 1978; KNC), Hillsdale County (JPW 32:124, 1954), Clinton County (McWhirter and Beaver, 1977), Midland County (DNR), Jackson-Lenawee county line (Auk 62:312, 1945), and Port Huron, St. Clair County (UMMZ). Observed in the Upper Peninsula in Delta and Baraga counties (JPW 52:35, 1974). Clark's Grebe, A. clarkii, now recognized as a distinct species and more western in its range, has not been seen in Michigan.
  • Northern Gannet, Sula bassanus
    • Occasional vagrant from the North Atlantic. UMMZ 42189, immature, was taken at Walker Lake, Livingston County, on 19 October 1911. Another immature was collected Thunder Bay, Alpena County, on 10 November 1925 (Empey collection, correspondence in UMMZ). Photographs of immatures from Lake St. Clair, St. Clair County, on 1 December 1929, and Birmingham, Oakland County, on 29 November 1942 (ZVT; UMMZ). One observed on St. Clair River near Port Huron on 13 October 1978 (DAS).
  • American White Pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
    • Occasional to uncommon transient, mainly on the Great Lakes. Observed on Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, Lake Superior (Keweenaw Point, Houghton, and Marquette) (Barrows, 1912; Jordan and Shelton, 1982; MTech; UMMZ) and, less often, inland at Lake Gogebic (Gogebic County) (AB 35:825, 1981), Seney, Schoolcraft County (JPW 22:102, 1944), Houghton Lake (Roscommon County) (Wood, 1951), Rose Lake, Ingham County (McWhirter and Beaver, 1977), Sleepy Hollow State Park, Clinton County (AB 37:990, 1983), Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge, Saginaw County (DNR), and in Kalamazoo County (KNC).
  • Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis
    • Occasional transient. Photograph of adult at Macatawa Bay, Holland, Ottawa County, on 17 June 1978 (AB 32:1162, 1978; HCMZ; UMMZ). Sight observations from Berrien and Ottawa counties (JPW 29:145, 1951; 43:166, 1965; 58:121, 1980; OBC). Early records in Barrows (1912) from Berrien County include an adult shot at St. Joseph.
  •  Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus
    • Uncommon transient, occasional in winter. The species nested in Michigan waters from 1936 until about 1960. It reappeared again and bred successfully in 1977, when 11 pairs nested on Gravelly Island in northern Lake Michigan. In 1984 there were about 1100 nests at 16 sites in Michigan, up from 68 nests at one site in 1978 (MNFI). Nesting localities are known inland in the Upper Peninsula at Gene's Pond (Dickinson County), on Lake Superior on Traverse Island (Houghton County) and on Tahquamenon Island (Chippewa County), on Lake Michigan on Big Gull Island and Pismire Island (Charlevoix County), Ile aux Galets (Emmet County), Round Island, Snake Island, Gravelly Island, and Little Gull Island (Delta County), and Naubinway Island (Mackinac County), in St. Mary's River on Pipe Islands and Munuscong Bay (Chippewa County), and on Lake Huron on Little St. Martin Island (Mackinac County) and Gull and Scarecrow Islands (Alpena County) (JPW 59:142, 1981; 62:91-102, 1984; AB 35:910, 1981; MNFI).
  • Anhinga, Anhinga anhinga
    • Hypothetical. UMMZ 91960 from St. Mary's River, Sault Ste. Marie (?Ontario) in 1881, was probably a curio shop import (Barrows, 1912). Another was shot on Lake St. Clair, Macomb County, in the early 1930's; no specimen was prepared (UMMZ files).
  •  Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias
    • Common transient and summer resident. Breeds in woods, feeds in marshes, lakes, and rivers. About 180 breeding colonies are known in Michigan (MNFI). A few birds occur in southern Michigan in winter where open water remains. Winter recoveries are known from as far as 3800 km., from Virginia and South Carolina south to the Gulf Coast, Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico, Belize, and Nicaragua. Of the 17 birds banded as nestlings and recovered in a later year in the breeding season, only on returned to its natal area. Dispersal distances ranged from 0 to 450 km. and averaged 134 km.
  •  Great Egret, Ardea alba
    • Common visitor in spring, late summer, and autumn, increasing in numbers throughout the season. As many as 200 are seen in Erie Marshes, Monroe County, in late summer. Has nested in recent years in southwestern Michigan in Kalamazoo County, southeastern Michigan in Oakland, St. Clair (Dickinson Island), Saginaw, and Bay counties (Scharf, 1979; JPW 62:107, 1984; MNFI). Uncommon and irregular elsewhere in Michigan.
  • Tricolored Heron, Egretta tricolor
    • Occasional summer visitor. Observed at Erie Gun Club, Monroe County, in May 1965 (Tordoff, 1966; photo in UMMZ). Sighted in Allegan, Monroe, and Macomb counties in May and June (AB 35:826, 1981; 38:913, 1984; JPW 53:145, 1975), Bay and Monroe counties in July (AB 32:1163, 1978, 36:9, 1982, 37:872, 1983), and at Fish Point, Tuscola County, in August (JPW 54:9, 1976). Seen in the Upper Peninsula in the area from Whitefish Point to Tahquamenon and Paradise in Chippewa County in April and May 1979 (DNR). Several late summer and autumn records at Pte. Mouillee, Erie Gun Club, and Erie Marsh, Monroe County (Kelley, 1978; UMMZ). They are often seen in the Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge along western Lake Erie in Ohio.
  •  Cattle Egret, Egretta ibis
    • Uncommon visitor from spring to late autumn. UMMZ specimen 217606 from Mueller Township, Schoolcraft County, on 10 November, 1970 is the earliest known record for the Upper Peninsula. Seen in the Upper Peninsula in Houghton, Alger, Dickinson, and Chippewa counties (JPW 54:178-179, 1976; WPBO). Most sightings in southern part of state. First recorded in Michigan in the Erie Marsh, Monroe County, in spring 1961 (JPW 41:61, 1963). Has nested on islands in Ohio and Ontario in western Lake Erie (Kelley, 1978; Peck and James, 1983) and in Wisconsin, Michigan (Scharf, 1979; AB 39:302, 1985). The first nest in Michigan was in the Saginaw River island, Bay County, in 1985 (AB 39:915,1986).
  • Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
    • Uncommon visitor from spring to autumn. UMMZ specimens: 44334 on 10 May 1889 from Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County; 85917 (10 August 1935) and 91448 (29 August 1937) both from Erie Marsh, Monroe County. Observed at Erie Marsh from spring through autumn (Kelley, 1978; UMMZ), and they breed in the marshes in western Lake Erie in Ohio. Occasional in northern Lower Peninsula (Benzie, Iosco, and Alpena counties).
  • Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea
    • Uncommon visitor from spring to autumn. A few have been seen in most recent years.
  •  Green-backed Heron, Ardeola striata
    • Common summer resident. Occasional birds are seen into early winter; one was seen in Bay County as late as 30 December (AB 39:169, 1985). A bird banded as a nestling on 27 June 1954 near Detroit was recovered in the breeding season in a later year (22 June 1957) in Ohio, a distance of 390 km.
  •  Black-crowned Night Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident. Breeding population in 1982 was 310 pairs at active nests at 8 sites located from Saginaw Bay (70% of the population) to Big Bay de Noc in Delta County (MNFI). Many nonbreeding birds occur in summer particularly in southeastern Michigan (Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie) where they formerly nested (Wood, 1951; Kelley, 1978; UMMZ). Occasional in winter. Birds banded in Michigan have been recovered in winter in the southeastern states to Florida, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, and Central America south to Panama. Of the 16 birds banded as nestlings or juveniles in Michigan and recovered in a subsequent breeding season, 14 were recovered at breeding sites in Michigan or neighboring states at distances from 0 to 552 km. from their birthplace. The other two were recovered on their wintering area, one a yearling in Cuba in July, the other in Panama in June eight years later.
  •  Yellow-crowned Night Heron, Nyctanassa violacea
    • Occasional summer resident. No specimens. First recorded in 1964; a possible early record noted also in Barrows (1912:742). Photographed at Bloomfield Hills, Oakland County, on 20 May 1970 (JPW 48:86, 1970), at nest near Erie Marsh, Monroe County, on 17 July 1971 (JPW 50:29, 1972), and at nest in Westland, Wayne County, where it has nested since 1978 (JPW 59:143, 1981; 60:154, 1982; UMMZ). Also nested near the Rouge River, Wayne County, in 1971 (Kelley, 1978). Photographed at Benton Harbor, Berrien County, in July 1979 (UMMZ). More than 20 observations in Michigan (Schoolcraft, Berrien, Van Buren, Allegan, Ottawa, Kalamazoo, Calhoun, Clinton, Ingham, Midland, Washtenaw, Monroe, St. Clair, Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne counties).
  •  Least Bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident. More numerous in the Lower Peninsula; nesting has been seen in 27 counties throughout the state (Wood, 1951). The dark-phase "Cory's Bittern" ("neoxena") is represented by only one Michigan specimen in UMMZ (91065, taken at Watkins Lake, Jackson County, on 24 August 1894). One banding recovery: a young bird banded near Battle Creek on 23 July 1962 was recovered in October 1962 in South Carolina.
  •  American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident, occasional in winter in Erie Marsh, Monroe County, and in Berrien County. Numbers appear reduced in southern Michigan in recent years.
  • White Ibis, Eudocimus albus
    • Vagrant. An adult was observed near Vicksburg at Oswald's Marsh, Kalamazoo County, on 1 August 1948 (KNC), another was sighted at Shiawassee National Refuge, Saginaw County, on 26 September 1983 (AB 38:205, 1984; MORC). An immature bird was seen on Harsen's Island, St. Clair County, Lake St. Clair, on 19-26 September 1970 (JPW 49:3, 1971; photo in UMMZ).
  • Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus
    • Occasional transient and summer visitor. Adult female specimen from Yoncom Bayou (=4 miles N of Linwood) on Saginaw Bay, Bay County, on 14 June 1939, in Empey collection. Specimen in GRPM examined by Barrows (1912) lacked precise data and data are now unavailable. Observed in Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge, Saginaw County; Mount Pleasant, Isabella County; Maple River Game Area, Gratiot County; Tobico Lagoon, Bay County; Fish Point, Tuscola County; Haehnle Sanctuary, Jackson County; Harsen's Island, St. Clair County; and Erie Marsh, Monroe County (JPW 41:27, 1963; 49:94, 1971; Kelley, 1978; AB 35:943, 1981, 36:979, 1982; UMMZ).
  • White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi
    • Vagrant. UMMZ 55261, immature, near Jackson, Jackson County, taken on 15 October 1916. Photograph of adult, Dowagiac Creek at Lake LaGrange, Cass County, on 4 May 1969 (JPW 48:33, 1970) is of uncertain species; both the Glossy Ibis and the White-faced Ibis have white around the face in the breeding season. Observers should record eye color and color of the legs. A few other sight records may refer to this species or the previous species.
  • Wood Stork, Mycteria americana
    • Vagrant. An immature was collected near Monroe, Monroe County, on 19 June 1910, and photographed (Auk, 28:256, 1911). Photographed near Mason, Ingham County, on 31 July 1963 (JPW 42:229, 1964) and two birds on South Manitou Island, Leelanau County, Lake Michigan, on 29 May 1975 (JPW 53:158, 1975; UMMZ). One earlier record: bird observed at Port Huron, St. Clair County, in autumn, year unknown (Barrows, 1912).
  • Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber
    • Hypothetical, perhaps a vagrant. Observations of this species in Burlington Township, Calhoun County, from 16 August to late September 1959 (Wilson Bull. 73:383, 1961, photos in UMMZ), near Alpena, Alpena County, and Wakefield, Gogegic County, in autumn 1971 (JPW 50:3, 1972), and in Spring Lake Township, Ottawa County, on 13 August 1974 (JPW 52:191, 1974) may be of escaped captive birds. Wild flamingos may appear in northern North America as vagrants. The one flock in North America (Florida Bay) has dwindled to one bird, so it is increasingly unlikely that future observations of flamingos in the north will be of wild birds (AB 39:142, 1985).
  • Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna bicolor
    • Occasional visitor. Two UMMZ specimens (157798, 157799) were taken from flock of 10, North Cape, Monroe County, on 14 October 1962. A third (UMMZ 204767) was shot on Drummond Island, Chippewa County, on 29 September 1979. Photographs of two from Bloomfield Township, Oakland County, on 12 June 1974, seen for the next two weeks (UMMZ).
  • Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis
    • Vagrant. Observed at Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo County, on 25 July 1981 (AB 35:941, 1981), photo in UMMZ. The bird may have been an escaped captive but appeared quite wild (KNC). Increased numbers of breeding wild and feral populations are known in Louisiana and Texas in recent years (G. H. Lowery, Louisiana Birds, 3rd Ed., 1974; Todd, 1979), and scattered sightings in the eastern United States in recent years may be derived from these birds.
  • Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus
    • Common transient. Up to 2000 seen locally in migration in early spring (JPW 59:106, 1981). Summer records near Midland, Midland County, and Lake Linden, Houghton County (JPW 43:84,144, 1965), in Oakland County (JPW 49:122, 1971), in Monroe County (Kelley, 1978), in Mackinac County in 1981 (MNFI), and in Benzie and Delta counties in 1982 (JPW 60:154, 1982). A few winter locally on Grand Traverse Bay and in southern Michigan in Ottawa, Kalamazoo, and occasionally Berrien counties. Observations of marked birds show that birds flying over Michigan winter mainly in the Mid-Atlantic states and breed in northwest from Manitoba to Northwest Territories (Wildfowl 24:8-14, 1973).
  • Trumpeter Swan, Cygnus buccinator
    • Vagrant. One record, USNM 70317: St. Clair Flats, Michigan, on 20 November 1875. No recent observations. Nested in the Midwest west of the Great Lakes in the 1800's, but there were no nesting records in Michigan (Wilson Bull. 76:331-338, 1964; 80:228-229, 1968). Captive Trumpeter Swans were released in the 1980's in Minnesota, and may eventually produce wild birds (AB 39:302, 1985).
  •  Mute Swan, Cygnus olor
    • Introduced, now a common breeding bird locally in the Lower Peninsula especially in Traverse Bay and Houghton Lake areas. Also observed in the Upper Peninsula mainly around Marquette and L'Anse on Lake Superior. Apparently most birds remain in Michigan throughout the year, but there are local migrations. Traverse City population began with a breeding pair in 1920; after 1933 the birds spread in the northwestern Lower Peninsula. Estimated total number of 1440 birds in Michigan in 1981 (DNR). Breeding distribution of main population of 1100 birds includes 11 counties in northern lower Michigan, with these birds wintering in Grand Traverse Bay from 1948 (MAN 18(5):3, 7, 1970). Other wintering areas in northern lower Michigan occur from Benzie to Cheboygan and Presque Isle counties (W. L. Gelston and R. D. Wood, 1982. The Mute Swan in Northern Michigan.). Also nests in Delta, Muskegon, Allegan, Berrien, Jackson, Macomb, Monroe, Oakland, and Wayne counties (JPW 46:131, 1968; 59:143, 1981; 61:102, 1983; DNR; UMMZ). Uncommon in winter in the southern counties.
  • Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons
    • Occasional transient. No current specimen is known. The specimen in the Barron collection (Barrows, 1912) has been lost. Photograph of bird captured and released at Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge, Saginaw County, in 1967 in UMMZ, also photos taken of bird at Silver Lake, Washtenaw County, in 1964 (JPW 43:45-46, 1965) and at Wintergreen Lake, Kalamazoo County, in 1966 (JPW 45:38-39, 1967; photo in UMMZ). As many as 11 seen in the Allegan State Game Area, Allegan County, in 1982. Seen at several localities in late winter in 1985. Observed in the Upper Peninsula in Houghton, Marquette, Schoolcraft, Chippewa, and Delta counties, and at scattered localities throughout the Lower Peninsula.
  • Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens
    • Common transient. Flocks of hundreds observed mainly in autumn, rather local, but regular at Muskegon sewage ponds, Muskegon County, and in Allegan State Game Area, Allegan County. Occasional in winter. Both white-phase birds and blue-phase birds ("Blue Goose") occur in Michigan; white- phase birds are the more numerous.
  • Ross' Goose, Chen rossii
    • Vagrant. Photographed in Allegan State Game Area, Allegan County, on 27 October-12 November 1979 (AB 34:164, 1980; photos in UMMZ). Another bird was shot at Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge, Saginaw County, on 9 October 1980 (AB 35:185, 1981).
  • Brant, Branta bernicla
    • Uncommon transient and winter visitor. Observed at Keewenaw Point, Keewenaw County, and Whitefish Point and in Munuscong Bay, Chippewa County (JPW 59:143, 1981; UMMZ). Sight records in the Lower Peninsula at Cheboygan, Cheboygan County (AB 39:302, 1985), Wintergreen Lake, Kalamazoo County (ZVT; DNR), St. Joseph, Berrien County (photo in UMMZ), Grand Haven, Ottawa County (JPW 51:23, 1973), Tawas Point, Iosco County (JPW 37:152-153, 1959), New Buffalo, Berrien County (AB 39:169, 1985), and Monroe, Monroe County (AB 33:179, 1979; UMMZ). A few have been seen in recent years in flight along Lake Erie and near Port Huron and the species has increased its occurrence in this area in spring and autumn (DAS; UMMZ).
  • Barnacle Goose, Branta leucopsis
    • Occasional transient, but status as a wild species is questionable. Two specimens, CMU 75-305 and 75-7, were collected at Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge, Saginaw County, on 18 October 1973 and 25 October 1974 (also JPW 54:131-132, 1976, photograph). Two other birds, one photographed, were seen in Allegan State Game Area, Allegan County, on 25 October 1979 (AB 34:164, 1980); another photographed 22 October 1983 (AB 38:205, 1984; UMMZ). Immature reported from Naubinway, Mackinac County, on 21 May 1965 (JPW 43:157, 1965). Two birds were seen at Fish Point, Tuscola County, in October 1976 (JPW 58:20, 1980), one on 30 March 1980 (JPW 58:112, 1980), and one at Muskegon Wastewater System on 7 March 1983 (AB 37:872, 1983). All records are in normal migration season, indicating that they were wild birds, but escaped captive birds may move at the same time, and it is quite possible that all birds seen in Michigan and elsewhere in the United States are escaped captives (Birding 16:146-154, 1984).
  •  Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
    • Common transient and breeding resident throughout Michigan. Breeding range has extended through the past 40 years to include the entire state. First noted breeding in Berrien County in 1982. Winters locally where snow is not too deep. Some birds observed in all months in the southern counties. Winter flocks of hundreds in Berrien County (OBC) and more than 10,000 in Allegan County. Restocking of original population is responsible for the present high numbers. Population at Seney National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1936 from geese derived from Minnesota and North Dakota, in the breeding range of B. c. maxima (notes in UMMZ). Geese breeding in southeastern Michigan also are B. c. maxima (JPW 57:56-69, 1979; 58:99-103, 1980). Many specimens shot in autumn migration are of the smaller northern forms B. c. interior, B. c. hutchinsii, and B. c. parvipes (UMMZ). A bird shot at Flat River, Kent County on 16 October 1982, is B. c. minima, the form that breeds in coastal Alaska (collection of J. Moermond; notes and photos in UMMZ).
  •  Wood Duck, Aix sponsa
    • Common transient and summer resident. Regular in winter in small numbers in southern Michigan, where it is seen throughout the year (Berrien County).
  •  Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca
    • Common transient. Common but local summer resident. Breeding records scattered throughout state with nests on Isle Royale, at Seney in Schoolcraft County (several years in 1930's and 1940's), Sedge Point near Cheboygan, Cheboygan County (summer 1939), Mackinac Island (June 1937), near Grayling in Crawford County (June 1974), at Muskegon sewage ponds, Muskegon County (25 July 1984), at Benton Harbor, Berrien County (late May 1973), in Kalamazoo County (1 July 1974, 12 July 1976), and Linwood, Bay County (9 June 1930) (Wood, 1951; Nelson, 1956; JPW 51:147, 1973; 52:182, 1974; 62:107, 1984; Jordan and Shelton, 1982; UMMZ). Uncommon in winter, observed regularly in Berrien County in winter in last 10 years (OBC). A hybrid Anas crecca x A. acuta (UMMZ 867 1/2) from "Michigan" and taken in the last century has no further data.
  •  American Black Duck, Anas rubripes
    • Common transient and locally common summer resident throughout state, probably most numerous in the southeast. Winters in suitable habitat in southern Michigan. Anas rubripes hybridizes with A. platyrhynchos (14 hybrid specimens in UMMZ, 1 MSU specimen, and 1 CM specimen are known from Michigan).
  •  Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos
    • Common transient and summer resident; some wild birds may be permanent residents especially in the south, where they occur in all months. Nest as early as March. Common in winter in suitable habitat throughout state.
  •  Northern Pintail, Anas acuta
    • Common transient, occasional local summer resident. The few breeding records known are throughout the state (Wood, 1951; Kelley, 1978; JPW 61:102, 1983). Winters occasionally and locally in southern counties, rarely in the north (AB 38:319, 1984).
  •  Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors
    • Common transient, common summer resident, breeding throughout the state. A few have been observed in winter.
  • Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera
    • Occasional transient. One specimen: MSU 6161, Marcellus, Cass County, on 3 October 1969. Another (specimen not located) near Saginaw, was taken in early April in 1939 or 1940 (JPW 37:122, 1959). Observed at Zilwaukee, Saginaw County, on 19 April 1959 (JPW 37:154, 1959), Grand Mere, Berrien County, on 6 May 1961 (UMMZ), Fish Point Wildlife Area, Tuscola County, on 9 May 1968 (JPW 46:87, 1968), Lake Michigan shoreline near St. Ignace , Mackinac County, on 2 May 1977 (DNR), and Sugar Bush Road sewage pond, Macomb County, on 26-29 April 1982 (DAS).
  •  Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata
    • Uncommon transient and uncommon summer resident. Has nested at Fish Point in Tuscola County, near Linwood in Bay County, at Muskegon sewage ponds in Muskegon County, in Portage Marsh in Delta County, and at Seney in Schoolcraft County (Wood, 1951; JPW 52:182, 1974; 54:162, 1976). Observed in summer in Berrien and Kalamazoo counties (JPW 49:122, 1971; 52:182, 1974; OBC). Occasional in winter.
  •  Gadwall, Anas strepera
    • Common transient and uncommon summer resident. Breeds locally, with nesting records from Green Island, Gull Island, and Ile aux Galets in northern Lake Michigan; Black River Island, Lake Huron; Scarecrow Island, Thunder Bay; Little Charity Island, Saginaw Bay; and Pte. Mouillee, Monroe County (ZVT; JPW 47:127, 1969; JPW 60:154, 1982; MAS; UMMZ). Uncommon in winter, sometimes over 100 birds in Kalamazoo County (KNC).
  • Eurasian Wigeon, Anas penelope
    • Occasional transient. Specimens from Erie Marsh, Monroe County, taken at turn of the century, one examined by Barrows (1912). Another specimen in Carnegie Museum (CM 117705) was taken at Erie, Monroe County, on 25 October 1936. Several sight observations in southeastern Michigan (Kelley, 1978), also observed in Tuscola, Muskegon, Ottawa, and Kalamazoo counties (DNR; KNC; MAS; UMMZ). Seen in the Upper Peninsula at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County (JPW 53:103, 1975).
  •  American Wigeon, Anas americana
    • Common transient, uncommon and local summer resident. Nests at Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Schoolcraft County (Wood, 1951); occasionally nests in Oakland and Monroe counties (Kelley, 1978). Uncommon in winter, regular in small numbers in Kalamazoo County (KNC).
  •  Canvasback, Aythya valisineria
    • Common transient; uncommon and local breeding resident. Nesting observed on St. Clair Flats, St. Clair County, in 1880 (Wood, 1951), where species is regularly observed in summer (Kelley, 1978; UMMZ), at Muskegon sewage ponds, Muskegon County, in 1974 (JPW 52:182, 1974), and in Portage Marsh, west of Escanaba, Delta County, female with small young on 18 July 1955 (UMMZ). Summer record at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 29 June 1973 (Goldeneye 12(5):2, 1973). Winters locally in Berrien County, on Lake St. Clair, and on the Detroit and St. Clair rivers.
  •  Redhead, Aythya americana
    • Common transient, most abundant in autumn, with thousands in a day along the shore of Lake Michigan in Berrien County in October. Breeds uncommonly and locally, with nesting records in Tuscola, Huron, Saginaw, Gratiot, St. Clair, Oakland and Wayne counties (Wood, 1951; ZVT; Kelley, et al., 1963; UMMZ). Nesting in southeastern Michigan has been observed in recent years also at Pte. Mouillee, Monroe County, and near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County (MNFI, UMMZ). Nests in the Upper Peninsula in Munuscong Bay, Chippewa County (UMMZ). Winters in small numbers.
  •  Ring-necked Duck, Aythya collaris
    • Common transient. Abundant in autumn along the shores of Lake Michigan. Breeds on Isle Royale, in the Upper Peninsula (numerous at Seney National Wildlife Refuge) and sparingly in northern Lower Peninsula; locally in southern Lower Peninsula, with 12 broods in Kalamazoo County from 1972 through 1976 (ZVT; JPW 49:130, 1971; 51:147, 1973; Pettingill, 1974; Jordan and Shelton, 1982; KNC). Ring-necked Ducks were not known to breed in Michigan before 1928 (Wood, 1951), and in Ontario before 1919 (Peck and James, 1983). Occasional in winter.
  • Tufted Duck, Aythya fuligula
    • Vagrant. Specimen collected at Whitmore Lake, Livingston- Washtenaw County line, in October 1973; (JPW 52:150-151, 1974; photo in UMMZ) was a possible escapee, but the species has been recorded as an accidental in several northeastern states and in Ontario (Peterson, 1981; James, et al., 1976).
  • Greater Scaup, Aythya marila
    • Common transient. A nesting record (St. Clair Flats, 1879) is questionable, as it is based on description of eggs and nest, both indistinguishable from Redhead, plus a female said to be this scaup killed in flight over the nest; no such specimen has been found (Bull. Nuttall Ornithol. Club 5:62, 1880). There is no earlier published record of the species in Michigan (Gibbs, 1879; Wood, 1951). Occasional in winter.
  •  Lesser Scaup, Aythya affinis
    • Common transient, more numerous than Greater Scaup. Occasional in early summer, more or less regular into early winter. One breeding record, in Dickinson County on 20 May 1941 (ZVT).
  • Common Eider, Somateria mollissima
    • Occasional transient and winter visitor. Photographs at Marquette, Marquette County, of a female on 21 February 1971 and a male in November-December 1975 (JPW 49:10-11, 1971; UMMZ), and a female at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 4 January 1981 (AB 35:302, 1981; UMMZ). Also observed at Port Huron, St. Clair County (three records in UMMZ).
  • King Eider, Somateria spectabilis
    • Occasional autumn transient and winter visitor. Winter observations of birds at Muskegon, Muskegon County, and Harbor Springs, Emmet County, on 2-3 February 1974 (UMMZ). One observed and photographed at Saginaw Bay in summer (17 June 1981; JPW 59:143, 1981). About 22 observations through 1985, including birds at Whitefish Point, St. Mary's River, Alpena, Muskegon, Port Huron (flock of 20 on 1 December 1979; JPW 58:87, 1980), Detroit River, and Monroe (DAS; MAS).
  • Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histrionicus
    • Occasional transient and winter visitor. Two UMMZ specimens: 156632, taken at Port Huron, St. Clair County, on 7 February 1962; 220311 (wing only) taken at St. Clair, St. Clair County, on 6 October 1971. GRPM 28505, Kent County, on 18 February 1962; HCMZ 620, at Saugatuck, Allegan County, on 31 December 1965. Regular in winter at Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County (JPW 57:151, 1979; MAS). Ten records for Berrien County (St. Joseph, New Buffalo, Berrien Springs) from October through May (OBC; photo in UMMZ), also seen in Presque Isle, Alcona, Benzie, Ottawa, Muskegon, Kalamazoo, St. Clair, Wayne (Grosse Ile), and Monroe counties (AB 32:207, 1978; 38:205, 1983 (photo); UMMZ; DAS; KNC; MAS).
  • Oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis
    • Uncommon transient and winter resident on southern Great Lakes, seen mainly on Lake Michigan. Often far offshore and not easily seen from land. One was seen at Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Schoolcraft County, in late Spring on 7 June 1971 (JPW 49:122, 1971). Irregular transient and winter resident on larger inland lakes.
  • Black Scoter, Melanitta nigra
    • Uncommon transient, mainly on the Great Lakes. Occasional in winter and spring at St. Joseph, Berrien County (Goldeneye 20(3):1, 1981; OBC). Seen once in summer, on Lake Michigan (JPW 61:102, 1983). Sighted regularly, sometimes in hundreds in autumn, and less often in early winter, at Whitefish Point, in Saginaw Bay, at Port Huron, at St. Joseph and New Buffalo in Berrien County, and on the Detroit River (Goldeneye 20(3):1, 1981; AB 39:169,1985; DAS; MAS).
  • Surf Scoter, Melanitta perspicillata
    • Uncommon transient, observed mainly on Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and St. Clair, and on the Detroit River. Seasonally regular on Lake Superior at Houghton and Whitefish Point and on Lake Huron in Saginaw Bay. Occasionally seen in winter. Infrequent inland.
  • White-winged Scoter, Melanitta fusca
    • Common autumn and spring transient on large lakes, sometimes remaining in winter. More than 300 have been seen in a single day in migration on Lake Superior (JPW 62:81, 1984). Has also been observed in mid-June between Beaver Island and High Island in northern Lake Michigan. One was seen as late as 24 June 1985 in Mackinac County (AB 39:915, 1986). Observed regularly at Whitefish Point, where thousands have been sighted in early spring (AB 38:913, 1984; 39:302, 1985), at St. Joseph in Berrien County, in Saginaw Bay in Chippewa County, at Port Huron in St. Clair County, and on the Detroit River (DAS; MAS); inland in Ingham and Clinton counties (McWhirter and Beaver, 1977) and in Kalamazoo County (KNC).
  •  Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
    • Common transient, summer resident nesting in northern Michigan, winters locally. In late 1960's, numbers to thousands on St. Joseph River above the dam at Berrien Springs, Berrien County, but no more than a few hundred in recent years.
  • Barrow's Goldeneye, Bucephala islandica
    • Occasional transient and winter visitor. UMMZ specimen 114543 from Gun Lake, Barry County, adult male, 7 November 1946. Another specimen (UMMZ 224553) from Black Lake, Ottawa County, female, 22 March 1907, was identified as this species (Barrows, 1912), but it is a common goldeneye. Observed at Marquette harbor, Marquette County (JPW 41:62, 1962; AB 35:302, 1981), Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County (AB 35:302, 1981); St. Ignace, Mackinac County; Iosco, Iosco County(JPW 62:55, 1984), Benton Harbor and Niles, Berrien County (Goldeneye 11:2, 1972; JPW 60:91, 1982), Port Huron, St. Clair County; on Lake St. Clair, Macomb County; and Grosse Ile, Wayne County (Kelley, 1978; UMMZ). Observed inland at Grand Rapids, Kent County; Hartland, Livingston County; and Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo County (JPW 44:87, 1966; 54:25, 1976; DNR; MAS).
  • Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
    • Common transient. A few sight records in summer in the north. Uncommon but regularly seen on open water in winter.
  •  Hooded Merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
    • Common transient, uncommon summer resident in northern Michigan. Scarce in southern Lower Michigan during the summer, but a few breeding records south to Kalamazoo, Calhoun, Oakland, and Berrien counties (Wood, 1951; JPW 52:182, 1974; Kelley, 1978; OBC). Uncommon in winter.
  •  Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
    • Common transient, common summer resident. Nests throughout northern Michigan south to Saginaw Bay. Winters locally, when common in southeastern corner of the state, with as many as 13,995 seen on Christmas Bird Counts (AB 37:304,1983).
  •  Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus serrator
    • Common transient on Great Lakes; uncommon summer resident. Occurs locally along the Great Lakes south to Berrien County and southeastern Michigan (OBC; Kelley, 1978; UMMZ). Nests regularly on High, Beaver, Garden, and Hog Islands in northern Lake Michigan (F. Cuthbert, in UMMZ). Winters locally, occasionally at Sault Ste. Marie (JPW 62:55,1984), in some years numbers up to 1000 birds on open water throughout the winter in southeastern Michigan (Kelley, 1978).
  •  Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
    • Common transient. Uncommon breeding bird, with nests in last 100 years from Dickinson, Bay, and Gratiot counties (JPW 51:141-142, 1973). Nested at the Erie Marsh, Monroe County, in July 1978 (JPW 56:202, 1978). Male observed and suspected nesting at Marquette, Marquette County, in July 1975 (UMMZ) and seen in summer at MWS and Pte. Mouille, Monroe County (JPW 60:154, 1982). Winters locally.
  • Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus
    • Hypothetical. The specimen formerly in Barron collection (now discarded) was perhaps local but lacked data (Fort St. Joseph Museum records). Sight records at Sarett Nature Center, Berrien County, on 8 April 1972 (Goldeneye 11:3, 1972), observed at Good Harbor Bay, Leelanau County, on 26 May 1974 (JPW 53:114, 1975), and at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 7 July 1984(JPW 62:107, 1984; MORC).
  •  Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
    • Common transient and summer resident in the Lower Peninsula, uncommon in the Upper Peninsula, but increasing there in numbers in recent years. Whitefish Point has seen as many as 48 in a spring migration period. Northernmost nesting report is of a nest north of Riggsville; Cheboygan County, fledging in July 1984 (UMBS). Two observations on Isle Royale (Jordan and Shelton, 1982). Migrants arrive in southern Michigan in March, late birds seen into November. Occasional as early as February and as late as December (JPW 61:64, 1983; 62:55, 1984).
  •  Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
    • Transient and summer resident. Birds observed in all month but January, usually arrive in April. Breeding population in 1981 was about 123 nesting pairs (30 pairs in western Upper Peninsula, 46 in eastern Upper Peninsula, 47 in northern Lower Peninsula). In 1982, 131 nesting pairs were seen, 80 in the Upper Peninsula and 51 in the northern Lower Peninsula. In 1983, 138 nests were reported, and in 1984, 132 nests, with a record 164 young that fledged (MNFI). Recent nesting records south and west to Muskegon, Mecosta, and Ogemaw counties. Notable concentrations of nesting Osprey are in Roscommon County (Houghton Lake and Dead Stream Swamp), Alpena and Montmorency counties (Fletcher Pond), and Mackinac and Luce counties (the Manistique Lakes) (DNR; MNFI). Nested on Isle Royale in 1984, the first successful breeding pair since 1963 (MNFI).
  • American Swallow-tailed Kite, Elanoides forficatus
    • Vagrant. One specimen: UMMZ 55075, near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, collected 4 October 1924. Three other specimens (not located) were collected in 1880 and 1882 (Barrows, 1912). No observations in recent years.
  • Mississippi Kite, Ictinia mississippiensis
    • Hypothetical. Listed in Barrows (1912) but the record was unsupported by a specimen (Swales, 1913). A subadult was seen at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 24 May 1981 (AB 35:826, 1981; MORC). An adult was described at Kalamazoo on 30 April 1984 (JPW 62:81, 1984; KNC; MORC).
  •  Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident, breeding locally around small inland lakes in the Upper Peninsula, where 70 percent of the breeding pairs live, and in northern Lower Peninsula south to Muskegon, Newaygo, Clare, Saginaw, and Allegan counties. Formerly widespread as a nesting species both inland and along the shoreline of the Great Lakes, but population declined due to pesticides. Now again nesting successfully near the shores of Lake Superior. Has not bred successfully in recent years on Isle Royale (Jordan and Shelton, 1982). In recent censuses there were 102 nesting pairs in 1981, 96 nesting pairs in 1982, 110 in 1983, 107 in 1984, and 125 in 1985 in Michigan (MNFI). Eagles banded as nestlings in Michigan have been recovered in winter in Florida, Georgia, Arkansas, and Tennessee (Auk 93:835-836, 1976). A bird banded as a nestling in Florida was shot later in the same year at Grass Lake, Jackson County (UMMZ 113761). Bald Eagles sometimes are seen near open water in the winter; 73 were counted in Michigan in mid-winter in 1985 (MNFI).
  •  Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident, decreasing greatly in numbers since 1960 but holding its own locally in the Upper Peninsula and the northern Lower Peninsula in recent years (DNR). Seen in small numbers in winter.
  •  Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter striatus
    • Common transient. Common nesting resident in the Upper Peninsula. Uncommon as a breeding bird in the Lower Peninsula. Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, is an area of concentration of migrants on Lake Superior in spring. Birds banded at Whitefish Point in spring have been recovered in winter in Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador. In autumn they have been recovered on the west end of Lake Superior and the north side of Lake Erie, indicating flights along the shoreline rather than across the Great Lakes (J. Field Orn. 56:346-355, 1985). Uncommon in winter.
  •  Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident. Reports indicate an increase in population in recent years. Some birds occur in winter, where they are seen especially around towns where they take birds near bird feeders. Records in the past 30 years in the north from Luce, Alpena, and Crawford counties and others in the south (DNR; UMMZ).
  •  Northern Goshawk, Accipiter gentilis
    • Uncommon transient and winter visitant. Breeds on Isle Royale, in the Upper Peninsula (several nests in Houghton and Marquette counties), and in the northern Lower Peninsula. Recent (since 1970) nestings in the Upper Peninsula and in the Lower Peninsula south to Mason, Osceola, Clare, and Midland counties. Migrating goshawks are best observed at Whitefish Point.
  •  Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident, now more numerous in the northeastern Lower Peninsula than in southern Michigan. A few pairs nest in southeastern Michigan, where formerly common, and a few nest in the Upper Peninsula north to Houghton County (JPW 58:73-75, 1980; UMMZ). Species reduced in numbers since before 1970, when 16 additional counties in the Lower Peninsula had reports of active nests. Occasional in winter in the south.
  •  Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus
    • Common transient and local summer resident. Nesting south to Muskegon County and into southeastern Michigan, more numerous in the northern forests (JPW 52:182, 1974; 56:204, 1978; UMMZ). This is the most numerous hawk seen in spring migration on points on the south side of Lake Superior (J. Hawk Migr. Assn. N. Amer. 2:24-33, 1980; WPBO). Birds banded in migration at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, have been recovered as far south as Guatemala, others north to Ontario and Quebec (JPW 59:51, 1981). No acceptable winter record.
  • Swainson's Hawk, Buteo swainsoni
    • Occasional transient. Recent sight records in Ontonagon, Chippewa, Kent, Cheboygan, Ottawa, Monroe, and Berrien counties (AB 38:913, 1984; 39:302, 1985; DAS; DNR; KNC; OBC; UMMZ).
  •  Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
    • Common transient and permanent resident, more numerous in the south. Less common but regular in southern Michigan in winter. This is the most abundant large hawk in agricultural areas in Michigan. The common breeding form in Michigan is B. j. borealis. Pale specimens approaching form B. j. krideri taken in Michigan in spring and autumn (UMMZ). Sight records of B. j. harlani at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 17 April 1979 (WPBO), at Moran, Mackinac County, on 22 May 1982 (UMMZ), and at Muskegon State Game Area on 7 and 14 April 1984 (AB 38:913, 1984).
  • Ferruginous Hawk, Buteo regalis
    • Hypothetical. Sight records in Kalamazoo County on 9 January 1977 (JPW 56:51-52, 1978) and at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 30 May 1979 and 25 April 1985 (WPBO, 1979; AB 39:302, 1985).
  • Rough-legged Hawk, Buteo lagopus
    • Uncommon transient and winter visitor in most of the state, wintering mainly in southern half of state, irregular in numbers. Common transient in the western Upper Peninsula. Occasional birds remain into June (JPW 56:204, 1978; AB 35:941, 1981). Regularly seen in spring hawk migration at Whitefish Point and on Keweenaw Peninsula (J. Hawk Migr. Assn. N. Amer. 2:24-33, 1980).
  • Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos
    • Occasional transient and winter visitor. Golden Eagles are usually seen in migration, with several records at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, at Houghton, Houghton County, on the jack-pine plains in northern Lower Peninsula, along Lake Michigan in Muskegon and Berrien counties, and on Lake Erie at Lake Erie Metropark, Wayne County, and Pte. Mouillee, Monroe County. As many as 17 have been seen in spring migration season at Whitefish Point (AB 38:913, 1984). Reported once in summer in Marquette County (JPW 56:204, 1978). Occasionally winters in the Allegan State Game Area, Allegan County, and occasionally is seen in winter in other sites in Michigan (Wilson Bull. 96:692-701, 1984).
  • Crested Caracara, Polyborus plancus
    • Hypothetical. Observed at Muskegon Dunes State Park, Muskegon County, on 3 September 1977 (UMMZ). Possible escapee.
  •  American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
    • Common migrant and summer resident. Winters in smaller numbers in southern third of state, where some individuals may be permanent residents. Birds banded in Michigan have been recovered locally in all seasons; others have moved between Michigan and Ontario, Wisconsin, Indiana, Tennessee, Alabama, and Alberta.
  •  Merlin, Falco columbarius
    • Uncommon transient. Rare breeding bird in the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale. Nesting records in 1950's and 1960's from Marquette, Marquette County, in the Huron Mountains, Luce County (13 miles E of Deer Park), in Schoolcraft County (Seney), Mackinac County (8.5 miles S of Gould City), and Isle Royale (DNR; UMMZ). Observations of possible nesting birds in Mackinac County, in 1981, in Baraga County in 1982 (UMMZ), and at White Pine, Ontonagon County, in 1983 (JPW 61:102, 1983). Three or four active nests seen each year 1979-1984 on Isle Royale; nests in spruce forests, usually near a shoreline (UMMZ; Jordan and Shelton, 1982). Pairs are also sighted annually in the Huron Mountains, Marquette County, and at Porcupine Mountains State Park, Ontonagon County (MNFI). Observed in migration mainly on the shoreline of the Great Lakes, with as many as 40 in a season at Whitefish Point, on Lake Superior (AB 39:303, 1985). Occasional in winter.
  •  Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus
    • Uncommon transient. Most records are along the shoreline of the Great Lakes during migration of shorebirds, gulls, and songbirds. Observed most frequently at Whitefish Point on Lake Superior. As many as 14 have been spotted in a season at this site (AB 39:303, 1985). Formerly nested in the Upper Peninsula (Goose Lake escarpments, Huron Islands, Huron Mountains, and Lake Superior cliffs and at Marquette and "Michigumni" (Michigamme) in Marquette County, and Pictured Rocks and Grand Island in Alger County (Wood, 1951; MNFI). Also nested on Mackinac Island and on South Fox Island, Leelanau County (Wood, 1951); specimen of nesting female of latter, UMMZ 104646, taken 20 June 1939. A bird banded as a nestling at Marquette, Marquette County, on 25 June 1939 was shot at Maumee Bay, Lucas County, Ohio, on 24 October 1939 (UMMZ 112900). The last known nesting in Michigan was at Burnt Bluff, Delta County, in 1957 (D. D. Berger and H. C. Mueller, in J. J. Hickey (ed.), Peregrine Falcon Populations, 1969:119-120; JPW 53:77, 1975). It appears also to have nested in the Huron Mountains in the early 1970's, perhaps the last nesting by wild peregrines east of the Mississippi River (K. L. Christopher, MS thesis, "A Survey of Peregrine Falcon Habitat in Upper Michigan with Emphasis on Reintroduction Potential," Michigan Technological University, 1980). Other historical records of nesting thought to be peregrines are described in Christopher (1980). A few birds have been observed in winter. Most Michigan specimens are F. p. anatum, the subspecies breeding in eastern North America and formerly in Michigan. Five specimens, all immatures taken in fall migration, represent the northern tundra subspecies F. p. tundrius, which is small, pale, and has finer head markings (Auk 85:179-191, 1968). They are UMMZ 136040 taken 2 miles N of Imlay City, Lapeer County, on 2 October 1947; UMMZ 61474 from Norton Twp., Muskegon County, on 27 Spetember 1929; UMMZ 61473 from Isle Royale on 15 September 1929; UMMZ 41245 from Charity Islands, Arenac County, on 3 October 1910; and PMNH 774 from Bay Shore, Bay County, on 6 October 1900.
  • Gyrfalcon, Falco rusticolus
    • Occasional winter visitor. One specimen: UMMZ 68416, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, on 21 January 1932. Regular transient along Lake Superior at Whitefish Point and Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County. Recent observations of wintering Gyrfalcons on the ice near Isle Royale, in Houghton County, in Ontonagon County, in Mackinac County, at Honor in Benzie County (photo in UMMZ), Muskegon in Muskegon County, Hudsonville in Ottawa County, St. Joseph and Sarett Nature Center in Berrien County, Port Huron in St. Clair County, Chesterfield Township in Macomb County (gray bird), Pte. Mouillee in Monroe County, and in Saline Township in Washtenaw County (white phase bird) (OBC 6:5, 1967; JPW 60:91, 1982; 62:29, 1984; AB 36:296, 1982; MAS; UMMZ).
  • Prairie Falcon, Falco mexicanus
    • Vagrant. Sight record of bird flying north from Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 3 May 1982 (UMMZ). An injured bird was found near Hubbardston, Clinton County, on 5 November 1982, held in captivity for a few weeks and photographed and released. (Michigan Natural Resources Magazine 52(2):6, 1983).
  •  Gray Partridge, Perdix perdix
    • Introduced. Local resident, formerly uncommon, now rare. Wild-collected specimens in UMMZ and MSU from Washtenaw, Lenawee, and Isabella counties. First introductions were in 1910 (J. Wildlife Mgmt. 7:368-377, 1943). Most recent introduction was in Sanilac County in 1969, where seen recently near Deckerville; also observed in Lenawee County in spring of 1981 (DNR).
  •  Ring-necked Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus
    • Introduced. Common resident in the south. Population extends north to Huron, Gladwin, Isabella, Grand Traverse, and Muskegon counties, also on Beaver Island, and in Menominee County in the Upper Peninsula (JPW 42:237, 1964; MA 27(4):2, 1979; DNR).
  •  Spruce Grouse, Dendragapus canadensis
    • Local resident, fairly common in the Upper Peninsula; also in the northern Lower Peninsula where uncommon and local south to Genesee (once), Crawford, and Roscommon counties (UMMZ). Spruce Grouse are quiet birds in coniferous habitats, especially in a mixture of jack pine and spruce (Robinson, 1980). They can survive the winter on a diet of conifer needles.
  • Willow Ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus
    • Hypothetical. Irregular winter visitor in last century, with last observations in 1921 and 1930-31 (Wood, 1951). No known Michigan specimens. Kneeland (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 6:237, 1857) reported ptarmigan on the Keweenaw Peninsula, and Schoolcraft noted in 1834 that specimens had been taken at Sault Ste. Marie (Barrows, 1912).
  •  Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus
    • Common permanent resident in forests. Generally absent from islands in the Great Lakes (Hatt, et al., 1948; Jordan and Shelton, 1982), but seen on South Manitou Island, Leelanau County, where it has nested, and on Beaver Island, Charlevoix County, where introduced in 1948 (JPW 42:236, 1964; 51:8, 1973), and on High Island, where it nests regularly (UMMZ). Both gray and brown color phases of the plumage occur in Michigan.
  •  Greater Prairie-Chicken, Tympanuchus cupido
    • Formerly widespread but local resident in both the Upper and Lower Peninsulas. In 1930 the species occurred throughout Michigan, but in the succeeding years the extending forest habitats and the intensive land use practices in the south led to its decline. By the late 1950's the species disappeared in the Upper Peninsula, and fewer than 1000 remained in the Northern Lower Peninsula. Original Michigan population extinct, with no certain records since 1981, when it was last seen near Marion, Osceola County (DNR; MNFI).
  •  Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus
    • Common locally on Isle Royale and in the Upper Peninsula. Local and uncommon in the northern Lower Peninsula, where the current population was introduced. Observed mainly in cleared lands in Houghton, Baraga, Chippewa, Luce, Alger, Mackinac, and Schoolcraft counties. Four breeding populations are known in the Lower Peninsula, the largest near Gaylord, Otsego County (DNR). First recorded on Isle Royale in 1884 (Jordan and Shelton, 1982); earliest specimens were taken in 1905 (UMMZ 33365, 33366). Sharp-tailed Grouse are capable of flight across the 13 miles of water and they colonized Isle Royale from the mainland of Ontario (Jordan and Shelton, 1982). The species spread into the Upper Peninsula from Wisconsin in about 1922 (Wood, 1951).
  •  Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo
    • Common, local introduced species in the Lower Peninsula, also in Upper Peninsula with hundreds in Dickinson County. Formerly occurred as wild birds north to Isabella and Bay counties, common until 1875, last known records were in 1897 (Barrows, 1912). Last observed in Calhoun County in 1874 (JPW 39:105, 1961; Walkinshaw, 1978). UMMZ specimens taken prior to 1900 include 6 adults, two with data: 99601, Almena Swamp, Van Buren County, on 27 February 1882; 84002, 3 miles SW of Reese, Saginaw County, in November 1886. A specimen in Fort St. Joseph Museum, Niles, was taken in 1837 at the Pawating crossing of the St. Joseph River at Niles, Berrien County. Another specimen, in GRPM, was taken at Grand Rapids "about 1880" (Wood, 1951), and a bird at CMU was taken near the end of the century, but no data are available with these specimens. Introduced stock has become widespread, with 1982 estimate of 15,000 turkeys (Michigan Natural Resources Magazine,52(2):10-19, 1983). Largest populations occur around Oscoda, Crawford, Lake, and Allegan counties, and on Beaver Island and North Manitou Island in northern Lake Michigan. One seen on High Island in 1981 and 1982, perhaps had crossed the ice in winter from Beaver Island (F. Cuthbert). Now regular near Pellston, Emmet County. In the Upper Peninsula, turkeys are common locally in Menominee County.
  •  Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus
    • Uncommon to common local resident in southern part of state, disappearing in severe winters. Birds were found in northern Lower Michigan as recently as 1973-1974, with specimens in CMU from Torch Lake in Antrim County and in Grand Traverse County as well as from Isabella County. Observed north to Montcalm, Midland, and Bay counties in the past few years (DNR).
  •  Yellow Rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident. Summer records noted locally in the Upper Peninsula (Wood, 1951), including Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Schoolcraft County, at Sleeper Lake, Luce County, and at Munuscong Bay, Chippewa County, where nesting was observed (Auk 56:227-237, 1939). Formerly nested in small numbers in southeastern Michigan, with a set of eggs taken in Ida Township, Monroe County (Barrows, 1912), and a nest photographed at Duck Lake, Highland Township, Oakland County (Wood, 1951). Other observations in Berrien, St. Joseph, Ingham, Livingston, and Kalamazoo counties (ZVT; OBC; MAS; KNC). Field observations are needed to determine its local numbers and distribution.
  • Black Rail, Laterallus jamaicensis
    • Occasional transient, scarce and irregular north of its known breeding range. One specimen: UMMZ 119882 taken at Portage Lake, Jackson County, immature female, on 12 September 1951.
  •  King Rail, Rallus elegans
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident, has decreased in numbers in recent years. Found north through Lower Peninsula to Emmet County. Seen in marshes near Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie, breeding on Harsen's Island in Lake St. Clair (JPW 58:160, 1980), also observed at Sterling State Park, Pte. Mouillee, and Erie Gun Club in Monroe County (MNFI), near Alpena, Alpena County (JPW 54:162, 1976), Boardman River in Grand Traverse County (JPW 48:98, 1970), and Grand Haven Marsh in Ottawa County (JPW 49:118, 1971). Observed in the Upper Peninsula at Marquette (JPW 47:104, 1969; photo in UMMZ). Most of these localities are not regular sites and the King Rail is apparently restricted as a breeding species to the St. Clair Flats, Erie State Game Area, and Pte. Mouillee State Game Area (MNFI). Occasional into winter.
  •  Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola
    • Common transient and local summer resident. Occasional in winter. Breeds in sedge and cattail marshes.
  •  Sora, Porzana carolina
    • Common transient and summer resident; occasional in winter. Habitat same as in Virginia Rail. The two call in response to the other's calls as well as their own.
  • Purple Gallinule, Porphyrula martinica
    • Occasional visitor from its southern range. UMMZ specimens: 161b from "southeastern Michigan" in 1837, 208197 from Grand Marais, Alger County, on 10 May 1964, 209703 from Flint Township, Genesee County, on 29 May 1965, and 206191 from Mackinac City, Cheboygan County, on 19 April 1983. Photographed at Maple River Game Area, Gratiot County, on 4 May 1969 (UMMZ). Other records in Dickinson, Clinton, and Macomb counties (JPW 52:151, 1974).
  •  Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus
    • Common migrant and summer resident, more numerous in the south. Occasional into early winter. One record in January in Berrien County (OBC; Mlodinow, 1984), also seen in winter in Muskegon and Macomb Counties (AB 39:170, 1985). Two adults banded in southwestern Michigan in June returned in the following year to the same area. Another bird was recovered five years later in January in Cuba.
  •  American Coot, Fulica americana
    • Common transient, common summer resident. Breeds throughout the state, most numerous in the south. Uncommon in winter in southern Michigan in areas with open water; locally numerous in Berrien County until the waters freeze (OBC 19:2, 1980). Two birds banded as young, have been recovered in a later breeding season. One was recovered in Michigan 58 km from its birth place. The other was banded in Minnesota and recovered six years later in June in Michigan, 914 km from its birthplace. Birds banded in Michigan have been recovered in winter in numbers in Florida and in Louisiana. One was recovered in the Bahamas, a distance of 2,570 km. From birds banded in summer in the northern Great Plains (Minnesota and the Dakotas, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta) we have 23 autumn recoveries. A bird observed at Metrobeach Park, Macomb County, from 20 April through 4 June 1982, was identified by birders as a "Caribbean Coot" (F. caribaea) by its white shield, lacking a red knob. The bird bred with a normal red-shielded American Coot. Both members of the pair accompanied and fed the downy young on the nesting territory (Wilson Bull. 95:467-469, 1983; UMMZ).
  •  Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis
    • Common transient and common but local summer resident. Migrants arrive as early as late February, more flew in March. About 200 breeding pairs now in southeastern Michigan, mainly in Jackson and Livingston counties, increasing with protection (JPW 51:55-74, 1973; 52:103-114, 1974). Breeding populations also in Oceana, Mason, and Cheboygan counties. Breeding cranes in the Upper Peninsula are most numerous in Mackinac, Chippewa, Luce, Schoolcraft, Alger, and Delta counties, and they also breed in the western Upper Peninsula in Baraga and Houghton counties (JPW 56:107-121, 1978; UMMZ). Large numbers (flocks of as many as 1000) stage in late autumn (November) at Haehnle Sanctuary, Jackson County. Michigan birds migrate to Florida for the winter (Auk 89:541-548, 1972; Wilson Bull. 91:137-141, 1979; Florida Field Nat. 10:1-8, 1982). They return mainly in March. Occasionally a few birds remain in Michigan; three wintered near Waterloo, Jackson County,in 1981-1982 and one at Baker Sanctuary, Calhoun County, in 1982-1983 (W. Koelz; AB 37:304, 1983).
  • Black-bellied Plover, Pluvialis squatarola
    • Common transient, observed in spring and autumn. One seen 15-18 December is the latest seasonal record (AB 38:319, 1984).
  • Lesser Golden Plover, Pluvialis dominica
    • Uncommon transient, numerous in some years. Observed in spring and autumn.
  • Snowy Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
    • Hypothetical. Sight record at Escanaba, Delta County, on 23 May 1963 (JPW 42:201, 1964).
  • Semipalmated Plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
    • Common transient. Occasionally seen into early June (JPW 62:107, 1984). Observed mainly on shores of Great Lakes.
  •  Piping Plover, Charadrius melodus
    • Uncommon summer resident. Formerly bred in numbers locally on shores and islands of Great Lakes, but recent total counts on Michigan shoreline showed only 31 pairs in 1979 16 pairs in 1981, 14 pairs in 1982, and 13 in 1984 (JPW 59:44-52, 1981; AB 36:979, 1982; 37:991, 1983; MNFI). Piping Plovers have been extirpated as a breeding species from Lakes Ontario and Erie, and they are endangered on Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior due to beach disturbance. Breeding pairs in Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, and between Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, west to Crisp Point, Luce County, also pairs usually seen near Grand Marais, Alger County, on Sturgeon Bay, Emmet County; and at Leelanau State Park, Leelanau County (MNFI).
  •  Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
    • Common transient and summer resident. A few remain into early winter, and some arrive by late February. Occasional birds may overwinter in southern Michigan. The four winter recoveries of birds banded in Michigan were from Alabama (2) and Florida (2). A young bird banded in Michigan was recovered in Michigan in May two years later, 23 km from its birthsite.
  • Mountain Plover, Charadrius montanus
    • Hypothetical. Reported for Watton, Baraga County, on 13 May 1976 (AB 30:845, 1976).
  • Black-necked Stilt, Himantopus mexicanus
    • Hypothetical. Sight records at Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge, Saginaw County, on 6-13 June 1980 (AB 34:897, 1980; UMMZ).
  • American Avocet, Recurvirostra americana
    • Occasional to uncommon transient. Observed in several years at St. Joseph, Berrien County, with about 15 local records, all but one in autumn, and with 12 birds in September 1974 (JPW 47:48, 1969; OBC; photo in UMMZ). Seen in spring less often, with records in Monroe, Muskegon, and Emmet counties. 1964 (UMMZ). A few records in summer (OBC; JPW 61:102, 1984). Observed in the Upper Peninsula at Vermillion, Chippewa County, on 9 May 1981 (AB 35:826, 1981).
  • Greater Yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
    • Common transient. Occasional in summer.
  • Lesser Yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
    • Common transient. Occasional in summer. near the Straits of Mackinac in July and August. Seen on Kingston Plains, Alger County, on 27 June 1979 (UMMZ). A few hundred have been seen by late July in the Erie marshes (JPW 62:107, 1984). Occurs in numbers in migration, with many hundreds seen in some years (AB 39:56, 1985). One stayed into December in Berrien County (AB 39:56, 1985).
  • Solitary Sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
    • Common transient, observed occasionally in summer.
  • Willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
    • Uncommon transient. UMMZ specimens: 39066, Detroit, "1880"; 84842, Whitmore Lake, Livingston County, on 20 August 1935. Willets have been seen into early June (late spring migrants?) and in late June (early fall migrants?) near Grand Haven, Ottawa County. Early transient in late summer and autumn, with July and August records apparently being early autumn migrants
  •  Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularia
    • Common transient and summer resident, breeding throughout the state. The four recoveries of Michigan birds are of a young bird found three years later in Cheboygan County 18 km from its birthplace, and three adults that returned to the same site in a later year.
  •  Upland Sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda
    • Uncommon transient. Uncommon and local summer resident in the south, more common in the northern two-thirds of the state, especially in Houghton, Baraga, and Marquette counties.
  • Eskimo Curlew, Numenius borealis
    • Vagrant. The species is nearly extinct (AB 31:127-138a, 1977) but has been reported in the Northwest Territories of Canada in the breeding season in 1980's and also in migration in coastal Texas (A.B. 38:000, 1984). One Michigan specimen examined: UMMZ 99731, taken near Kalamazoo, on 28 October 1879. The other Michigan specimen in Berlin Museum 12406 was taken at Detroit, autumn 1834 (Hahn, 1963:188).
  • Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
    • Uncommon transient. UMMZ has specimens 59582 from Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 24 September 1928; 67466 from same location, on 25 May 1922; 68833 from Sand Point, Huron County, on 26 May 1931; 136492 from North Cape, Monroe County, on 2 June 1965. Seen in sparse numbers in migration throughout the state. Large flocks observed in spring in recent years at Pte. Mouillee, Monroe County (DAS). Migrants are seen most often during the last 10 days of May and at the following locations: Lake Erie in Monroe County, Tawas Point in Alpena County, and Whitefish Point in Chippewa County (AB 38:913, 1984).
  • Long-billed Curlew, Numenius americanus
    • Hypothetical. Earlier records (Barrows, 1912) were undocumented and no specimens are known in Michigan. Sight record at the Au Train Goose Management Area in Alger County on 4 May 1981 (DNR).
  • Hudsonian Godwit, Limosa haemastica
    • Uncommon transient. Fewer than 10 are usually seen through the state in spring migration (JPW 62:82, 1984). Observed in spring and autumn.
  • Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa
    • Uncommon transient. UMMZ specimens: 47139, Detroit River, Wayne County, on 1 August 1882; 74844, Erie Marsh, Monroe County, on 1 September 1934; 98425, Erie Marsh, Monroe County, on 13 August 1938; and 210857, North Cape, Monroe County, on 21 August 1957. A few are observed in each migration season. Observed in spring and autumn.
  • Ruddy Turnstone, Arenaria interpres
    • Common transient. Observed mainly on shores of the Great Lakes, where they feed in part by scavenging dead fish.
  • Red Knot, Calidris canutus
    • Uncommon transient. Observed mainly on shores of the Great Lakes. Seen regularly at Waugoshance Point, Emmet County, in late May. Irregular in spring in Berrien County. Seen in spring as late as 4 June in Bay County at Saginaw River disposal island. Autumn migrants seen as early as 27 July in Berrien County (AB 34:897, 1980; JPW 62:107, 1984).
  • Sanderling, Calidris alba
    • Common transient in spring. A few nonbreeding birds remain in summer. The most abundant sandpiper on shores of Great Lakes in autumn where transients seen until November; one seen as late as 1 January 1979 in Berrien County (OBC). Uncommon transient inland.
  • Semipalmated Sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
    • Common transient in spring and autumn. A few non-breeding birds remain in summer. A bird banded near Saginaw in September was recovered in the next month in Surinam.
  • Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri
    • Occasional to uncommon transient, most records in autumn. UMMZ specimens: 83569, Erie Marsh, Monroe County, on 8 August 1936; 112885, Erie Township, Monroe County, 21 August 1943; 153753, North Cape, Monroe County, on 2 June 1954; 212820, 212821, Erie Township, on 31 August 1967. Another specimen KCS 657 (now KNC) male from Kalamazoo on 19 August 1884. Photographed at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 16 August 1969 and 23 August 1971, (UMMZ). Observed throughout the state, fairly regular in late summer (July and August) in Berrien County (OBC).
  • Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
    • Common transient. A few non-breeding birds remain in summer.
  • White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis
    • Uncommon transient. More numerous in spring than in autumn. July records are early autumn transients (JPW 61:102, 1983).
  • Baird's Sandpiper, Calidris bairdii
    • Uncommon transient, mainly in autumn. Spring migrants seen at Whitefish Point and at the Muskegon sewage ponds. Fall migrants noted especially at White Pine Copper Co. Tailings Dam, Ontonagon County (JPW 62:29, 1984).
  • Pectoral Sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
    • Common transient. A few non-breeding birds remain in summer. Birds seen in large numbers after mid-July are probably in transit from their arctic breeding grounds. A bird banded in the Upper Peninsula in early September was recovered in late August three years later in Columbia.
  • Purple Sandpiper, Calidris maritima
    • Occasional but regular autumn transient. UMMZ specimen 155604 taken at Laketon Township, Muskegon County, on 10 December 1960. Photographed at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 23 December 1970 and 5-23 November 1972 (UMMZ). Observations mainly in November and December along southern Lake Michigan from Ottawa, Muskegon, and Berrien counties, where it is recorded nearly every year, and from Pt. Huron to Lake Erie in the east. Some recorded into winter and February record at Muskegon (AB 39:140, 1985; JPW 61:65, 1983). Two spring records: near Cheboygan, Cheboygan County, on 22 May 1976 (KNC) and one at Muskegon, 1983 (JPW 61:86, 1983).
  • Dunlin, Calidris alpina
    • Common transient. Observed as early as 9 May in Berrien County (OBS). Molting birds observed on shores of Great Lakes well into May. Occasional nonbreeding birds in summer. A few late autumn birds remain into December. A bird banded in October in Florida was recovered in the following year in late May in Michigan.
  • Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea
    • Vagrant. Color photograph of bird in breeding plumage at Pte. Mouillee, Monroe County, on 13 May 1975 (UMMZ). A bird in partial breeding plumage was photographed at the Coopersville sewage ponds, Ottawa County, on 19-26 May 1984 (AB 38:914, 1984).
  • Stilt Sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
    • Uncommon transient. More numerous in autumn than in spring. Dates of specimens from Michigan range from 28 July to 15 September. The summer observations probably refer to early autumn migrants (JPW 56:204, 1978; 60:155, 1982). Hundreds have been seen in migration at White Pine Copper Co. tailings dam in Ontonogan County (JPW 62:29, 1984).
  • Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis
    • Uncommon but regular transient. Autumn migrants seen as early as late July (AB 34:897, 1980). Less often seen in spring, sometimes locally numerous transient in autumn, especially on golf courses and sod farms in southeastern Michigan, where it associates with Lesser Golden Plovers. Also seen in numbers in autumn in Ontonagon County (JPW 62:29, 1984).
  • Ruff, Philomachus pugnax
    • Occasional transient, few records but one or two seen in migration in spring in recent years. UMMZ specimen 209210 taken in Fort Gratiot Township, St. Clair County, on 29 April 1965. Also observed on Saginaw Bay (most recently at Fish Point, Tuscola County) (JPW 60:127, 1982), on Freemont sewage ponds in Newaygo County (MAS), Muskegon Wastewater System (photo, AB 36:980, 1982), in Isabella County (Cuthbert, 1963), Ottawa County (JPW 52:192, 1974), Ingham County (AB 30:845, 1976), Berrien County (4 records, OBC), Oakland County (AB 37:183, 1983), Macomb County (AB 35:826, 1981), and Monroe County (Kelley, 1978; UMMZ).
  • Short-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
    • Common transient. Sometimes hundreds observed in a flock in spring, usually more numerous in late summer and autumn.
  • Long-billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus
    • Common transient. UMMZ specimens were all taken in late summer and autumn. Field observations are needed to distinguish the times of migration of the two species of dowitchers.
  •  Common Snipe, Gallinago gallinago
    • Common transient and local summer resident throughout. More numerous in the northern two-thirds of the state, but it nests in the south as well (Wood, 1951; JPW 41:92-93, 1963; 52:184, 1974; 61:86, 1983). Occasional in winter in the southern counties. Banding recoveries show the wintering grounds of two Michigan birds to be in Florida and Alabama.
  •  American Woodcock, Scolopax minor
    • Common transient and summer resident. Occasional birds remain into winter (December and January). Returning woodcock arrive in February and March. A young bird banded in Alabama was recovered in autumn in Michigan (Wilson Bull. 91:463-464, 1979). Woodcock banded in Michigan as juveniles move mainly into southern Louisiana, extreme eastern Texas, and southern Mississippi in winter. Michigan birds migrate southward mainly between the Mississippi River and the Appalachian Mountains. Most woodcock (30 of 54) banded as juveniles in Michigan that were recovered in a later year from spring to autumn were taken within 10 km of their home site, and adults also usually return to the same site each year (BBL; UMMZ).
  •  Wilson's Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor
    • Uncommon transient and occasional summer resident. Formerly bred Jackson, Huron, and ?Bay counties; UMMZ downy young in Jackson and Huron counties, all from the period 1929-1934. A. B. Covert's nesting record of Portage Lake, Livingston County in 1887 is questionable only because many of his other records are of dubious validity (cf. Barrows, 1912:740 f.f.; Wilson Bull. 1913). Summer records from Escanaba, Delta County, in 1965, Shiawassee, Saginaw County, in 1981, Muskegon sewage ponds, Muskegon County, in 1984, Buckhorn and Benton Heights, Berrien County, in 1968, and Pte. Mouillee, Monroe County, in 1981 and 1983, and near White Pine, Ontonagon County, in 1983 (JPW 61:102, 1983; 62:108, 1984; DNR; OBC; DAS). These summer records suggest possible nesting sites. A half-grown young near Saginaw Bay in 1967 (JPW 45:113, 1967) and a nest (empty but with male defending area) at Pte. Mouillee in 1981 (AB 35:942, 1981) indicate recent breeding in the state.
  • Red-necked Phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus
    • Uncommon transient, seen mainly in autumn. Observed regularly (to 20 birds at a time) at Muskegon sewage . One observed at Erie Marsh on 1-2 December 1973 (JPW 52:84, 1974). A few have been seen each year in recent years at Port Huron in St. Clair County. 34:275, 1980; JPW 61:4, 1983; DAS).
  • Parasitic Jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
    • Uncommon but regular transient in autumn, mainly along eastern shore of Lake Michigan and along Lake Huron at St. Clair River. Since 1974 and average of 25 birds have been seen each year in southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario (JPW 61:4, 1983). Only three sightings in spring and at Whitefish Point on 28 May 1984 and 29 May 1985 (AB 38:915, 1984; 39:303, 1985).
  • Long-tailed Jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
    • Occasional transient. Specimens: UMMZ 158417, North Cape, Monroe County, found dead on 21 September 1963; MSU 4796, Keweenaw Bay, Baraga County, on 17 August 1965. An adult was photographed at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 16 September 1965 (JPW 48:46-51, 1970; photos in UMMZ). The photographs of an immature jaeger at Nayanguing Point, Bay County, on 16 August 1981 prove to be of an immature Parasitic Jaeger. A subadult Long-tailed Jaeger was photographed on Drummond Island, Chippewa County, on 27 June 1985 (AB 39:915, 1986; photos in UMMZ). Other reports are considered of questionable identification. One spring record: Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 7 June 1984 (JPW 62:108, 1984).
  • Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla
    • Uncommon transient, regular in late spring, irregular in summer and autumn. Specimen UMMZ 218895, taken on High Island, near Beaver Island, Charlevoix County, on 4 June 1972. Observed regularly in spring and less often in autumn at St. Joseph, Berrien County (JPW 47:48, 1969; 61:103, 1983; Goldeneye 20(4):3, 1981; OBC; photos in UMMZ). Reported in the Upper Peninsula on St. Mary's River, Chippewa County (AB 33:865, 1979) and at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County (WPBO), and in the Lower Peninsula at Petoskey, Emmet County, at Tawas Point, Alpena County, at Erie Marsh in Monroe County, at Harsen's Island in St. Clair County, and at Gibraltar in Wayne County (Kelley, 1978; AFN 24:298, 1970; AB 35:942, 1981; 38:914, 1984; DAS; OBC; UMMZ). The High Island specimen was and adult female, had large ova and was within a few days of laying.
  • Franklin's Gull, Larus pipixcan
    • Uncommon transient. Specimens: UMMZ 209997, 209998, both taken at North Cape, Monroe County, on 6 November 1965. MSU 4806, skeleton, Beaver Island, Charlevoix County, on 16 October 1964. A regular visitor in spring and autumn on Lake Michigan at St. Joseph, Berrien County, with hundreds in some years, and along Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie in Macomb, Wayne, and Monroe counties in recent years. Observed north to Lake Superior, Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, and Houghton, Houghton County. Infrequently seen inland, with observations in Berrien, Muskegon, Kalamazoo, and Ingham counties (McWhirter and Beaver, 1977; AB 37:183, 1983; 38:1023, 1984; WPBO; KNC; OBC; UMMZ).
  •  Little Gull, Larus minutus
    • Uncommon transient, occasional summer resident. UMMZ specimens 209980 at North Cape, Monroe County, on 6 November 1965, and 217805 at North Cape on 4 May 1971. Observed in several years in autumn along the shore of Lake Michigan in Ottawa and Berrien counties, where one was photographed 10 August 1972 (JPW 56:48, 1978; OBC; photo in UMMZ). Also seen at St. Joseph, Berrien County, in spring and rarely in late July (JPW 56:48, 1978; JPW 62:108, 1984; OBC). More than 10 sight records on Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River, and Detroit River. Seen on Saginaw Bay at Nayanquing Point, Bay County (UMMZ). Nested in the Upper Peninsula at Portage Marsh near Escanaba, Delta County, from 1976 to 1980 (AB 30:959, 1976; DNR; MNFI). Recorded as late as December in Houghton County (AB:38:320, 1984), January in Monroe County (Kelley, 1978; 39:624, 1985).
  • Common Black-headed Gull, Larus ridibundus
    • Occasional visitor. One specimen: UMMZ 210572 from Tawas Point, Iosco County, on 2 June 1966. Observed near Grand Haven, Ottawa County, on 23 November 1971 (JPW 52:192, 1972), another seen over four consecutive years near Monroe, Monroe County (AB 34:164, 1980), in Dearborn, Wayne County, on 4-5 December 1983 (AB 38:320, 1984; MORC; photo in UMMZ), one on Saginaw Bay, Bay County, on 12 December 1981 (JPW 60:92, 1982), one near Port Huron on 1-2 January 1982 (UMMZ), and one at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 4 June 1982 (AB 36:980, 1982).
  •  Bonaparte's Gull, Larus philadelphia
    • Common transient on Great Lakes, less common inland. Flock of hundreds are seen in migration. Said to have nested in Bay de Noc, Delta County, in 1880 (Kumlien and Hollister,)
  •  Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis
    • Common transient and summer resident, nesting on northern Lake Huron and Lake Michigan islands and on islands in St. Mary's River in outlet of Saginaw River in Saginaw Bay, and in the Detroit River. Nests inland in sewage ponds in Muskegon County, on Dow Chemical Company holding ponds in Midland County, and limestone quarry at Rogers City, Presque Isle County. Species nests on all the Great Lakes, where U.S. populations in 1976 were estimated at 89,998 nesting pairs, including all states (Scharf, 1979). Birds banded as chicks in Michigan winter have been recovered along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from North Carolina to Louisiana (JPW 52:115-179, 1974). Ring-billed Gulls also winter in small numbers on the southern Great Lakes.
  • California Gull, Larus californicus
    • Occasional in spring and autumn, a few observed into winter. Young bird banded in colony at Great Salt Lake, Utah, was found dead in same year at Tawas City, Iosco County, on 11 August 1948 (Proc. Utah Acad. Sci., Arts, and Letters 29:27, 1952). Sight records at Grand Marais, Alger County, on 10-12 September 1968 (JPW 47:12, 1969; UMMZ), Marquette Harbor, Marquette County, on 11-13 September 1975 (JPW 54:176, 1976; photos in UMMZ), Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 17 September 1968 (JPW 47:12, 1969; UMMZ) and on 23-25 May 1979 (UMMZ), Metrobeach, Macomb County, on 10 April 1978 and 3 December 1983 (JPW 56:3, 1978; AB 38:320, 1984; UMMZ), Monroe Power Plant, Monroe County, on 24 and 28 March 1978 (JPW 56:3, 1978; UMMZ), Macomb, Macomb County, on 30 August- 1 September 1978 (AB 33:180, 1979), near Port Huron on 20 December 1982 (JPW 61:41, 1983; photos in UMMZ), and Morrow Lake, Kalamazoo County, in April 1984 (AB 38:914, 1984; MORC).
  •  Herring Gull, Larus argentatus
    • Common transient and summer resident. Some remain in Michigan waters in all seasons. Nests on islands in the northern Great Lakes and in St. Mary's River, Lake St. Clair, and Detroit River, also on cliffs on mainland of Lake Superior at Pictured Rocks. Nests on more islands and in many smaller colonies than Ring-billed Gulls. Breeding population on U. S. Great Lakes (not all in Michigan) estimated in 1976 at 26,719 pairs (Scharf, 1979). Rarely nests inland (JPW 61:102, 1983). Gulls from the Great Lakes winter on the Great Lakes, along the Atlantic coast, in the Mississippi River valley, and along the Gulf coast. Most winter recoveries of bonded juveniles are south of the Great Lakes, while nearly all winter recoveries of birds two years and older are on the Great Lakes, in areas with open water (Bird-Banding 47:141-159, 1976).
  • Thayer's Gull, Larus thayeri
    • Occasional transient and winter visitor. Several sight records since 1973, from St. Joseph in Berrien County, Port Huron and Marysville in St. Clair County, Grosse Ile and Belle Isle in Wayne County, Monroe in Monroe County, Muskegon sewage ponds in Newago County, and Whitefish Point in Chippewa County, all from November through May (OBC 17:3, 1978; JPW 56:155, 1978; 60:60, 91, 1982; 61:65, 1983; 62:83, 1984; MORC). Photos near Port Huron on 20-30 December 1981 (UMMZ).
  • Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides
    • Uncommon transient and winter visitor. Only Michigan specimen was taken at Sault Ste. Marie in 1901, (photo examined by Barrows, 1912, photo since lost). Early seasonal record: one seen on 12 September 1983 at St. Joseph, Berrien County (AB 38:206, 1984). Observed in winter in Straits of Mackinac (Pettingill, 1974). A few have been seen each winter and early spring over past 12 years along the shoreline of southern Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River, and Lake Erie.
  • Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus
    • Vagrant. Adult at Metrobeach, Macomb County, on 31 March 1979 (AB 33:773, 1979; photo in UMMZ). Observed at Gull Lake, Kalamazoo County, on 10 November 1976 (UMMZ), at Loon Lake, Benzie County, on 15 December 1979 (JPW 59:65, 1981), and at Port Huron, St. Clair County, on 24 November 1980 (UMMZ).
  • Glaucous-winged Gull, Larus glaucescens
    • Hypothetical. Description of bird perhaps of this species seen at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 19 December 1970 (Goldeneye 9(1):8, 1970; UMMZ).
  • Glaucous Gull, Larus hyperboreus
    • Uncommon transient and winter visitor. A few observed early each winter in recent years along the shoreline of the Great Lakes. A few records into May (JPW 61:86, 1983). Scarce inland, seen in Kalamazoo County on 1 January 1981 (MAS) and at Higgins Lake, Roscommon County, on 19 December 1981 (AB 36:587, 1982). Reported in spring 1979 (DAS). Reported in suummer at Waugoshance Point, Emmet County, on 18 July 1976 (photo, JPW 55: 95-96, 1977), and St. Joseph, Berrien County, from 14 June through 10 July and on 12 and 17 August 1963 (OBC 2:3, 1963). More frequently seen in Michigan than Iceland Gull.
  • Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus
    • Common transient and winter visitor on all the Great Lakes. Three UMMZ specimens: 111856, Erie Marsh, Monroe County, on 27 February 1943; 153259, North Cape, Monroe County, on 19 March 1963; 143873, Cheboygan, on 30 December 1958. One specimen: MSU 6218, mouth of Huron River, Baraga County, on 15 December 1969. Several (sometimes over 100) each autumn and winter on Lake Erie; less common on the other Great Lakes. Occasional inland: Kellogg Bird Sanctuary, Kalamazoo County, on 9 April 1979 (KNC). Observed north to Keweenaw Bay and Whitefish Point on Lake Superior. Observed in summer in Lake Erie (Kelley, 1966; AB 34:897, 1980) and once at Waugoschance Point, Emmet County (AB 39:915, 1986). A few birds have nested in Ontario, mainly in eastern Lake Ontario but once in Lake Huron (Peck and James, 1983).
  • Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla
    • Uncommon transient, nearly all records in autumn, mainly along the shoreline of the Great Lakes. Regular in autumn at Port Huron, St. Clair County, with as many as 34 seen in area in fall 1980. Irregular; none observed in some years. Seen in spring at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 28 May 1983. One summering bird near South Manitou Island on 30 July 1977 (JPW 55:193, 1977; 61:5, 1983; AB 37:873, 1983).
  • Sabine's Gull, Xema sabini
    • Occasional transient. One UMMZ specimen: 134856, at West Olive, Ottawa County, found dead 1 November 1953. MSU specimen: 2827 at L'Anse Bay, Baraga County, on 26 October 1959. Observed at L'Anse Bay on 23 October 1957 and (three birds, one collected) on 26 October 1959 (JPW 38:23-24, 1960), St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 26 October 1962 and 10 October 1967 (JPW 47:50, 1969), 17 September 1975, and October 1985 (OBC 15:13, 1975; AB 40:116, 1986), in St. Mary's Channel, Sault Ste. Marie, in autumn 1971 (JPW 50:6, 1972), in Lake Huron on 7 October 1970 (AFN 25:63, 1971), at Erie Marsh on 29 November 1974 (Kelley, 1978), at Erie Power Plant and North Cape, Monroe County, on 28-31 October 1976 (JPW 55:9, 1977), and at Port Huron, St. Clair County in October and November in several recent years (JPW 59:10, 1981; AB 37:183, 1983; 39:55, 57, 1985; UMMZ).
  • Ivory Gull, Pagophila eburnea
    • Hypothetical. Sight records reported between Trenton and Grosse Ile, Wayne County, on 12 January 1949 (JPW 27:60, 1949), at St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 15 March 1963 (JPW 47:50, 1969, a doubtful record), at Holland, Allegan County, on 31 December 1973 (JPW 52:134, 1974), and at Rockwood, Wayne County, on 21 December 1974 (JPW 53:18, 1975).
  •  Caspian Tern, Sterna caspia
    • Common transient and summer resident on Great Lakes, much less common inland. Nests on islands in northern Lake Michigan (Ile aux Galets, Hat Island, High Island, Gravelly Island, Little Gull Island) and in Lake Huron and (since 1982) Saginaw Bay. Population estimated at 1900 breeding pairs in 1981 (MNFI), 2150 in 1982, and 850 in 10 colonies in 1983 (JPW 61:13-15, 1983; MNFI).
  •  Common Tern, Sterna hirundo
    • Common transient and local nesting resident on islands in the Great Lakes; uncommonly nest inland. Colonies are known on St. Mary's River, northern Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Saginaw Bay, and Lake Erie. Breeding population in 1982 was 2150 pairs at 27 sites, with nearly 600 nesting pairs in Saginaw Bay, 271 at Pte. Mouille and a smaller number at power plant in Monroe County (Scharf, 1979; MNFI). Most winter recoveries of adults from the Great Lakes are from South America particularly the northwest coast, and of juveniles are from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Migration is mainly along the Atlantic coast. In the Great Lakes most birds breed in a colony other than the one where they were born (Bird-Banding 49:142-156, 1978).
  • Arctic Tern, Sterna paradisaea
    • Hypothetical. Recent sight records, none with good descriptions or photographs: two in spring at Whitefish Point and mouth of the Tahquamenon River, Chippewa County, on 17 and 19 May 1979; one at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 28 May 1984, one at Nayanquing Point, Bay County, on 9 June 1981; one at Pte. are built on floating marsh vegetation and on muskrat houses. Much less numerous as a breeding species in southern Michigan than it was 20 years ago.
  • Black Skimmer, Rynchops niger
    • Hypothetical. Two sighted in Saginaw Bay, 22 August 1981 (JPW 60:29-30, 1982).
  • Dovekie, Alle alle
    • Vagrant. UMMZ specimens: 44274, Detroit River, Wayne County, taken 30 November 1881; 109683, Stuart Lake, near Marshall, Calhoun County, on 14 November 1939.
  • Thick-billed Murre, Uria lomvia
    • Occasional but highly irregular visitor in the last century, not recorded in recent years. Museum specimens were taken along Lake Erie, the Detroit River, and Lake St. Clair, in 1894, 1896, 1907, and 1950, all in years of mass irruptive movements in Quebec and southern Ontario (Barrows, 1912; HCMZ; ROM; UMMZ).
  • Ancient Murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus
    • Vagrant. One record: beachwashed specimen found 4 miles N of Lake Macatawa Channel, Ottawa County, on 7 July 1965, formerly in Hope College (HCMZ 530; Wilson Bull. 78:320, 1966).
  •  Rock Dove, Columba livia
    • Introduced, common permanent resident. Feral populations are widespread and are nearly all associated with human populations.
  • Band-tailed Pigeon, Columba fasciata
    • Vagrant. A bird was seen and photographed near Niles, Berrien County, on 20-30 December 1967 (JPW 47:54-55, 1969).
  •  Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
    • Common transient and common breeding bird especially in southern part of state. Uncommon in winter in Michigan except in the south, where common; flocks of more than 100 have been seen, mainly around farm buildings. It nests as early as February (Wood, 1951; JPW 61:86, 1983). Birds banded near Lansing have been recovered from September through March mainly in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, but throughout the southeastern U. S. (JPW 37:29-33, 1959). Others have been recovered in Texas, Mexico, and California. Birds banded on the same day by the same bander in Michigan have been recovered in winter up to 600 km from each other.
  •  Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius
    • Extinct. Species was abundant in Michigan during the last century, and was exterminated with disturbances of the nesting colonies, logging, clearing of the forests, and hunting. Passenger Pigeons nested in the millions in Michigan. They fed on beech mast, acorns, chestnuts, grains, and a variety of fruits and berries. They were regarded as pests by farmers in Michigan as late as the early 1870's. They were last seen to nest in Michigan in 1888, and the certain record was a bird shot in Wayne County in 1898 (Barrows, 1912). UMMZ has 13 specimens with Michigan localities. Other museum collections have 25 specimens known from Michigan, as far northwest as Ontonagon County (Hahn, 1963). Additional specimens in MSU (4) and Fort St. Joseph Museum, Niles (2 from C. R. Barron collection). Two sets of eggs from Michigan in UMMZ, two others in Fort St. Joseph Museum, Niles, from Barron Lake, Cass County (unlabelled, described in Ballard, 1948). Breeding localities are listed in Wood (1951).
  • Common Ground Dove, Columbina passerina
    • Vagrant. One specimen: UMMZ 210837, this bird was netted and photographed at Long Lake, Alpena, on 5 September 1966 (JPW 44:176, 1966). Another bird (tame, perhaps an escaped cage bird) was observed at Marquette on 29 September and 1 October 1972 (MAS).
  •  Monk Parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus
    • Introduced. Scarce resident, not established as a breeding species in Michigan. Observed in several counties in the Lower Peninsula, mainly in the Detroit area. The first reported Monk Parakeet in the wild in Michigan was on a farm near Woodland, Barry County, in the spring of 1970. Nests were reported near Woodland, Barry County, and near Owosso, Shiawassee County, in 1970, in Eau Claire, Berrien County, in May 1973, and in Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, in 1979 and 1981 (DNR; UMMZ). No successful breeding was observed. The species add sticks to its nests year-round and uses the nests for roosting; the local nests may have been roosting nests. Monk Parakeets are available in pet shops and the birds are released as owners discover how noisy the birds can be. Michigan specimen (CMU 82-1), was taken in a garden near Mt. Pleasant, Isabella County, on 14 August 1974.
  • Carolina Parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis
    • Extinct. Hypothetical. "Paroquets" were observed in the St. Joseph River Valley in 1718, almost certainly in Michigan territory, as the St. Joseph Kankakee Portage was only three miles south of the Michigan-Indiana state line, and Fort St. Joseph (near Niles) was the only settlement in the St. Joseph Valley at the time (Wisconsin Hist. Coll. 16:372, 1902; Baher, 1899). A specimen in C. R. Barron collection in Niles Senior High School has no data but may be a local bird. J. J. Audubon in 1831 wrote that "Parrakeets...could be procured...(at) the mouth of the Manimee Maumee at its junction with Lake Erie" (cited in J. M. Wheaton, Report on the Birds of Ohio, 1882), apparently not a first-hand report report by Audubon. The locality is on the Michigan-Ohio line.
  •  Black-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
    • Common transient and summer resident. Breeds in scrubby old fields and woodlands. Usually seen from May to September. All October specimens examined are birds of the year. A bird banded in September in Michigan was recovered two years later in October in Guatemala. Another bird banded as an adult in early August in Michigan was recovered the next year in early June in Ontario, 710 km from its banding site. Another was recaptured in its banding site two years later. Evidently the adults sometimes move to new breeding areas in different years.
  •  Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus.
    • Common transient and summer resident, less numerous than Black-billed Cuckoo in most of the state, but the more numerous cuckoo in southwestern Michigan. Habitat overlaps that of the other cuckoo. Uncommon in the Upper Peninsula in summer. A nestling banded in southeastern Michigan was recovered within 14 km in the breeding season (July) in the following year.
  • Groove-billed Ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris
    • Occasional nonbreeding visitor. Specimens: UMMZ 134124, found dead in Allegan Township, Allegan County, on 14 November 1951; CMU 79-28 taken at Rogers City, Presque Isle County, on 12 October 1978. Photographed at Berrien Springs, Berrien County, on 3-4 November 1968 (OBC 7:7, 1968). Observed in Ottawa County (photographed at Allendale on 16 October 1976, in UMMZ; JPW 58:121, 1980), at Sarett Nature Center, Berrien County, on 20-24 October 1973 (OBC) and 27 October 1983 (AB 38:206, 1984), and at Parchment, Kalamazoo County, on 8-9 October 1975 (UMMZ). All ani records have been in autumn (JPW 57:218-219, 1979).
  •  Common Barn-Owl, Tyto alba
    • Uncommon permanent resident. Formerly widespread, especially in southern Michigan. Nested north to Tuscola, Genesee, Saginaw, and Isabella counties (Wood, 1951; JPW 33:22, 1955; Cuthbert, 1963; UMMZ). Nearly all have disappeared in recent years. Barn Owls in Michigan eat (Wallace, 1946). Birds observed in Ontonagon County in autumn 1980 (JPW 59:10, 1981), near Linwood, Bay County, on 1 March 1978 (Rose Lake Wildlife Research Center collection), in Wayne County in autumn 1981 (DAS), and in Haynes Township, Alcona County, on 18 May 1983 (JPW 61:87, 1983; UMMZ). Last nested successfully in Berrien County in 1971 (OBC). No more than four nesting pairs have been reported in any year since 1971, mainly in Monroe County. Only one known successful nesting pair in the state from 1980 through 1983, but the pair did not return in 1984 (MNFI). Banding recoveries showed many short (<50km) movements within the state between August and October. Michigan birds were recovered in winter both in Michigan and Ohio and as far as Virginia (1) and Albama (1). Birds banded as young in Ohio have been recovered in the breeding season in Michigan at distances of 18-100 km.
  •  Eastern Screech-Owl, Otus asio
    • Common permanent resident in the south, uncommon in northern Lower Peninsula, no records from Upper Peninsula or from most islands in the Great Lakes. Both rufous- and gray- plumaged birds occur in Michigan, but the gray birds are about four times as numerous (Wilson Bull. 75:183-190, 1963). Banding recoveries show northward movements in late winter and southward movements in late summer. Most (18) of the 32 recoveries were local; 13 were between 6 and 75 km. Two birds banded in Ohio in spring (March and May) were recovered in winter (December) in Michigan.
  •  Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus
    • Common permanent resident throughout the state. Most of the 99 banding recoveries were local. Banding recoveries also show movements between Michigan and Ontario, Quebec, Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Most recoveries of owls banded as nestlings have been within 50 km of their birth site, but have not been in the breeding season. Eggs are laid in February and March; young are in the nest in March and April (Wood, 1951), The birds often use the old nests of hawks and crows.
  • Snowy Owl, Nyctea scandiaca
    • 0Winter visitor along the shoreline of the Great Lakes in southern Michigan, where regular but varying in numbers from year to year; regular visitor in the Upper Peninsula. Irregular inland. Occasional birds in the Lower Peninsula remain into May, in the Upper Peninsula into May and early June (AB 35:942, 1981; 38:914, 1984; 39:303, 1985).
  •  Northern Hawk-Owl, Surnia ulula
    • Occasional winter visitor, most records in the Upper Peninsula. Regular in recent years near Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County. One breeding record for Isle Royale, a young bird able to fly but partly "in the down," on 4 August 1905 (Barrows, 1912).
  • Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia
    • Vagrant. UMMZ specimen 118163 taken near Chassell, Houghton County, on 2 May 1949. Observed 15 miles away at Redridge, Houghton County, on 24 April 1979 (JPW 57:218, 1979), in Kalamazoo County on 26 June 1965 (JPW 57:99, 1979; KNC), and at Oscoda, Iosco County, on 2 April 1978, and one shot in Oakland County in May 1966 (WSU 807; JPW 60:118, 1982).
  •  Barred Owl, Strix varia
    • 0Permanent resident, locally common in both southern and northern Lower Peninsula and common in the Upper Peninsula, in moist coniferous and deciduous woods. Occasional on islands in the Great Lakes, with one record on Isle Royale (Jordan and Shelton, 1982), one on Beaver Island, Charlevoix County (UMMZ), and one on South Manitou Island, Leelanau County (JPW 51:10, 1973). The six banding recoveries available indicate no more than local movements - one was 116 km; the others were less than 60 km.
  •  Great Gray Owl, Strix nebulosa
    • Occasional winter visitor. Observed and banded during owl migration at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County (photo JPW 49:64, 1971), and one photographed near Mackinaw City, Emmet County, on 2 June 1979 (JPW 58:112, 1980). About 20 were seen in the winter of 1983-84 mainly around Whitefish Point, where they remained into May (11 were banded) (AB 38:320,914, 1984). One summer record from Isle Royale, 24 August 1976 (Jordan and Shelton, 1982). Recent observations from Neebish Island, Chippewa County, Bois Blanc Island and Trout Lake, Mackinac County, include recently fledged young on Neebish Island in 1981 (JPW 60:27-28, 156, 1982; 62:108,1984; UMMZ).
  •  Long-eared Owl, Asio otus
    • Uncommon transient and local resident. Breeds locally in southern Michigan, nesting on platforms in dense evergreens (Barrows, 1912; Wood, 1951). Has nested in the Upper Peninsula (ZVT), where it is best known south of L'Anse, Baraga County (UMMZ). Banding recoveries show considerable movements. Of 14 recoveries, one (a bird of the year) was in Mexico, one in Mississippi, one in Virginia, and two in Quebec. Others recovered between Michigan and Ontario, Wisconsin, and Indiana.
  •  Short-eared Owl, Asio flammeus
    • Uncommon transient and irregular local summer resident. Irregularly recorded in extreme southern counties in winter. Local and uncommon in Michigan in all seasons. The only knoown breeding record in 1984 in Michigan was in Chippewa County (MNFI). Two were observed, probably in migration, 6 miles offshore Berrien County over Lake Michigan on 14 October 1973 (Goldeneye 13(1):2, 1974). An apparent migratory invasion was reported in Berrien County in October 1965 (Goldeneye 4(11):3, 1965). It has nested in southern Michigan (Wood, 1951; ZVT; DNR).
  • Boreal Owl, Aegolius funereus
    • Uncommon transient and winter visitor in the Upper Peninsula. Regularly observed and many banded (47 in one spring) in April and May in migration at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County (AB 38:914, 1984). Occasional and irregular in the Lower Peninsula (JPW 56:210, 1978).
  •  Northern Saw-whet Owl, Aegolius acadicus
    • Uncommon transient and seasonal resident. Most individuals in winter in southern Michigan are winter visitors. Numbers are observed in migration in early spring at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County. The winter record number of owl banded in a season is 63 (JPW 62:83, 1984). Nesting records in the Upper Peninsula (Baraga, Iron, Marquette, Luce, and Dickinson counties) and in the Lower Peninsula (Alpena, Crawford, Roscommon, Isabella, Allegan, Oakland, and Clinton counties) (ZVT; JPW 41:110-112, 1963; 42:260, 1964; 60:156, 1982; UMMZ). Summer records on Isle Royale and in Chippewa, Emmet, Cheboygan, Livingston, and Kent counties (JPW 62:108, 1984; ZVT; Pettingill, 1974; UMMZ).
  •  Common Nighthawk, Chordeiles minor
    • Common transient and summer resident. Numerous on the jack-pine plains and other recently burned habitats with bare ground in northern Michigan, also nests on flat tarred or stone-covered rooftops in cities. On University of Michigan campus several pairs nested through the 1950's (Bird-Banding 20:141-148, 1949; UMMZ) but disappeared when reflective paint replaced the tarred surfaces of the rooftops in the 1960's. Hundreds seen in migration along the shoreline of the Great Lakes in early autumn.
  • Chuck-will's-widow, Caprimulgus carolinensis
    • Occasional summer resident. Tape recorded near Spring Brook, Richland Township, Kalamazoo County, on 12 July 1976 (tape in UMMZ). Heard for six years (1976-1982) in Michigan in Kalamazoo County, with four birds in one season, and where first noted in May 1963 (AB 35:942, 1981; JPW 60:127, 1982). Identified at Rose Lake, Clinton County, in August 1972 (McWhirter and Beaver, 1977). Others reported in Van Buren and Monroe counties (MAS) and Shiawassee County (AB 33:774, 1979).
  •  Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus
    • Common transient and summer resident in wooded country. A bird banded as a nestling was recovered in May three years later at a distance of 65 km from its birthplace.
  •  Chimney Swift, Chaetura pelagica
    • Common transient and summer resident. The earliest birds arrive in late April (JPW 62:83, 1984). Nests in tree hollows and in chimneys and outbuildings. Large flocks enter chimneys at dusk. Banding recoveries show that Michigan birds move through the southeastern states, but there are no recoveries from the wintering grounds in South America.
  • White-throated Swift, Aeronautes saxatalis
    • Vagrant. UMMZ 61955, Hillsdale, Hillsdale County, collected after it found its way alive into a laboratory building at Hillsdale College in August, 1926 (Auk 44:565, 1927). One was sighted at Pentwater, Oceana County, between 12-26 July 1969 (UMMZ), and two were reported at Keewenaw County on 31 October 1983 (AB 38:206, 1984).
  •  Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident, perhaps mainly in swampy habitats. Migrants are sometimes seen in large numbers on points on the Great Lakes shoreline (JPW 61:87, 1983).
  • Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus
    • Hypothetical. Sight records in St. Joseph County on 9 October 1974 (UMMZ) and at Niles, Berrien County, on 17 May 1981 (Goldeneye 20(2):4, 1981) and in autumn 1981 (MAS).
  •  Belted Kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon
    • Common transient and summer resident. Feeds in water; nests in holes in steep banks sometimes more than a kilometer from water. Two birds banded as nestlings in Michigan in July were recovered in the next month at distances of 94 and 192 km from their birthsite. Michigan birds have been recovered in migration (or winter?) in Michigan, Wisconsin, Ontario, Iowa, Kansas, and Florida. rivers and lakes in southern Michigan.
  •  Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
    • Common transient and summer resident, most numerous in oak woodlands in the Lower Peninsula. Has nested successfully in the Upper Peninsula in Iron, Marquette, and Keweenaw (Copper Harbor) counties, paired birds observed at Iron Mountain, Iron County, also observed in Garden Peninsula of Delta County (MAS; UMMZ). Numbers observed migrating along Lake Michigan (Goldeneye 12(3):3, 1973). Some overwinter in southern Michigan, more rarely in the Upper Peninsula. Birds apparently are scarce in winter in years of poor acorn crops (AB 36:297, 1982).
  •  Red-bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus
    • 0Local permanent resident, common in the south. Also migratory to some extent; its numbers vary seasonally (Kelley, 1978). Nesting reported throughout southern Michigan north to Muskegon, Oceana, Lake, Roscommon, and Saginaw counties (Wood, 1951; UMMZ). Observed north to Emmet County (Pettingill, 1974). Uncommon and rather local in the Upper Peninsula; recorded in Chippewa and Marquette counties (ZVT; JPW 37:151, 1959; 60:92, 1982; WPBO). Much more numerous now in winter than they were 330 years ago (Kelley, 1966). Birds banded in Michigan have been recovered in winter in Georgia (1) and Louisiana (1).
  •  Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
    • Common transient and fairly common summer resident, most numerous in the north. Uncommon but regular resident in southern Michigan in winter; it visits feeders.
  •  Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens
    • Common permanent resident throughout the state in woods. Regular visitor to bird feeders in winter. Banding recoveries show that most birds remain in the same site in all seasons. Only five of 336 recoveries were at distances greater than 100 km, and only one other was in the range of 25-100 km.
  •  Hairy Woodpecker, Picoides villosus
    • Common permanent resident, less abundant than previous species in the southern areas. Of the 64 reported recoveries of baanded birds, 59 were at the site of banding, with many birds caught in both winter and summer. Six birds moved 22-70 km.
  •  Three-toed Woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus
    • Occasional winter visitor and rare permanent resident in Upper Peninsula. One nesting record in eastern Baraga County in August 1953 (ZVT). Summer records: near Two-hearted River, Luce County, on 25 June 1965, and Hulbert, Chippewa County, on 24 July 1982 (JPW 43:89, 1965; 61:82,1983). No satisfactory records for the Lower Peninsula (JPW 46:135, 1968; not included by Pettingill, 1974).
  •  Black-backed Woodpecker, Picoides arcticus
    • Uncommon winter visitor; uncommon local summer resident in the Upper Peninsula, where it has nested in Luce (Tahquamenon Falls), Chippewa (Hulbert, Paradise), Schoolcraft, Alger, Keweenaw, Iron, and Marquette counties and on Isle Royale. Local permanent resident near Chassell, Houghton County, and observed in summer on Baraga plains, Baraga County. Occasional summer resident in northern Lower Peninsula, has nested in Montmorency, Crawford, and Oscoda counties (JPW 36:182, 1958; 52:148-150, 1974; 60:156, 1982; Jordan and Shelton, 1982; additional records in UMMZ). Winter records throughout the state, but scarce and irregular south of Wexford County.
  •  Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
    • Common transient and summer resident. Uncommon in winter in the southern counties, generally absent in winter in the north. Large numbers are seen in migration along the shoreline of Lake Michigan. Birds banded in Michigan have been recovered in fall migration or in the winter in the southeastern states from Tennessee to Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
  •  Pileated Woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus
    • Uncommon, mainly a permanent resident in the north. Nests in the Upper Peninsula in pine forests. In the Lower Peninsula it nests in virgin pine stands in Hartwick Pines State Park, Crawford County, and Interlochen State Park, Grand Traverse County. It also nests in Ottawa County (JPW 58:121, 1980), in Allegan, Van Buren, and Barry counties (KNC), and at Warren Woods, Berrien County (OBC). First seen in Berrien County in 1972 where it has been regular in Warren Woods since 1976 (Goldeneye 11:6, 1972; OBC). Birds observed in the south in autumn outside of their present breeding area are apparently migrants.
  •  Olive-sided Flycatcher, Contopus borealis
    • Common transient. Regular but uncommon summer resident in northern Michigan south to Crawford and Oscoda counties. Southern records are birds in migration; migrants are observed into early June (observed as late as 13 June in Berrien and St. Clair counties, JPW 49:123, 1971), and August birds are early autumn transients.
  •  Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens
    • Common transient and summer resident throughout the state. Not common in the western Upper Peninsula (JPW 61:103, 1983). A bird banded in late May in Michigan was recaptured two years later on nearly the same date at a distance of 720 km in Quebec.
  •  Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris
    • 0Regular transient; common summer resident in the Upper Peninsula, also nests in bogs in Cheboygan County, and singing males in breeding season in spruce-tamarack-cedar swamp in Crawford County (JPW 45:2-9, 1967; D. Ewert).
  •  Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens
    • Common transient, local summer resident, common in southern third of state in mature deciduous forest. Nesting has been observed north to Oceana, Muskegon, Kalamazoo, Jackson, Livingston and Lapeer counties (Wood, 1951; Univ. Mich. Museum Zoology, Misc. Publ. 125:1-50, 1964; Bird-Banding 37:227-257, 1966).
  •  Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum
    • 0Local summer resident throughout the state; apparently common in northern Michgian, less common than Willow Flycatcher in the south. Summer records in southern Lower Peninsula in Berrien, Cass, Van Buren, Allegan, Muskegon, Kalamazoo, Jackson, Livingston, Oakland, Monroe, Lapeer, Isabella, and Clare counties. Nested in 1920's on same grounds with Willow Flycatcher at Spring Brook, Jackson County, where the distinctive nest types of both Alder Flycatchers and Willow Flycatchers were photographed (Wilson Bull. 40:218-221, 1928). Both species were still there in 1970's (tape recordings in UMMZ). Both nest locally in shrubby swamps north and south of the E. S. George Reserve, Livingston County (photos and tape recordings in UMMZ).
  •  Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii
    • Summer resident, common in the south, local in the north. Tends to occur on drier sites than the Alder Flycatcher, though both occur in shrubby swamps. Single-brooded, and only occasionally parasitized by cowbirds (Wilson Bull. 64:33-38, 1952; 78:31-46, 1966). Spring and summer records in the north from Cheboygan County (nesting) (Pettingill, 1974; UMMZ tape recordings and specimens), at Engadine in Mackinac County (UMMZ), at Seney National Wildlife Refuge in Schoolcraft County, in Delta County (AB 35:827, 1981), and in the Porcupine Mountains in Ontonagon County (UMMZ 31935).
  •  Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
    • Common transient and summer resident, more numerous in the north (JPW 44:150-168, 1966). Generally migrates by the end of September (Wood, 1951), but a late bird was banded at Kalamazoo on 18 November 1982 (KNC).
  •  Eastern Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe
    • Common transient and summer resident in the south, uncommon in the Upper Peninsula. Numbers have decreased in recent years. A few birds remain in late autumn into November and December, feeding on berries and other small fruits. Winter record: one on Grosse Ile, Wayne County, on 13 February 1909 (Wilson Bull. 24:126-129, 1912). Two birds reported as banded nestlings were recovered in the following year at their birthplace in southeastern Michigan.
  • Say's Phoebe, Sayornis saya
    • Vagrant. Photographed at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, in April 1978 (UMMZ). Other sight records: Sturgeon River, Houghton County, on 2 May 1974 (JPW 53:76, 1975), Chassell, Houghton County, in May 1977 (UMMZ), Muskegon, Muskegon County, on 2 May 1975 (JPW 54:93, 1976), and Beaver Island, Charlevoix County, on 27 May 1979--this last a doubtful record of 4 birds (AB 33:774, 1979).
  • Vermilion Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus
    • Hypothetical. Sight records at Mackinac Island on 8 October 1944 (ZVT; UMMZ) and at Fraser, Macomb County, on 12 November 1972 (KNC; UMMZ).
  •  Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus
    • Common transient. Summer resident, common in the south, uncommon in the Upper Peninsula, though increasing in numbers in Schoolcraft and Alger counties in recent years.
  •  Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
    • Occasional transient and summer visitor. UMMZ specimens: 69059, 2 miles SE of Lovells, Crawford County, on 30 June 1932; 110423, North Manitou Island, Leelanau County, on 20 June 1940. MSU specimen: 5576, Shingleton, Alger County, on 28 May 1963. Observed several summers in Kalamazoo County (photos in UMMZ). About 35 observations throughout the state (Wood, 1951; ZVT; JPW 36:211, 1958; 37:26, 1959; 39:56, 1961; 40:58, 1962; 42:213, 1963; 43:167, 1965; 44:51-52, 1966; 45:22, 1967; 46:109, 1968; 57:156, 1979; AB 35:942, 1981; 38:206, 914, 1023, 1984; 39:304, 1985;MAS; UMMZ). Nesting records in Marquette, Barry, and Kalamazoo counties (ZVT; JPW 39:55, 1961; 43:147-148, 1965; 62:83, 1984). A mixed pair of Western and Eastern Kingbirds successfully raised a brood of hybrid young near Kalamazoo in 1964 (JPW 43:148, 1965).
  •  Eastern Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
    • Common transient and summer resident. Kingbirds are common in lower Michigan by mid-May and the north by late May. Nearly all birds leave the state by early September.
  • Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
    • Vagrant far from its range in Florida and the West Indies. Observed in Leavitt Township, Oceana County, on 14-15 October 1984 (AB 39:57, 1985; photo in UMMZ).
  • Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus
    • Occasional transient north of its breeding range. Photographs of bird seen 30 May through 2 June 1962, 5 miles S of Saginaw, Saginaw County (UMMZ). Also observed near Copper Harbor, Keweenaw County (JPW 51:150, 1973), Marquette County (JPW 48:102, 1970), Ontonagon, Ontonagon County, in July 1984 and on 5 May 1985 (JPW 62:108, 1984; AB 39:304, 1985), Alger County (JPW 60:93, 1982), Delta County (UMMZ), Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 31 October 1984 (AB 39:57, 1985), Saginaw County (JPW 41:77, 1963), Monroe County (UMMZ), on Belle Isle in Wayne County (JPW 60:128, 1982), near Ann Arbor in Washtenaw County (17 July 1982) (UMMZ), on Beaver Island, Charlevoix County, in June 1980 (UMMZ), Leelanau County (JPW 41:25, 1962), and Mason County (AB 30:75, 1976).
  • Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Tyrannus savana
    • Vagrant. One was hit by a car near Rumely, Alger County, on 6 October 1983 (UMMZ 206, 495).
  •  Horned Lark, Eremophila alpestris
    • Common transient and summer resident in open fields. Nests by March if snow cover allows. Common in flocks in winter. Some birds may be permanent residents. Seen in all months in the southern counties.
  •  Purple Martin, Progne subis
    • Common transient and summer resident, local throughout state, perhaps more numerous in the south. Fall migration from mid-August to September with roosts and flocks of thousands of birds in the southern counties. Martins winter in South America; a nestling banded at Alpena, Alpena County, was recovered in Bolivia. Migrants have been recovered in Alabama and West Virginia. Birds banded as nestlings and recovered in a later breeding season from late May through July have been found near the birthsite (3 birds) and at distances of 18-345 km (8 birds).
  •  Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
    • Common transient and summer resident. Some birds arrive as early as March. Nests in holes in dead trees and snags, often over water at dams and beaver ponds. The one banded bird that was recovered in winter was in Honduras. About half of the birds banded as nestlings and recovered in a later breeding season (May-August) were found near their birthplace (28). The others were found at distances of 50-640 km from their birthplace (26 birds), with natal dispersals between Michigan and Ontario, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois. Birds banded as nestlings in Michigan have been found breeding in Ontario and Wisconsin (BBL).
  •  Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
    • Common transient and summer resident; local throughout the state. Seen as early as the first week of April. Nests alone or in association with Bank Swallows. Several nest in close proximity where nest sites are available in drain tiles and other man-made structures.
  •  Bank Swallow, Riparia riparia
    • Common summer resident. Nests in colonies in gravel pits, riverbanks, and undisturbed dunes. Banded birds often breed in different colonies, and sometimes different counties, in successive years, and the young usually do not return to breed in their natal colony. Several birds banded as breeding adults were found in later years during the breeding period in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and Ontario. One banded nestling was recovered in another year in June in Ontario. Large migratory flocks are observed along the Great Lakes. Post-breeding recoveries of Michigan birds include El Salvador and Peru.
  •  Cliff Swallow, Hirundo pyrrhonota
    • Uncommon transient and local summer resident. Common and locally numerous in the northern Upper Peninsula. Breeding populations are found at Fort Wilkins State Park in Keweenaw County, on the Library at Michigan Technological University in Houghton in Houghton County, on the sawmill at Alberta in Baraga County, along Pictured Rocks in Alger and Marquette counties, at several locations in Chippewa County, near Wilderness State Park in Emmet County, near Walkerville in Oceana County, in Bowne Township in Kent County, and under bridges near New Buffalo in Berrien County, and smaller colonies occur throughout the state. Often migrates with Barn Swallows. The one recovery of a bird banded as a nestling was found in mid-June in the next year, 62 km from its birthplace on the tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula.
  •  Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica
    • Common transient and summer resident. More widely distributed in the Lower Peninsula than in the Upper Peninsula. Both single nests and colonial nests are found, often in man-made structures. Late record: seen as late as December in Berrien County (AB 38:206, 1984). Recoveries of banded nestlings show many returning to the state to breed, though not necessarily to the natal site. Of 16 banded nestlings that were covered in a later breeding season, 10 were recovered locally, and the others were found at distances ranging from 23 to 135 km from their birth site (6 birds), all in the months of May through July.
  •  Gray Jay, Perisoreus canadensis
    • Uncommon and local permanent resident in the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale. Nesting records: Isle Royale (nest with young on 30 April 1935; Wood, 1951; photos in UMMZ; family groups seen in 1930, UMMZ juveniles grown but many wing feathers in sheath; Wood, 1951), on Baraga Plains, Baraga County (UMMZ), near Northland, Marquette County (nest with eggs laid in last week of March, 1947; ZVT; UMMZ), near Iron River, Iron County (small juvenile attended by two adults on 2 July 1964; notes in UMMZ), Crystal Falls bog, Iron County (nest with eggs on 22 April 1976 (UMMZ)). Juveniles also seen in late May 1977 and in early July 1981 south of Rookery Lake, Iron County. Adults seen regularly 1977-1982 at Cook's Run trout hatching pond and at Basswood and Stebbins Bog, Iron County. Permanent resident near Chassell, Houghton County (UMMZ). Immatures with adults seen in 1980, 1981, and 1983 at Hulbert Bog, Chippewa County (UMMZ; JPW 60:93, 1982; 61:87, 1983), and adult with juveniles seen at Sleeper Lake, Luce County, on 13 July 1962 (JPW 41:77, 1963). Infrequent in the northern Lower Peninsula, mainly in winter (Wood, 1951). One seen near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, in December 1975 (UMMZ). Two banding recoveries of birds were local. Another showed a movement from northern Maine (18 August 1964) to southeastern Michigan (October 1967).
  •  Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata
    • Common permanent resident and abundant migrant. Occurs in loose flocks of hundreds and thousands in migration along shorelines of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron and in large numbers at Whitefish Point, Lake Superior. "Banding records indicate that at least part of the local winter population is different from the summer population; winter birds may be replaced by returning migrants, some of which constitute the summer population" (records of W. P. Nickell, in Kelley, 1978). Most recoveries of Blue Jays banded as nestlings or summer juveniles in Michigan have been in the same locality where they were born. Most birds in southern Michigan appear to be permanent residents based on the banding recovery data. Some jays, especially from northern counties, winter in the neighboring states, and a few birds born or banded as adults in Michigan have been recovered in winter in the southern states (Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Mississippi). Recoveries suggest that jays fly along the waterways to the Mississippi River. Many birds banded during the spring migration have been found wintering in Ontario and Quebec. The pattern of recoveries suggests that some northern Blue Jays migrate in their first year but are local residents in their later years. All banded nestlings that were recovered in a later breeding season were found near their birthplace. Six were local and three were between 10 to 20 km from their birthsite.
  • Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana
    • Hypothetical. Sight records at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 16 December 1978 (AB 33:284, 1979) and at Ocqueec, Presque Isle County, on 8 March 1982 (MORC).
  • Black-billed Magpie, Pica pica
    • Occasional visitor. UMMZ specimens: 150871 taken near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, on 6 December 1955 (adult male, head in heavy molt); and 199b, taken in "southern Michigan about 1837-1838" by A. Sager of the Michigan Biological Survey. Several observations from western Upper Peninsula in 1880's (Barrows, 1912). Observed on Isle Royale in October 1976 (Jordan and Shelton, 1982), near Munising, Alger County, on 3 October 1968 (JPW 46:13, 1968), Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 28 April 1972 (JPW 50:81, 1972), and Germfask, Schoolcraft County, on 28 January-2 February 1975 (notes in UMMZ). Most records are in the Upper Peninsula. Noted at Alpena, Alpena County, on 21 October 1982, at Allendale, Ottawa County, on 21 November 1982, at Kalamazoo on 30 November 1982, and in Berrien County at Sarett Nature Center in October 1973 (OBC 12:5, 1973) and at Grand Mere on 26 June 1977 (OBC 12:5, 1973; 16:4, 1977; AB 37:184, 1983).
  •  American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
    • Common transient and permanent resident. Numerous in winter in southern Michigan, occasionally wintering north into the Upper Peninsula. Retiring species in wooded habitats. Occasionally nests in trees in towns. The 49 recoveries of banded crows show some present locally in both winter and summer and others moving to Ohio (1), Indiana (1), and Illinois (3) in the cold season. One was banded in Maine as an adult in July and was found in Michigan two years later in October. Three birds banded as nestlings in southern Michigan were recovered in a later year in the breeding season. Two were found in the same area and the other was found 32 km away.
  •  Common Raven, Corvus corax
    • 0Local common permanent resident on Isle Royale and in the Upper Peninsula. In recent years observed in summer in the northern Lower Peninsula (Emmet, Cheboygan, Alpena, Wexford, Missaukee, Kalkaska, and Crawford counties). Lower Peninsula populations were exterminated with logging in the last century. Recent nesting in the Lower Peninsula in Alpena County in 1977 and 1983 (JPW 56:45, 1978; 61:87, 1983), Grand Traverse County in 1984 (JPW 62:83, 1984), and Wexford County in 1981 and 1985. Nested on High Island, Charlevoix County, in 1980 (F. Cuthbert). In the winter they are often seen on town dumps and scavenging along roadsides in the Upper Peninsula. Common in winter as far south as Harrison, Clair County. Occasional transient and winter visitor in southern Lower Peninsula, with a recent sighting from Muskegon State Park on 21 October 1983 (JPW 62:30, 1984), and older specimens from Saginaw Bay no date) and from Van Buren, Berrien (all UMMZ), and Ottawa (HCMZ) counties. Banded ravens have been recovered up to 250 km from their banding site. Three of the 26 recoveries were in Wisconsin, the others were in Michigan. The one recovery of a local young bird in a later year during the breeding season moved 100 km.
  •  Black-capped Chickadee, Parus atricapillus
    • Common permanent resident. Also in part a migrant, as shown by observations of birds moving along Lake Michigan in Berrien County (OBC), and Lake Superior at Whitefish Point (JPW 62:83, 1984), and by banding records (JPW 51:111-115, 1973; BBL). Most recoveries of chickadees banded in Michigan have been in the site where banded (1011 of 1039 recoveries), and the average distance moved was 6.7 km. Of more than 1000 birds, 21 were found at distances greater than 100 km. Only five birds moved between states: two in Wisconsin, one in Ontario, one in New York, and one in Massachusetts.
  • Carolina Chickadee, Parus carolinensis
    • Vagrant. One record: UMMZ 49667, Oakwood, Ecorse Township, Wayne County, immature male collected 17 July 1899. No recent observations. Breeds in Indiana and Ohio.
  •  Boreal Chickadee, Parus hudsonicus
    • Uncommon winter visitor and local resident in the Upper Peninsula. Irregular winter visitor in the Lower Peninsula. Nesting records in Chippewa, Baraga, Luce, and Schoolcraft counties, in the period 1954-1956 (JPW 32:107-109, 1954; JPW 34:109, 1956; ZVT). Recent nests in Gogebic (1974), Baraga (1974), Alger (1975), and Chippewa (1975) counties, and seen during early summer at Cook's Run and Basswood, Iron County (UMMZ). Migrants observed in spring in May at Whitefish Point Bird Observatory, Chippewa County.
  •  Tufted Titmouse, Parus bicolor
    • Common permanent resident throughout most of the Lower Peninsula. Has spread northward across the lower half of the state during this century; now common north to Interlochen and Traverse City, Grand Traverse County, and nested in Benzie County in 1981. A few seen each winter inland north as far as Higgins and Houghton Lakes, Roscommon County; regular in Lake County, regular but local resident along Chippewa River in Isabella County (JPW 56:8, 1978; CMU records). Range in western Lower Peninsula extends north along Lake Michigan as far as Grand Traverse County, and one seen at Northport, Leelanau County, in 1983 (JPW 62:56, 1984). Reported in the Upper Peninsula at Marquette, Marquette County, and at White Pine, Ontonagon County (AB 34:899, 1980; 38:206, 1984). The range expansion has accompanied the widespread use of winter feeders. Of the 276 recoveries of banded birds, 260 were in the banding site, and only 4 were at distances greater than 100 km. The longest distance moved was 203 km.
  •  Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis
    • Common winter visitor in the south, where it occurs regularly but in varying numbers as an irruptive migrant. Summer resident in northern Michigan, regular nesting in Schoolcraft and Alger counties. Widespread but sparse breeding resident in the Lower Peninsula where it has nested as far south as Oakland and Wexford counties (ZVT; Kelley, 1978), Ingham County (JPW 47:128, 1969; 48:111, 1970), Kalamazoo County (JPW 56:205, 1978; KNC), and possibly Berrien County (Goldeneye 9(5):3, 1970), apparently by birds that remain after a winter invasion. Other summer records in recent years from Allegan and Berrien counties and from Grosse Ile, Wayne County.
  •  White-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
    • Common resident, more numerous in the south, where it nests in deciduous woods and also in trees in many towns. It nests northward into the Upper Peninsula to Marquette County (JPW 49:119, 1971). Of 333 banding recoveries, 313 were found in the original banding site, and only 4 were of distances greater than 100 km. The two longest distances were apparently seasonal migrations: two birds banded in Illinois in winter moved north to Michigan in spring (December-April, 334 km, and March-May, 546 km).
  •  Brown Creeper, Certhia americana
    • Fairly common as transient in spring and autumn, breeds locally in small numbers throughout, more common in the Upper Peninsula. Two recent nesting records in southeastern Michigan (JPW 61:6, 1983). Uncommon winter resident. Of six banding recoveries of Michigan birds, two involve October records within the month of capture in the same area, two involve local over wintering recoveries in southeastern Michigan (October 1959-February 1960 and November 1959-March 1960), and two involve seasonal movements (440 km in 10 days in October, Michigan to Wisconsin, and 934 km October to April, Michigan to Tennesee).
  • Rock Wren, Salpinctes obsoletus
    • Vagrant. UMMZ 50838 taken in Wayne County, 10 October 1910. Observed near the Detroit railway station in 1937 or 1938 (Wilson Bull. 54:52, 1942), at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 8-10 May 1979 (AB 33:774, 1979), and at Copper Harbor, Keweenaw County, on 29 October 1979 (AB 34:165, 1980).
  •  Carolina Wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus
    • Local resident in the south, disappearing locally for a few years following cold winters (as in the late 1970's). Observed mainly in the southern three tiers of counties (Wood, 1951). It has nested as far north as Muskegon County (UMMZ). A pair summered in the northern Lower Peninsula near Harrison, Clare County, in 1976. In some years one or two have wintered well into the northern Lower Peninsula (Alpena, Alpena County, and Traverse City, Grand Traverse County). No more than four reported in Michigan in summer any year since 1980. Five records in Winter of 1983-1984 (JPW 62:56, 1984; 62:108, 1985). One of two banding recoveries reported was local, the other was a movement of 83 km (April to December) (BBL).
  •  Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii
    • Formerly occasional, now scarce to rare, a summer resident and less commonly a permanent resident in southern part of state. Not currently known to breed in Michigan. Only two successful nestings are known, in Grand Rapids, Kent County (1894), and in Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County (1922) (Barrows, 1912; Wood, 1951). Several records in 1950's, when it was regular in Monroe County. One or two vagrants observed each season in migration. Two Common on Isle Royale. Has also bred in Lapeer and Kent counties, and observed in some summers in Muskegon, Berrien, St. Clair, and Oakland counties. Occasional in winter, uncommon but regular in Berrien County (OBC).
  •  Sedge Wren, Cistothorus platensis
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident. Rarely seen in winter (one record, Wood, 1951). Nests in wet sedges and grassy marshes (Auk 52:361-368, 1935). Numerous around Munuscong Bay, Chippewa County, and Saginaw Bay, Bay County. Rather local in southern Michigan; it was more common in 1900-1920 when it nested in inland marsh meadows near Waterloo, Jackson County. The former wet grassy meadows are no longer cut for hay and the habitat is nearly gone in Michigan (W. Koelz).
  •  Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris
    • Common transient and local summer resident, occasional into December (observed several years in marshes in southeastern Michigan in Monroe, Macomb, and St. Clair counties, also winter records in Berrien, Kalamazoo, and St. Clair counties). Nests in cattail marshes from Saginaw Bay southward, also in the northern Lower Peninsula and locally in the Upper Peninsula. Many nest in marshes of the St. Mary's River, Chippewa County. The species appears to have greatly decreased in numbers in the last 20 years in southern Michigan.
  •  Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa
    • Common transient. Summer resident in the north, occasionally south to Oscoda County (JPW 33:24, 1955), locally at Kellogg Forest, Kalamazoo County, in early 1970's (KNC), one record 12 June 1976 in Berrien County (OBC 15:5, 1976). Nesting known for Isle Royale, Porcupine Mountains (Ontonagon County), Seney Township (Schoolcraft County), Burt Township (Alger County), McMillan and Sleeper Lake (Luce County), Whitefish Point (Chippewa County), Wilderness State Park (Emmet County), Reese's Bog (Cheboygan County), and near Alpena (Alpena County) (Wood, 1951; JPW 34:110, 1956; Nelson, 1956; Pettingill, 1974; UMMZ). Irregular, sometimes locally common in winter, more often seen in winter than the Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Birds banded in Michigan in October have been recovered in Mississippi (January) and Arkansas (March), and a bird banded in southern Ontario in October was recovered in Michigan in October the following year (BBL).
  •  Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula
    • Common transient, common summer resident in the Upper Peninsula (mainly in Chippewa, Mackinac, Schoolcraft, Luce, Alger, and Iron counties), uncommon in western Upper Peninsula, on Isle Royale, and in northernmost Lower Peninsula in Emmet and Cheboygan counties. Nesting records in Alger County, on Sugar Island (Chippewa County), and in Wilderness State Park (Emmet County) (Wood, 1951; Pettingill, 1974), also adults feeding fledged young on 3 June 1981 at Stebbins Bog (Iron County) (UMMZ). Occasionally summer in southern Michigan. A pair remained in Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, until 23 June 1976 and nesting was suspected (UMMZ), and a pair carrying food was reported in Berrien County on 12 June 1976 (AB 30:960, 1976; OBC). Occasional in winter. A bird banded in Michigan in October was recovered in the following month in Texas, 1853 km distant (BBC).
  •  Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea
    • Uncommon transient and local summer resident throughout Lower Peninsula, uncommon in the Upper Peninsula. Regular transient at Whitefish Point, where observed as early as 24 April and as late as 25 November. Nesting known north to Muskegon, Oceana, Isabella, Clare, Iosco, and Alpena counties, observed near Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, occasionally in summer, and occasionally nests and in eastern Upper Peninsula (JPW 49:120, 1971; 50:3, 1972; 56:206, 1978; 58:106, 1980; UMMZ).
  • Northern Wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe
    • Vagrant. Observed at White Pine, Ontonagon County, on on 12-15 October 1981 (JPW 60:38, 1982; photo at KNC), at McMillan, Luce County, on 7-9 October 1943, and at St. Ignace, Mackinac County, on 19 September 1980 (Auk 62:631-632, 1945; JPW 59:66, 1980; notes in UMMZ). Several have been observed and a few collected in Ontario (James, et al., 1976) and one (USNM 135063) was perhaps the specimen that A. B. Covert reported for Michigan (Nidologist 1894:42-43; ZVT; Canad. Field Nat. 80:184, 1966; UMMZ).
  •  Eastern Bluebird, Sialia sialis
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident throughout state; apparently only partly migratory, occasional in winter. Bluebirds banded in Michigan have been recovered in winter in Tennessee, Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida as well as in Michigan (JPW 49:40, 1971; Adams, 1982; BBL). Local resident populations may die off in severe winters (JPW 57:8-11, 1978). Has decreased in numbers throughout in last 20 years, due to loss of habitat, harsh winters, and interference and competition for nest holes by Common Starling. Two of 15 birds banded are nestlings or fledged young were recovered in a later breeding season in their natal area. The other 13 were recovered in a later breeding season at distances of 23 to 425 km from their natal area (BBL).
  • Mountain Bluebird, Sialia currucoides
    • Hypothetical. Sight records from Eau Claire, Berrien County, in June 1979, and St. Joseph, Berrien County, on 22 October 1980 (OBC; UMMZ). One was reported with a good description on the Kingston Plains, Alger County, on 6 November 1983 (MAS; UMMZ; AB 38:206, 1984).
  • Townsend's Solitaire, Myadestes townsendi
    • Occasional transient and winter visitor. One specimen: UMMZ 151924, Waterloo Township, Jackson County, on 4 January 1944. Fourteen observations through 1985, including four in the Upper Peninsula, range from October to April (JPW 58:93-94, 1980; 60:92, 1982; 62:30, 1984; MAS; UMMZ).
  •  Veery, Catharus fuscescens
    • Common transient and locally common summer resident throughout Michigan. A bird banded in Michigan was recovered in winter in Venezuelaa, but no actual date was recorded (BBL). Migrants have been recovered in Missouri and Louisiana.
  • Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus minimus
    • Common transient in spring and autumn. Breeds well N and E of Lake Superior, but two summer observations in the Upper Peninsula in the breeding season: one between Cedarville and Hessel, Mackinac County, on 14 June 1977, and a pair seen near Hulbert, Chippewa County (JPW 61:82, 1983; UMMZ).
  •  Swainson's Thrush, Catharus ustulatus
    • Common transient. Common summer resident on Isle Royale and in the Upper Peninsula. Also in northern Lower Peninsula in Wilderness State Park and Cross Village forest, Emmet County, and near Duncan Bay, Grass Bay, and Douglas Lake in Cheboygan County. Local but regular summer resident in hemlock-balsam fir-sugar maple forest behind dunes on west side of Beaver Island, Charlevoix County (CMU). Not known except as transient elsewhere in the Lower Peninsula, where nesting records were noted in last century (Barrows, 1912; Wood, 1951; Nelson, 1956; Pettingill, 1974). Reported as late as December (Kelley, 1978), though most late reports probably refer to Hermit Thrush. Banding recoveries have been reported from Costa Rica (April), Panama (April), and Colombia (November)(BBL).
  •  Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus
    • Common transient; common summer resident in northern two- thirds of state, especially in jack-pine plains. It has nested south to Port Huron Game Area, St. Clair County, and to Kalamazoo County (JPW 51:153, 1973; Kelley, 1978). Breeds in coniferous woods, mixed woods, sparsely wooded plains, and bogs. Occasional in winter.
  •  Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina
    • Common summer resident in deciduous insula in Keewenaw County, at Sault Ste. Marie (Chippewa County) and Manistique (Schoolcraft County) (JPW 62:30, 1984; MAS; UMMZ). The species has been seen nearly every year within last 16 years in the Lower Peninsula at several localities, including Harbor Springs (Emmet County), Van Buren County (throughout the winter), Ludington State Park (Mason County), Benzie County, at Gull Lake (Kalamazoo County), Pontiac and Rochester (Oakland County), and Detroit (Wayne County) (DAS; MAS; OBC; UMMZ; Kelley, 1978; JPW 60:92, 1982; 61:66, 1983).
  •  Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
    • Common summer resident; uncommon in jack-pine plains. Occasional in winter. Occurs mainly in shrubby habitats. Catbird nests are usually well concealed from above and are situated just under the leaf canopy of a shrub or small tree. Clutch size 3-4 (5), incubation period 12-15 days, nestling period 9-14 days. Only one catbird banded as a nestling in Michigan has been recovered in a later breeding season (BBL). It returned to the area (within 2 miles) where it had been banded (Amer. Midl. Natl. 73:433-478, 1965), and was the only one of more than 1000 nestling Catbirds to do so. Catbirds banded in Michigan have been recovered in the neighboring states. Two banded in Michigan were recovered in Belize and Honduras in winter and in spring migration season (BBL).
  •  Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
    • Uncommon local resident. Some individuals may be seasonal migrants. Has increased its range northward through Michigan during this century. Barrows (1912) knew it as "a rare summer visitor to southern Michigan, having been reported perhaps a dozen times in the last twenty years." Largest population in 1970's in western and northern Berrien County. Local populations occur in northern Lower Michigan in Emmet, Cheboygan, Presque Isle, Grand Traverse, and Benzie counties, in southwestern Michigan in Allegan, Ottawa, Kent, Barry, Kalamazoo, and Calhoun counties, and in southeastern Michigan in Wayne, Oakland, Washtenaw, Macomb and Monroe counties. Uncommon in the Upper Peninsula (Ontonagon, Iron, Houghton, Baraga, Marquette, Delta, and Chippewa counties) and has nested near Harvey in Marquette County (JPW 62:53, 1984), one record for Isle Royale (JPW 46:138, 1968; Jordan and Shelton, 1982; UMMZ). Casual transient on jack-pine plains. Ann Arbor records scarce but year-round in recent years. Comes to feeders in winter, and feeders are apparently responsible for the northward expansion of the mockingbirds.
  •  Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum
    • Common transient. Summer resident, common in the Lower Peninsula, more local and less common in the Upper Peninsula. Occasional in winter, comes to feeders. Winter (November-March) records of Michigan birds are known from Florida (1), Georgia (4), Alabama (2), Louisiana (1), Mississippi (1), Arkansas (1), North Carolina (1), and Pennsylvania (1)(BBL). Of 17 banded juveniles that were recovered in a later breeding season (April to August), 10 were local, two were recovered 10-40 km from their birth site, and four were recovered 80-450 km from their birth site.
  • White Wagtail, Motacilla alba
    • Vagrant. Sight record at Muskegon sewage ponds on 14-24 April 1985 (AB 39:304, 1985; photos in UMMZ).
  • Water Pipit, Anthus spinoletta
    • Transient, sometimes common, most often in autumn. One summer report: Otsego Lake, Otsego County, on 18 July 1962 (JPW 41:91, 1963). Occasionally observed into December and January (AB 37:305, 1983; 38:320, 1984). Hundreds are sometimes seen in migration at Whitefish Point in spring (AB 38:914, 1984).
  • Sprague's Pipit, Anthus spragueii
    • Vagrant. One UMMZ specimen: 84587 taken near Lovells, Crawford County, on 26 June 1935. One was observed in Oakland County on 21 May 1960 (Kelley, 1978), one seen at Muskegon on 12 May 1979, and one east of Saugatuck, Allegan County, on 10 May 1983 (AB 33:774, 1979; 37:873, 1983).
  • Bohemian Waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus
    • Irregular winter visitor, occurring every year in the Upper Peninsula but in varying numbers on Christmas Bird Counts. Irregular and scarce in the Lower Peninsula. They are usually seen in small numbers in winter flocks of Cedar Waxwings.
  •  Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum
    • Common transient and summer resident. Nests commonly in late July and August. A late nest at Saline, Washtenaw County, had nestlings until 26 September 1979 (UMMZ). Large numbers observed in diurnal migration along the shoreline of Lake Michigan in Berrien County. Common but local in winter in the south, where it occurs in all seasons. The species is nomadic and its numbers vary from year to year especially in winter. Birds banded as nestlings or fledged young in Michigan have been recovered in a subsequent breeding season (June to August) in Michigan (4), Ontario (1), Pennsylvania (1), and Maryland (1). Only one was recovered at its natal site. The other eight were at distances of 75-831 km. Others banded in Michigan have been recovered throughout eastern North America to Texas, Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras (BBL).
  • Northern Shrike, Lanius excubitor
    • Winter visitor, uncommon but regular in the Upper Peninsula, occasional and irregular in the south, though regular in Berrien County. Reported from 41 counties in the winter of 1981-1982 and 36 counties in 1983-1984 (JPW 60:92, 1982; 62:57, 1984). Most Michigan specimens are in immature plumage.
  •  Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus
    • Transient and summer resident in most of state, permanent resident in southernmost counties. Formerly common but now nearly extinct as a breeding species in Michigan as elsewhere in northeastern North America. It is now unusual to see one in any season in Michigan. No more than one or two nesting pairs have been found in Michigan in a recent year (MNFI). Breeding records in recent years in Allegan State Game Area, Ottawa County, and in Moorland township, Muskegon County (JPW 61:103, 1984). None observed in summer in 1984 (AB 38:1023, 1984). Two banding recoveries: one banded in June was recovered in September in Alabama at a distance of 1370 km, and a juvenile in 1932 was recovered at its natal area on 30 April in 1933 (BBL).
  •  European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
    • Introduced. Common transient, especially in agricultural areas. Common permanent resident with wintering birds observed in all areas, also partially migratory especially in the north. Abundant as both resident and seasonal migrant in the south. Starlings are the most abundant bird in Michigan in the winter (Christmas Bird Counts). Starlings have been recorded on more than 50 occasions more than 1000 km from their Michigan site, throughout eastern North America. First records in 1924, widespread in state by 1931 (Wood, 1951). Young birds, both nestlings and juveniles, banded in Michigan, were recovered in a subsequent breeding season (April-August) on 24 occasions. Natal dispersers include 18 at distances of 10-100 km and 26 at greater distances, one at nearly 600 km.
  •  White-eyed Vireo, Vireo griseus
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident in southernmost Michigan. Local in summer in southwestern Michigan in Berrien County (Grand Mere, Spring Creek W of Three Oaks, Galien River) and Cass County (McKinzie Creek NE of Niles), also seen in Hillsdale County. Observed in recent years in southeastern Michigan in Livingston, Jackson, Washtenaw, St. Clair, Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne counties. Rare further north; one netted and photographed on North Manitou Island, Leelanau County, on 11 May 1979 (JPW 58:9, 1980), and one record for the Upper Peninsula (Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, 10-11 May 1979) (JPW 57:206, 1979). One old nesting record, no details (Barrows, 1912). Observed nesting in Kalamazoo County in 1960 and 1966 (JPW 39:55, 1961; KNC), in Jackson County in 1960 and 1982 (JPW 39:55, 1961; UMMZ), in Port Huron Game Area, St. Clair County, in 1979 and 1982 and in Washtenaw County, at Metrobeach, Macomb County, and at Pte. Mouillee, Monroe County, in 1982 (JPW 60:157, 1982; 61:6, 1983; AB 36:980, 1982).
  •  Bell's Vireo, Vireo bellii
    • Occasional transient and summer resident. UMMZ specimens: 53628 taken at Warren Dunes, Berrien County, on 22 May 1920; 214112 taken near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, on 27 May 1968. A specimen taken at Detroit on 26 May 1885 is now in MCZ (ZVT). Observed at Houghton, Houghton County, on 17 May 1973 (Inland Bird-Banding News 46:68, 1974), at Metropark, Macomb County, on 6-20 May 1982 (JPW 60:129, 1982), in Kalamazoo County in 3-4 years during May (KNC), and in Berrien County at Warren Woods on 14 May 1966 and at St. Joseph and at Three Oaks in May 1978 (Goldeneye 17(6):3, 1978; OBC). One or more birds observed at Jericho, near Stevensville, Berrien County, 1977-1983 (OBC; tape recording in UMMZ); where it has nested successfully (young fed by adults) (OBC 19:5, 1980).
  •  Solitary Vireo, Vireo solitarius
    • Uncommon transient. Summer resident nesting in the Upper Peninsula and in northern Lower Peninsula (Emmet, Cheboygan, Crawford, and Iosco counties). Summers south to Allegan, Berrien, and Kalamazoo counties (JPW 53:158-159, 1975). Nesting observed in Muskegon State Park, Muskegon County (UMMZ), in Kalamazoo County (JPW 51:153, 1973; 52:186, 1974), in Port Huron Game Area, St. Clair County, (JPW 61:7, 1983), and at Island Lake Recreation Area in Livingston County (JPW 62:109, 1984). An adult banded on 2 August 1973 was recovered four years later in Honduras in October (BBL).
  •  Yellow-throated Vireo, Vireo flavifrons
    • Uncommon transient. Summer resident, locally common in the south, uncommon in northern Lower Peninsula, and occasional on Isle Royale and in the Upper Peninsula (AB 35:827, 1981; 39:304, 1985; JPW 49:120, 1971; 51:153, 1973; 60:92, 1982; Jordan and Shelton, 1982). A bird banded on 27 August 1969 was recovered two years later in Costa Rica in November (BBL).
  •  Warbling Vireo, Vireo gilvus
    • Common transient and summer resident. Most numerous in the Lower Peninsula but occurs in the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale.
  •  Philadelphia Vireo, Vireo philadelphicus
    • Uncommon transient and a rather scarce summer resident. Breeding records: one mile W Grayling, Crawford County, in July 1950 (ZVT), Thumb Lake, Charlevoix County, on 8 July 1966 (JPW 44:170, 1966; notes in UMMZ), Grand Sable Falls, Alger County, on 20 July 1970 (JPW 48:85, 1970; UMBS 2249); Ontonagon County in summer 1983 (JPW 61:103, 1984). Immature, grown bird was collected at Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, on 21 August 1942 (UMMZ 111677) was perhaps an early fall migrant. Birds also summer and may nest near Interlochen, Grand Traverse County (JPW 55:195, 1977).
  •  Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus
    • Common transient and summer resident in deciduous woods throughout state.
  •  Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora pinus
    • Locally common summer resident as far north as Midland County. Vagrants observed north to Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, and to Ontonagon County in the Upper Peninsula (AB 37:874, 1983). Uncommon in extreme southern Michigan 100 years ago (Barrows, 1912). Now uncommon but regular as far north as Midland and Isabella counties, where only one earlier observation through 1961 (Cuthbert, 1963; JPW 59:97, 1981). Observed north to Newaygo and Montmorency counties by 1982 (OBC). Increasing in numbers and northern range in recent years (JPW 36:37-73, 1958; Auk 97:1-18, 1980), perhaps at expense of Golden-winged Warbler. A bird banded at Kalaamazoo on 9 August 1982 was recovered on 6 April 1984 in southern Belize (J. Field Orn. 56:424-425, 1985).
  •  Golden-winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
    • Common transient. Formerly common in southernmost Michigan up until about 1920 (Barrows, 1912; Wood, 1951). Uncommon to occasional as a breeding resident in summer in southern three tiers of counties, locally common in northern Lower Peninsula, and an uncommon summer resident on South Manitou Island, Leelanau County (JPW 51:13, 1973). Uncommon in the Upper Peninsula, local in Iron and Ontonagon counties, one record for Isle Royale. Eight pairs were noted in 12 km2 in Livingston County in 1985. The population appears to be about as numerous as it was in southeastern Michigan in 1970 (see Auk 97:1-18, 1980). Hybrids of Vermivora pinus x V. chrysoptera (including "Brewster's" and "Lawrence's" warblers) are observed throughout the zone of overlap in southern Michigan. Intermediate specimens from Michigan in UMMZ include 15 adults taken in the breeding season. Intermediates are scarcer than either parental species in all localities (Evolution 26:282-293, 1972).
  •  Tennessee Warbler, Vermivora peregrina
    • Common transient, local summer resident in the north. Breeds locally in the Upper Peninsula, with nests found 12 miles N of Seney, Schoolcraft County, in June 1956 and other nests in several years through 1982 (JPW 35:97-98, 1957; UMMZ) and near Hulbert, Chippewa County, with nests in June and July (JPW 57:25-26, 1979; UMMZ). Two birds banded in migration in Michigan have been recovered in migration in the next year in New York and North Dakota.
  • Orange-crowned Warbler, Vermivora celata
    • Uncommon transient. Occasional in late autumn and winter in southeastern Michigan (Kelley, 1978; DAS).
  •  Nashville Warbler, Vermivora ruficapilla
    • Common transient, common summer resident in the north, particularly in spruce-tamarack bogs, also in leatherleaf bogs in Sanilac County. Has nested though uncommon in several localities in southern Michigan, south to Kalamazoo and Jackson counties (Wood, 1951; JPW 43:169, 1965; 57:102, 1979). Occasional into late December (Kelley, 1978). Birds banded in migration in Michigan have been recovered in Ohio on the same date the following year, in Missouri 774 km distant (9 October 1961, recovered 18 October 1961), and in June two years later in Quebec, a distance of 1300 km (29 August 1972 to 4 June 1974) (BBL).
  •  Northern Parula, Parula americana
    • Common transient, uncommon summer resident. More numerous near the shoreline of the Great Lakes, where usnea lichens are abundant and used as nesting sites. Nests have been found in Iron, Luce, Schoolcraft, Alger, Emmet, and Cheboygan counties. Late autumn record in Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, on 25 November 1969 (ZVT; Pettingill, 1974; UMMZ).
  •  Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia
    • Common transient and summer resident. Nests in willows and shrubby edge habitat. Observed as early as 11 April in Berrien County (OBC) and as late as 25 November in southern Monroe County (JPW 57:20, 1979). No nestlings have been recovered in a breeding season in a later year. The only long-distance recovery reported was a bird controlled in Louisiana on 20 August 1969 (BBL).
  •  Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica
    • Common transient, local summer resident throughout most of Michigan, breeding south to Livingston, Jackson, and Berrien counties. Occurs in forest edges and forest clearings. Associated with moose browsing, beaver cutting, and windfalls on Isle Royale (Jordan and Shelton, 1982), where it is perhaps the most numerous summer warbler.
  •  Magnolia Warbler, Dendroica magnolia
    • Common transient. Common summer resident on Isle Royale and throughout Upper Peninsula, much more local in northern Lower Peninsula. Recent nests in Chippewa, Luce, Schoolcraft, Alger, Baraga, and Emmet counties, where it nests in cedar, spruce, and balsam woods and forests. Regular in summer in Benzie, Crawford, and Roscommon counties, and has occurred in summer in St. Clair, Macomb, and Kalamazoo counties (Wood, 1951; Kelley, et al., 1963; Kelley, 1978; KNC). Has also nested at Port Huron Game Area, Sanilac County, and along the South Branch of the Galien River near New Buffalo in Berrien County, where adults were seen feeding young (JPW 60:157, 1982; OBC 14:5, 1975; W. Booth). A bird banded in Michigan on 29 September 1972 was recovered eight days later in Louisiana, a distance o 1611 km.
  •  Cape May Warbler, Dendroica tigrina
    • Common transient, local summer resident in northern half of state. Good numbers noted in spruce bogs and jack-pine forests of Chippewa and Luce counties (JPW 56:94-95, 1978) and around Camp Filbert Roth, Cook's Run, Stebbins Bog, and Basswood in Iron County (UMMZ). Recorded nesting in Cheboygan County (Reese's Bog, Burt Lake) (JPW 49:125-126, 1971) and in Crawford County (hemlock grove in Hartwick Pines State Forest, also at Lovells) in the Lower Peninsula (UMMZ; JPW 61:103, 1983), also in Iron, Schoolcraft, Alger, and Chippewa counties in the Upper Peninsula, where spruce budworm outbreaks are noted (AB 37:992, 1983; UMMZ). Winter records in Berrien, Kalamazoo, Genesee, and St. Clair counties (JPW 62:57, 1984; AB 39:411, 1985; OBC; KNC).
  •  Black-throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica caerulescens
    • Common transient and fairly common summer resident throughout the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale, south less commonly along Lake Michigan as far as Muskegon. Breeding territories on Isle Royale are usually in sugar maple-yellow birch forest (Jordan and Shelton, 1982), nesting in beech-maple forests and in yew in Schoolcraft and Alger counties. Nesting has been recorded south to Muskegon, Ottawa, and Kalamazoo counties (Wood, 1951; JPW 46:48, 1968). The species is not regularly found in summer anywhere in the Lower Peninsula except in the northernmost tip (JPW 31:2-9, 1953; ZVT). Observed once in summer in Berrien County (OBC). Rare in winter (Berrien County, photo in UMMZ).
  •  Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata
    • Common transient. Common summer resident in the Upper Peninsula and in northern Lower Peninsula south to Oscoda and Crawford counties, where it nests (Wood, 1951), and in Ogemaw County (DNR). Uncommon but regular in southern counties in winter, it is the only warbler seen regularly in the winter in Michigan, and the first in numbers in spring. Birds banded in Michigan and recovered elsewhere were all banded in May or from August to October and were probably migrants. They were recovered in Ontario, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, South Carolina, and Texas (BBL).
  • Black-throated Gray Warbler, Dendroica nigrescens
    • Vagrant. UMMZ 152892 in Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, 1 May 1958; 158158 in Northville, Wayne County, on 15 November 1962. Observed at Greenfield Village, Wayne County, on 29 April 1975 (Kelley, 1978).
  •  Black-throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens
    • Common transient, common summer resident in deciduous and coniferous woods in the north. Summers and has bred throughout north, mainly as far south as Roscommon, Ogemaw, and Oscoda counties, also south to Huron, Macomb, Muskegon, Allegan, and Kalamazoo counties (Wood, 1951; ZVT; Kelley, 1978; JPW 43:169, 1965; 46:50, 1968; 49;120, 1971; KNC; UMMZ), and summers in hemlock remnants along dunes of Lake Michigan south to Grand Mere, Berrien County, where it was rare but regular into the 1970's. One sang through June and July in 1985 in deciduous woodland near Niles in Cass County (UMMZ). The two recoveries of Michigan birds were both in Honduras) banded in August, recovered in November and March)(BBL).
  •  Blackburnian Warbler, Dendroica fusca
    • Common transient. Summer resident in the Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula, regularly breeding south to Emmet and Cheboygan counties, and territorial males noted south to Oceana, Clare, and Crawford counties. Has also nested south to Muskegon and Huron counties and 100 years ago nested in Kalamazoo and Montcalm counties (Barrows, 1912; Wood, 1951). Occasionally observed in summer south to Macomb, St. Clair, Kalamazoo, Berrien, and Allegan counties (Kelley, 1978; AB 30:960, 1982; KNC; OBC).
  •  Yellow-throated Warbler, Dendroica dominica
    • Uncommon local summer resident. Now a few birds only, locally regular in Berrien County (Spring Creek west of Three Oaks, also South Branch of the Galien River), occasional at Warren Woods. Formerly occurred in southeastern Michigan (River Raisin, Monroe County) and Kalamazoo County. Singing male and nest observed in sycamores along Black River in Port Huron Game Area, St. Clair County, in 1982 (JPW 60:157, 1982; 62:109, 1984; UMMZ). Vagrants appear further north in spring.
  •  Pine Warbler, Dendroica pinus
    • Common transient. Summer resident with most records in northern Lower Peninsula and eastern Upper Peninsula. Regular nesting species in Hartwick Pines State Park, Crawford County. Nest records south to Muskegon, Huron, and Washtenaw counties (Wood, 1951; JPW 30:94-99, 1952; 52:186, 1974). Seen in nesting season in Berrien, Kalamazoo, and Allegan counties (AB 30:960, 1976; OBC; KNC; MAS). Winter records in Kalamazoo, Wayne, and Monroe counties (Kelley, 1978; AB 36:588, 1982; MAS).
  •  Kirtland's Warbler, Dendroica kirtlandii
    • in spring (25 June 1978 recovery in Wisconsin was of a bird born in 1972; 29 May 1978 recovery in Quebec was of a bird born in 1974), and in Ohio in autumn migration (27 September 1975, the bird was born in 1971)(BBL). Kirtlandís Warblers winter in the Bahama Islands (Mayfield, 1960; Huber, 1982; Walkinshaw, 1983).
  •  Prairie Warbler, Dendroica discolor
    • Common but local summer resident. Uncommon and local in the Upper Peninsula, with records in Baraga, Marquette, Alger, and Schoolcraft counties (ZVT; UMMZ). Most numerous in the Lower Peninsula in jack-pine plains, and regular around Sleeping Bear Dunes, Leelenau County, and Sturgeon Bay, Emmet County. Scarce in recent years in summer in southern Michigan. Observed nesting south to Livingston County (E. S. George Reserve) and in western lower Michigan in Muskegon, Ottawa, and Oceana counties. Observed regularly in summer until early 1970's in Berrien County (AFN 24:688, 1970; JPW 37:54-63, 1959; 58:32, 1980; OBC; UMMZ).
  •  Palm Warbler, Dendroica palmarum
    • Common transient. Uncommon local summer resident in the north, especially in the eastern Upper Peninsula. Has nested in the Upper Peninsula in Schoolcraft and Chippewa counties and in the northern Lower Peninsula in Crawford and Iosco counties (Wilson Bull. 69:338-351, 1957; JPW 61:103, 1983). Observed in southern counties as late as December (JPW 60:92, 1982; OBC). The only recovery available is of a bird found in Wisconsin in October 1967, five years after it was banded in October in Michigan, 517 km distant (BBL).
  •  Bay-breasted Warbler, Dendroica castanea
    • Common transient, most records in autumn. Local summer resident in the north, with nesting records in Keweenaw, Alger, Chippewa, and Cheboygan counties, and recent summer occurrence in Schoolcraft and Otsego counties (JPW 53:33-34, 1975; 60:157, 1982; AB 36:980, 1982; UMMZ). Perhaps the rarest local breeding species of the northern warblers known to nest in Michigan.
  • Blackpoll Warbler, Dendroica striata
    • Common transient in late spring and in autumn. Late May records for Isle Royale (Krefting, et al., 1966) probably refer to transients; Blackpolls are among the latest migrant warblers in spring and are usually seen in the last 10 days of May. A bird was seen in Kalkaska County in July 1971 (JPW 49:123, 1971), and a singing male remained through summer in 1977 and 1978 in Wilderness State Park, Emmet County (UMMZ). One of the most numerous warbler species during fall migration. Blackpolls move eastward through Michigan in the fall and then southward from New England. A recovery in Connecticut of a bird banded six days earlier in September at Muskegon, Muskegon County (JPW 54:93, 1976), is evidence of this movement through Michigan. A hybrid Dendroica striata x D. castanea was collected at Warren Dunes, Berrien County, on 19 May 1920 (UMMZ 53692).
  •  Cerulean Warbler, Dendroica cerulea
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident mainly in the southern third of state. Nesting records occur north to Muskegon County (Wood, 1951; JPW 46:51, 1968). Breeds in mature deciduous forests. Heard every summer from 1977 in oak forests on the E.S. George Reserve, Livingston County.
  •  Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia
    • Common transient, uncommon summer resident. Nests in the Upper Peninsula, where the species is common in bogs and mixed coniferous and deciduous woods, and in the northern Lower Peninsula south to Calhoun, Oakland, and Macomb counties (Wood, 1951; Kelley, 1978; Walkinshaw, 1978). Occasional in summer and may nest in Berrien and Kalamazoo counties (OBC; KNC). A migrant banded in Michigan was recovered in migration two years later at a distance of 179 km in Ontario (BBL).
  •  American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
    • Common transient and summer resident. More numerous in northern Lower Michigan and in the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale. This is the most numerous breeding warbler in forests along Lake Michigan in Muskegon County (JPW 46:55, 1968). Breeds in mesic and swampy forests, both deciduous and coniferous. Numerous on limestone-based soils with white cedar such as Mackinac Island and in Presque Isle County, also common in sugar maple forest and in hemlock and spruce. A bird banded on Charity Island in Saginaw Bay in September in 1967 was recovered the next year in Guatemala (BBL).
  •  Prothonotary Warbler, Protonotaria citrea
    • Uncommon transient and uncommon and local summer resident in southern third of state, mainly in rich bottomland woods along rivers (Muskegon, White, St. Joseph, Paw Paw, Kalamazoo, Battle Creek, Huron, Raisin, et al.) and numerous in Ottawa Marsh, Allegan County (Wood, 1951; Wilson Bull. 65:152-168, 1953; JPW 60:157, 1982; ZVT). Nesting records are known north to Oceana, Muskegon, Livingston, Oakland, Wayne, and Macomb counties (UMMZ). Once observed in the Upper Peninsula at Houghton, Houghton County, on 24 May 1984 (AB 38:915, 1984).
  • Worm-eating Warbler, Helmitheros vermivorus
    • Occasional spring migrant north of its usual breeding range, sometimes remaining through the breeding season in southern Michigan. UMMZ specimens: 157920, Berrien Springs, Berrien County, on 26 April 1962; 156914, North Cape, Monroe County, 30 April 1962. Photographs of birds in Laketon Township, Muskegon County, on 27 October 1970, and Bloomfield Hills, Oakland County, on 20 May 1961 (UMMZ). Observed in two or more recent years at Grand Mere, Berrien County (OBC; tape recording in UMMZ), and in southeastern Michigan (Kelley, 1978), particularly north of Ferndale, Oakland County (DAS), at Metrobeach, Macomb County (UMMZ), at Fairlane, Wayne County, and at Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County (UMMZ).
  •  Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus
    • Common transient and summer resident in forests throughout the state. Migrants banded in September in Pennsylvania and Virginia have been recovered in spring in Michigan, and migrants banded in Michigan have been recovered in Ontario, Wisconsin, and Indiana.
  •  Northern Waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis
    • Common transient. Summer resident in the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale and in boggy habitat in most of the Lower Peninsula south to Livingston, Macomb, and Oakland counties. Nests have been observed in the last two of these counties (Kelley, 1978). Nest and 4 eggs taken in sect. 5, T5N R12E in Macomb County (UMMZ 198909). Juvenile UMMZ 119136, one of two being fed by a pair of adults, taken in White Cedar Swamp, Imlay City, Lapeer County, on 25 June 1950. Another nest found there on 22 May 1955; adult UMMZ 136598 and immature UMMZ 150880 taken on 3 July 1955. A bird banded in Michigan on 18 August 1966 was recovered ten days later in New York state, 448 km distant (BBL).
  •  Louisiana Waterthrush, Seiurus motacilla
    • Uncommon and local summer resident in southern part of state. Nests in Berrien, Kalamazoo, Calhoun, Kent, Jackson, Livingston, Washtenaw, Oakland, St. Clair, Lenawee, and Monroe counties (Wood, 1951; Kelley, 1978; JPW 57:103, 1979; 61:7, 1983; 62:26, 1984; UMMZ). Older nest records from Isabella and Newaygo counties (Wood, 1951). Common along Pere Marquette River in Mason and Lake Counties in spring. Recent observations of nesting north to the White River in Oceana County (short- tailed juvenile taken on 4 July 1961, UMMZ 156639; JPW 46:54, 1968) and nests with adults on Pine River in Lake, Wexford, and Manistee counties 1978-1981; photos of nest in Wexford County and adult in Lake County (JPW 61:61-62, 1983; UMMZ). Nests in the same wet woods as Northern Waterthrush in Hartland Township, Livingston County, and in Highland Recreation Area, Oakland County (JPW 53:153, 1975; UMMZ).
  •  Kentucky Warbler, Oporornis formosus
    • Uncommon local summer resident in southernmost counties, nowhere regular. Casual as migrants beyond their usual range, a few seen in northern Lower Peninsula (photo of bird in Alpena County, JPW 48:88, 1970). One breeding record in Michigan: 4 young just fledged, in Waterloo Recreation Area, eastern Jackson County, on 28 June 1982, in site where singing males were seen regularly since 1979 (JPW 62:26, 1984).
  •  Connecticut Warbler, Oporornis agilis
    • Uncommon transient, uncommon local summer resident in the Upper Peninsula and in the northern Lower Peninsula south to Crawford County (JPW 33:12-19, 1955). More common in the western Upper Peninsula. Nesting records: UMMZ 155603, feathered nestling (4 others banded), nest 5 miles N of Ewen, Ontonagon County, on 1 July 1960 (also JPW 39:58, 1961); male and female observed at close range carrying food (nest and young not seen) north of McMillan, Luce County, in 1976 (UMMZ); territorial and carrying food in the Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County, in 1980 (JPW 58:162, 1980). Other possible nesting records and summering localities have been described (Auk 78:379-388, 1961).
  •  Mourning Warbler, Oporornis philadelphia
    • Common transient. Summer resident throughout most of the state, more common in the north. Nests on Isle Royale, in the Upper Peninsula, and in the northern Lower Peninsula. Summers south to Berrien, Macomb, Wayne, and Calhoun counties, nesting south to Kalamazoo, Livingston, and Sanilac counties (Wood, 1951; OBC; Kelley, 1978; JPW 49:121, 1971; 57:91-105, 1979; AB 37:992, 1983). A hybrid male warbler (DEL 54985) taken at Russ Forest, Cass County, on 28 May 1948, is Vermivora pinus x Oporornis philadelphia, as indicated by its size and by a trace of gray on the nape. The song was Oporornis-like, but the description of song (JPW 28:66-72, 1950) does not rule out other species of Oporornis.
  •  Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
    • Common transient and summer resident. Nests in shrub, swamp, and marsh habitats. Occasional winter records in the southern counties. Breeding birds arrive in southern Michigan in early May. Territory sizes range from 0.25 to 1.8 ha. Clutch size (2-3) 4-5 eggs, incubation is 12 days, and nestlings leave the nest as early as eight days after hatching. The young are fed by the parents up to 26 days after fledging; most are independent by 30-34 days after fledging. A nestling banded in Ann Arbor returned to its breeding site in the following year (Proc. Minnesota Acad. Sci. 27:144-174, 1959). Banded migrants have been recovered in Ontario, Wisconsin, Illinois, North Carolina, and Texas (BBL).
  •  Hooded Warbler, Wilsonia citrina
    • Uncommon and local summer resident in mesic woods southern Michigan. Several pairs are seen every year in Berrien County at Warren Woods, irregularly at Grand Mere and Madron Lake. Nesting records in Muskegon, Ottawa, Allegan, Kalamazoo, Jackson, and Ingham counties (Orn. Oo"l. 9:44, 1884; Barrows, 1912; Walkinshaw, 1978; JPW 55:195, 1977; 58:162, 1980; 62:26, 1984). Also occurs in summer in Washtenaw County (Ann Arbor) and Livingston County (E. S. George Reserve). Occasional in summer in recent years in Oakland and Macomb counties (Kelley, 1978). Vagrant individuals have been seen north to Alpena and Cheboygan counties (Nelson, 1956; JPW 48:87, 1970).
  • Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla
    • Common transient. Two males sang on Isle Royale during July, 1980 (UMMZ), and has been sighted in northern Chippewa County in recent years (JPW 61:103, 1983; UMMZ), but so far no breeding has been reported, it may breed locally in northern Michigan but there is no record of breeding in Michigan. A bird banded on 12 September 1940 was recovered ten days later in North Dakota (BBL).
  •  Canada Warbler, Wilsonia canadensis
    • 0Local summer resident in swampy woods, common to uncommon in north on Isle Royale, in the Upper Peninsula, and in the northern Lower Peninsula. Also breeds locally at Grand Mere and Warren Woods, Berrien County, and in Muskegon, Kalamazoo, Calhoun, Ingham, Livingston, and Oakland counties (Wood, 1951; JPW 46:55, 1968; 57:103, 1979; McWhirter and Beaver, 1977; MAS; UMMZ). Nested in Lapeer and Macomb counties in 1950's (JPW 33:23, 1955; Kelley, 1978).
  • Painted Redstart, Myioborus pictus
    • Vagrant. One was seen at Gladstone Bluff, Delta County, on 13 November 1983 (AB 38:206, 1983; photos in UMMZ).
  •  Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens
    • 0Local summer resident in shrubby swamps, common in southernmost counties, uncommon in the rest of southern Michigan, a few seen in the northern Lower Peninsula and on islands in Lake Michigan. Observed once in the Upper Peninsula (JPW 41:63, 1963; 51:14, 1973). One winter specimen: UMMZ 116345, Grosse Pointe, Wayne County, on 26 January 1949. The only banding recovery involving a breeding season bird is an adult perhaps banded as a late spring migrant (3 June 1956) and recovered 116 km away in Ontario during the breeding season three years later (10 July 1959)(BBL).
  • Summer Tanager, Piranga rubra
    • Occasional transient and summer resident. Seen nearly every year from 1970 in Berrien County (Grand Mere, St. Joseph, Buchanan) and in several years in Kalamazoo County and Washtenaw County (Ann Arbor) (Adams, 1982; OBC; UMMZ). Less often seen in other localities in souther Michigan. Observed in the Upper Peninsula in Chippewa, Marquette, and Ontonagon counties.
  •  Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea
    • Common summer resident in woods throughout most of the state in deciduous woods. Uncommon to scarce in northern Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale.
  • Western Tanager, Piranga ludoviciana
    • Hypothetical. Sight records, none of them with satisfactory discriptions, at Little Girl's Point, Gogebic County, on 3 August 1973 (JPW 52:46, 1974; UMMZ), Kensington Metropark, Oakland County on 12 May 1965 (Tordoff, 1966), in Ross Township, Kalamazoo County, on 27 May 1974 (KNC), Hoffmaster State Park, Muskegon County, on 31 August 1977 (AB 32:209, 1978), and one N of Newberry, Luce County, on 3 June 1981 (MORC).
  •  Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis
    • Common permanent resident in woods and shrubby habitats in southern half of the Lower Peninsula, local but widespread throughout the northern Lower Peninsula and in the Upper Peninsula. A resident population lives at Marquette (JPW 49:8, 1971), another apparently was established at Escanaba, Delta County, by 1966 (JPW 45:23, 1967). In 1981 and 1982 cardinals were observed in Houghton, Dickinson, Delta, Schoolcraft, and Chippewa counties in the Upper Peninsula (JPW 58:90, 1980; 60:93, 1982; UMMZ). Cardinals first overwintered near Kingsford, Dickinson County, in 1982-1983 (UMMZ); Ontonagon County reported in October and December 1982 (JPW 61:21, 66, 1983) and bred at White Pine in summer in 1983 (JPW 61:104, 1983); at Copper Harbor, Keewenaw County, in October 1983 (JPW 62:31, 1984). Absent on most islands in the Great Lakes; reported on Beaver Island and nearby on the mainland at Charlevoix, Charlevoix County (JPW 42:236, 1964; Pettingill, 1974; AB 37:992, 1983; UMMZ). Cardinals have nested on Beaver Island, but no successful nests have been seen, and the occurrence of Cardinals may depend on dispersal from the mainland (JPW 62:75, 1984). The range of the species has increased northward through this century (Barrows, 1912; JPW 36:19-21, 1958) due to clearing of forests in the last century and to the limited dispersal of the birds, and to winter bird feeders. Cardinals are generally local and sedentary. Most (31 of 39) cardinals banded as nestlings or local juveniles and recovered in a later year between April and August were recovered within 10 km of their natal site (same banding block)(BBL). The longest distance moved was 524 km, a juvenile at Marquette that was recovered in southeastern Michigan 10 days later (BBL). Other dispersal movements have been described (Canad. J. Zool. 49:185-198, 1971).
  •  Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
    • Common transient and summer resident in wooded habitats, uncommon on Isle Royale. Occasional in winter: near Honor, Benzie County, on 22 December 1980 (photo in UMMZ), also in Alpena, Presque Isle, and Grand Traverse counties (JPW 60:93, 1982; 61:66, 1983). Three birds banded in Michigan have been recovered in winter in Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador. The only recovery of a Michigan nestling was found 85 km from its natal site on 22 June, two years later (BBL).
  • Black-headed Grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus
    • Occasional winter visitor and a rare transient. One specimen: UMMZ 158256, male, Ann Arbor, on 25 March 1963. A male was observed singing at Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, on 28 April 1984 (AB 38:915, 1984). A female was observed at Flint, Genesee County, from 20 November 1963 to 18 January 1964 (UMMZ); another was seen at Mt. Pleasant, Isabella County, from 21 December 1981 until 4 January 1982 (JPW 60:93, 1982). Females have been reported elsewhere in the state in winter, but their identity has been questioned (AB 35:827, 1981). Most reports of spring migrants have been in the Upper Peninsula (JPW 60:129, 1982; 61:62, 89, 1983).
  • Blue Grosbeak, Guiraca caerulea
    • Hypothetical. The two records in Barrows (1912) are unsupported by any existing specimens. Sight records in Berrien, Barry, Muskegon, Ottawa, Kalamazoo, and Calhoun counties (ZVT; UMMZ; JPW 50:83, 1972; OBC 18:6, 1979). Some sight records have been in fact of Indigo Buntings with buffy wing bars.
  •  Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea
    • Summer resident, common in the Lower Peninsula, local in the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale. Breeds in shrubby habitats, less densely in woods, old fields, cultivated fields, and swamps. Nests are built especially in Rubus blackberries and raspberries and in dogwood Cornus bushes. More than 100 buntings banded as nestlings in Cass and Livingston counties have been recaptured as breeding birds in a later year in the area of their birth. The others have been recovered elsewhere in Michigan and Wisconsin at distances of 35 and 340 km from their birth site (UMMZ). A bird banded in October in South Carolina was recovered in Michigan two years later in May, and one banded in Michigan on 27 May 1966 was recovered on 5 July 1966 in Massachusetts, a distance of 1020 km (BBL). The nesting season extends from mid-May to late August; many pairs rear two broods in a season, and young hatch as late as September. One winter record: a bird trapped at a feeder at Niles, Berrien County, on 13 January 1985 (photo in UMMZ).
  • Painted Bunting, Passerina ciris
    • Occasional transient north of the species' breeding range. Observed and photographed at Marquette on 5 May 1968 (JPW 46:72, 1968; photo in UMMZ); another was at Port Huron, St. Clair County, on 2 May 1973 (Kelley, 1978). Also observed at Vicksburg, Kalamazoo County, in 1920 (F. W. Rapp, 1931, Bird list of Vicksburg, Michigan), at Tapiola, Houghton County, in April 1961, at Benton Harbor, Berrien County, on 30 April 1966, and in Texas Township, Kalamazoo County on 28 April - 4 May 1983 (AB 37:874, 1983). Most observations have been of birds at a feeder.
  •  Dickcissel, Spiza americana
    • Irregular summer resident, common in south in some years and scarce to absent in others. Uncommon in the northern Lower Peninsula and the Upper Peninsula, one record on Isle Royale (ZVT; Jordan and Shelton, 1982). Northernmost nesting records are in Emmet and Presque Isle counties (JPW 43:43, 1965). Few Dickcissels have been reported in Michigan in recent years (JPW 59:129, 1981; 61:101, 1983), mainly in the southwest, perhaps most regular near Niles, Three Oaks, and Berrien Springs in Berrien County. Several areas turned up Dickcissels in 1984 (JPW 62:109, 1984).
  • Green-tailed Towhee, Pipilo chlorurus
    • Vagrant. One observed in Allegan, Allegan County, in December 1974 (JPW 53:68, 1975; photo in UMMZ). First report from Port Inland, Schoolcraft County, on 1 November 1955 (ZVT; notes in UMMZ). Observed at feeder at West Olive, Ottawa County, on 20 May 1979 (AB 33:775, 1979). Another visited a feeder near Bay City, Bay County in February 1985 (UMMZ), and one was seen at a feeder at Sylvan Lake, Oakland County from late October 1985 through the winter (AB 40:117, 1986; 9 January 1986 photos in UMMZ).
  •  Rufous-sided Towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
    • Common summer resident, widespread in the Lower Peninsula, more local in the Upper Peninsula. Breeds in shrubby habitats and in many woodlands. Uncommon in the south in winter, where some birds may remain all year (Berrien County), much less often wintering in Upper Peninsula. Birds banded in Michigan between May and August have been recovered during winter in Mississippi in November (N=1) and in Georgia in January (N=1)(BBL).
  • Bachman's Sparrow, Aimophila aestivalis
    • Occasional transient north of its breeding range. Two UMMZ specimens: 112892 taken in Erie Township, Monroe County, on 29 April 1944; 114180 taken at Dearborn, Wayne County, on 13 May 1946. Singing males observed at Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, on 23 April 1948, and at Pinckney, Livingston County, on 27 July 1954 (ZVT), and a bird seen at Metrobeach, Macomb County, on 26 April 1964 (UMMZ).
  • American Tree Sparrow, Spizella arborea
    • Common transient and winter visitor. Seen as late as 10 May at Whitefish Point (JPW 61:89, 1983). Many birds banded in Michigan have been recovered in the same site in successive winters. Banding recoveries also show movements between wintering seasons from Michigan and Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Missouri (BBL).
  •  Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina
    • Common transient and summer resident. Occasional in winter. Banding recoveries show seasonal movements of birds between Michigan and Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana. A juvenile banded in Michigan on 13 August 1967 was recaptured 194 km distant in Wisconsin on 2 June 1968 (BBL).
  •  Clay-colored Sparrow, Spizella pallida
    • Uncommon transient in southern Michigan, locally common summer resident throughout the western and central Upper Peninsula and in the northern Lower Peninsula. Most often seen in brushy country in sandy soils in north-central Michigan (Wilson Bull. 51:17-21, 1939). It breeds on Beaver Island, Charlevoix County (JPW 46:133, 1968). Common on the open, scrubby Sharp-tailed Grouse habitats in northern Michigan. Other southern populations live at Minden City Game Reserve, Sanilac County, in Genesee County, and in Kenockee Township, St. Clair County (JPW 47:128, 1969; Kelley, 1978; UMMZ).
  •  Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla
    • Common transient and summer resident in the Lower Peninsula; apparently rare in the Upper Peninsula. Occasional in winter in the south, seen in all seasons in Berrien County. Banding recoveries show seasonal movements of Michigan birds to or from North Carolina and Alabama. An adult banded on 24 April 1974 was recovered on 26 April 1977 in New Jersey, suggesting a shift in breeding site of 856 km. Four birds banded as juveniles have been recovered in a later year in the breeding season on their natal area (BBL).
  •  Vesper Sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus
    • Common transient and summer resident. Occurs in open fields with bare soil, often edges of farms. Occasional in winter in the south. Michigan birds have been recovered or banded in Florida, Arkansas, Indiana, and Texas in winter or in early spring migration (before 5 March). A bird banded as a nestling was recovered about 10 km distant on 24 May 1969, at the age of five years. Two birds banded as juveniles were recovered near their natal area in the breeding season when they were one year of age (BBL).
  •  Lark Sparrow, Chondestes grammacus
    • Formerly an uncommon transient and breeding summer resident in the southern Lower Peninsula, occasional transient or vagrant in the Upper Peninsula and on Isle Royale. Now a scarce transient in Michigan. No current breeding populations are known in Michigan. The species formerly nested locally in several southern counties into 1950's (Wood, 1951; ZVT).
  • Black-throated Sparrow, Amphispiza bilineata
    • Vagrant. A bird was seen over several weeks near Muskegon, Muskegon County, from early December 1982 into January 1983) Goldeneye 22:5, 1983; JPW 61:12, 1983; photos in UMMZ).
  • Lark Bunting, Calamospiza melanocorys
    • Occasional visitor in spring, summer, and autumn. Photographed at Port Inland, Schoolcraft County, on 23 to 25 July 1964 (JPW 43:44, 1965; UMMZ). Observations from Keweenaw, Alger, Emmet, Cheboygan, Missaukee, Eaton, Calhoun, and Wayne counties (ZVT; Pettingill, 1974; JPW 54:42, 1976; 61:89, 1983; Kelley, 1978; MAS). One winter record: Sarett Nature Center, Berrien County, 13-19 January 1983 (JPW 61:67, 1983).
  •  Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
    • Common transient and summer resident. Occasional in winter. Breeds in alfalfa fields and grassy habitats. A bird banded as a nestling near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, returned as an adult and bred in the same field (JPW 52:50-51, 1974). Only one bird was recovered between October and April, a bird found in Alabama (BBL).
  •  Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident, mainly in the south, where it occurs in low grassy, weedy fields. It nests north to Cheboygan County (Pettingill, 1974) and has nested in the Upper Peninsula on tailing basins of Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company near Republic, Marquette County (UMMZ). Also observed in summer in Luce County (ZVT).
  •  Henslow's Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii
    • Uncommon transient; uncommon but widespread summer resident in the Lower Peninsula (Univ. Mich. Museum Zoology Misc. Publ. 41:1-72, 1939). Locally common in Berrien, Ottawa, St. Clair, Livingston, and Washtenaw counties in the south and in Benzie and Alpena counties in the northern Lower Peninsula. Has also nested in Menominee, Menominee County, in the Upper Peninsula (AB 39:305, 1985).
  •  Le Conte's Sparrow, Ammodramus leconteii
    • Uncommon transient in spring and autumn, with most records in autumn. Uncommon local summer resident. Summer f Michigan birds were in the same site where they were banded. Few recoveries involve winter birds. Of these, six are of birds present on their breeding season grounds also in winter between 20 November and 28 February. Only 3 recoveries involved a movement between states. One moved 500 km between Indiana on 4 February 1968 and Michigan on 28 April 1968, one moved 695 km between Michigan on 28 August 1955 and Tennessee on 21 February 1960, and one moved 944 km between Michigan on 16 May 1949 and Mississippi on 20 November 1949. Several recoveries indicate that Song Sparrows often breed in their natal area. All five birds banded as nestlings and recovered in a later breeding season were on their natal area. Of the 29 juvenile that were recovered in a breeding season in a later year, all but one was local, and it was recovered 99 km from its banding site (BBL).
  •  Lincoln's Sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii
    • Uncommon transient, local summer resident. Common in the Upper Peninsula and in north-central Lower Peninsula in jack-pine plains and black spruce bogs (JPW 50:96-97, 1971; 55:196, 1973; 61:75-81, 1983; Amer. Midl. Natl. 108:46, 1982). Isolated breeding population in a leatherleaf bog in Minden City Game Reserve, Sanilac County (JPW 48:94-96, 1970). A late autumn observation was made at Eau Claire, Berrien County, on 27 November 1984 (AB 39:58, 1985). One wintered near Haslett, Ingham County, in 1972 (JPW 51:162, 1973). A bird banded on 10 May 1934 was recovered in May in the following year in Texas.
  •  Swamp Sparrow, Melospiza georgiana
    • Common transient and summer resident. Breeds in shrubby swamps and in marshes. A few individuals remain in south in appropriate habitat in the winter. The species occurs regularly in winter in Berrien County.
  •  White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis
    • Common transient. Common summer resident in north; perhaps the most abundant bird on Isle Royale. Nesting records throughout the Upper Peninsula and in northern Lower Peninsula. Nests in black spruce-tamarack bogs south to Clare County (Amer. Midl. Natl. 108:46, 1982). Has nested in bogs in Lapeer County in southeastern Michigan (JPW 35:99-101, 1957). A few occur in summer in southern Michigan (Kelley, 1978). A few are seen in winter in the southern counties. Banding recoverie show that migrants winter in the Gulf States. Of the 24 out-of-state recoveries, 6 were in Mississippi. Others were in South Carolina and Tennessee. No young banded in the breeding season in Michigan have been recovered in a later breeding season.
  • Golden-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla
    • Vagrant. Immature banded and photographed at Dowling, Barry County, on 12 January 1978 (Auk 96:596-599, 1979).
  • White-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
    • Common transient, generally less abundant than White- throated Sparrow. Occasional in winter, regular in Berrien County.
  • Harris' Sparrow, Zonotrichia querula
    • Uncommon transient in the western Upper Peninsula, occasional transient elsewhere in the state. Most records in the Upper Peninsula and western Lower Peninsula are in autumn (JPW 47:3-10, 1969). Regularly observed in migration at Marquette. Occasional into early winter, and one has overwintered in Leelanau County (AB 39:305, 1985). Occasionally seen in spring.
  •  Dark-eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis
    • Common transient, common winter visitor in southern half of state. Summer resident in northern half of state, where it nests. Summer birds occur throughout much of the Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula occasionally as far south as Kalamazoo County, regularly south to Missaukee County. A November specimen (UMMZ 219328) from Long Lake, Alpena County, has two white wing bars but is smaller (wing 78 mm) than South Dakota J. h. aikeni. Other plumage variants in Michigan include an isabelline immature female with the gray replaced by buff (UMMZ 151599) and an adult male with white pied plumage on the wings, head, and back (UMMZ 203716). Several UMMZ specimens of J. h. "cismontanus," "Oregon" juncos J. h. montanus, and intermediates from Michigan were taken from November to March. Birds banded in Michigan have been recovered over a wide area in eastern North America, mainly north of Virginia and Tennesee, but some as far south as Alabama and Georgia.
  • McCown's Longspur, Calcarius mccownii
    • Vagrant. One observed at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 27-29 May 1981 (AB 35:827, 1981; photos and notes in UMMZ).
  • Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus
    • Transient and winter visitor, common in wintering flocks in southern Michigan, uncommon in winter in the north. A few remain until late May in the Upper Peninsula.
  • Smith's Longspur, Calcarius pictus
    • Vagrant. Photograph of bird (JPW 49:127, 1971) at Midland, Midland County, on 25 April 1971 in UMMZ. Another was observed on 20 October 1981 in Ontonagon County (JPW 60:39, 1982).
  • Chestnut-collared Longspur, Calcarius ornatus
    • Hypothetical. Sight record of a male in breeding plumage at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, on 31 May 1980 (AB 34:781, 1980). Another bird was reported from Brockway Mountain, Keweenaw County, on 9 May 1982 (JPW 60:130, 1982), and a third was spotted at Whitefish Point on 28 April 1985 (AB 39:305, 1985).
  • Snow Bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis
    • 0Winter visitor, sometimes in large flocks. Occasionally birds remain into May. Four birds banded in winter in the Upper Peninsula (McMillan, Luce County, and Blaney Park, Schoolcraft County, from 1931 to 1944) were later recovered in western Greenland (Salomonsen, 1971). Others banded in Michigan were recovered in Ontario, Quebec, Minnesota, and Ohio.
  •  Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
    • Common but local summer resident. Nests in mesic old fields and alfalfa fields. The only banding recovery is a September migrant record from Florida (BBL).
  •  Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
    • Common transient and summer resident. Michigan birds migrate to winter throughout the southeastern United States. Most banding recoveries in winter are from South Carolina, Georgia, the Florida panhandle, Alabama, and Mississippi (Bird-Banding 49:17-34, 1978). Females tended to be recovered further south than males in winter. Occasional flocks, mainly males, remain in winter in southern Michigan, especially in Monroe and Berrien counties. Color-banded males near Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, have been seen on their nesting territories as late as November and as early as mid-February in periods of warm weather. Many birds banded as nestlings return to breed within a mile of their birth site in Michigan. Out of 16 banded nestlings that were reported in a later breeding season, 9 were within the same 10 km grid, 3 were between 10 and 20 km, and 4 were within 20-80 km of their natal site.
  •  Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna
    • Common summer resident in the Lower Peninsula, less common in the Upper Peninsula. Uncommon in winter in the southern counties. Meadowlarks have been scarce in winter since 1976-1977 (JPW 62:57, 1984).
  •  Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta
    • Uncommon and local summer resident throughout the state. The species is common on the jack-pine plains of northern lower Michigan. Numbers low in recent years, where they were more common in the early 1970's. UMMZ 150883 from Lapeer County on 3 July 1955 was heard to give both calls and songs of both Eastern and Western Meadowlarks (specimen label), as was a bird in Kalamazoo County in 1972 (KNC). Occasional in winter in the south, regular in Berrien County (OBC). One apparent hybrid Sturnella magna x S. neglecta: UMMZ 84621 from southern Williamston Township, Ingham County, on 22 June 1935.
  •  Yellow-headed Blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
    • Uncommon transient and local summer resident. Michigan specimens: UMMZ 151379 in Gogebic County, on 20 June 1956; UMMZ 155573 in Bay County on 14 June 1960; MSU 1980 taken at Iron Mountain, Dickinson County, on 17 May 1890; Empey bird at Lone Tree Island, Huron County, on 2 June 1935. Nesting in recent years around Saginaw Bay, in Maple River Game Area, Gratiot County, and in Detroit area in Macomb County, all on eastern side of the Lower Peninsula (JPW 39:55, 1961; 58:163, 1980; AB 35:943, 1981). Nested in Cheboygan City Park, Cheboygan County, in 1970's. On western side of the Lower Peninsula it has nested at Grand Haven Marsh, Ottawa County (JPW 49:121, 1971), and Muskegon sewage ponds (JPW 61:88, 1983). In the Upper Peninsula nesting was first observed in Gogebic County in 1956 (Wilson Bull. 69:183, 1957), also nests in Portage Marsh near Escanaba, Delta County, and on Munuscong Island, St. Mary's River, Chippewa County (UMMZ). Occasional in early winter, seen at Lake St. Clair, Macomb County, on 19 December 1981 (AB 36:583, 1982).
  •  Rusty Blackbird, Euphagus carolinus
    • Common transient, local summer resident in the Upper Peninsula. Nesting reported in willows of inlet of the Paint River, Iron County, on 4 June 1943 (JPW 38:146, 1960). Occasional in winter.
  •  Brewer's Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
    • Common summer resident in the Upper Peninsula; local summer resident in the Lower Peninsula from Cheboygan County to Saginaw Bay. Formerly common but local in southwestern Michigan, where now it is scarce. Most regularly observed on Baraga Plains in Baraga County, in jack-pine plains clearings in Oscoda, Missaukee, and Kalkaska counties, and around Saginaw Bay (Condor 63:162-177, 1961; notes in UMMZ). It has nested in southeastern Michigan in Oakland County (Kelley, 1978). Occasional in Winter. Two birds banded as wintering and migrant birds in Illinois were later recovered in Michigan at distances of 335 and 468 km. A nestling banded in Genesee County was recovered the following June near Toronto, Ontario, 340 km N and E.
  •  Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula
    • Common transient and summer resident. Birds banded in Michigan migrate to winter sites in the southern states (Kentucky, Tennesee, Alabama) (Adams, 1982). Uncommon in winter in the southern counties, though some birds occur throughout the year in Berrien County (OBC). A few have overwintered in the Upper Peninsula (JPW 62:57, 1984).
  •  Brown-headed Cowbird, Molothrus ater
    • Common transient and summer resident. Breeding birds are numerous throughout Michigan (JPW 50:110-113, 1972). Uncommon in the south in winter. A brood parasite, it lays its eggs in the nests of more than 40 species of fosterers in Michigan (Wood, 1951) including 31 species in Cheboygan and Emmet counties (JPW 58:77-84, 1980). Michigan cowbirds winter throughout the southeastern United States from the mid-Atlantic to the Gulf coast states as far as Texas (N. Amer. Bird Bander 2:7-11, 1977; BBL). Of 74 birds banded as nestlings and reported in a later breeding season, 36 returned within 10 km of their birth site, 15 between 10 and 50 km, and 6 between 50 and 100 km.
  •  Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius
    • Uncommon transient and summer resident in southern counties. Nests north to Ottawa, Kent, Midland, and Genessee counties (ZVT; JPW 48:100, 1970; 49:121, 1971; 61:104, 1983; AB 38:1023, 1984) and breeding regularly in the last few years in Berrien and Kalamazoo counties. Vagrants are observed north to Tawas Point and Whitefish Point in spring.
  •  Northern Oriole, Icterus galbula
    • Summer resident, common in the south, less common and local in the north. One observation of "Bullocks Oriole," formerly regarded as a distinct species I. bullockii but now a race of I. galbula, 2-15 April 1984, at Mt. Pleasant, Isabella County (UMMZ). Occasional in winter (JPW 45:49, 1967; 62:57, 1984; MAS). A bird banded in Michigan has been recovered in El Salvador in the following year on 8 May, and a bird banded in January in Honduras was reported in Michigan in the following year in mid-May. Migrants have been recaptured from Ontario, Pennsylvania, and New York to Mississippi and Texas.
  • Rosy Finch, Leucosticte arctoa
    • Vagrant. A "Gray-crowned Rosy Finch" visited a feeder at Romeo, Macomb County, on 26 February 1984 and remained for a few weeks (AB 38:321, 918, 1984; photos in UMMZ). A "Brown-capped Rosy Finch" reported at feeder in Houghton on 23 December 1966 (UMMZ). The Gray-crowned Rosy Finch is likely to recur in Michigan in winter based on its wintering range and its occasional occurrence in winter at Thunder Bay, Ontario (James, et al., 1976) and in Minnesota (AB 35:303, 1981).
  •  Pine Grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator
    • 0Winter visitor, irregular in the south. Observed locally in summer in the Upper Peninsula. Breeding record for Isle Royale: 3 3/4 miles N of Windigo on Greenstone Ridge Trail on 9 August 1965, female with nearly-grown young (JPW 43:166, 1965; notes in UMMZ). One summer specimen from Isle Royale: UMMZ 33231, adult female, 14 August 1905; also seen on Isle Royale in 1970 (Jordan and Shelton, 1982). A grown immature female, UMMZ 54151, taken at Ontonagon County on 15 August 1921, is the only other summer specimen, probably from a local nesting. Seen in summer near Milstrand, Alger County. A male was observed in southern Michigan in Barry County on 21 May 1982 (JPW 60:157, 1982).
  •  Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus
    • Common transient. Common summer resident nesting in northern two-thirds of state. It occasionally nests in the southern part of the state (Barrows, 1912; ZVT; JPW 52:187, 1974; Kelley, 1978; KNC), and it has been seen in summer as far south as Berrien County (JPW 48:102, 1970). Common in winter, irregular in the south. Some individuals migrate and others may live year-round in the state. Birds banded in Mackinac County in the 1950's returned to the same site in subsequent summers. Banding recoveries of Michigan birds are known from most of eastern North America. More than five recoveries have been reported for several states and Provinces including Wisconsin (27), Tennesee (14), Minnesota (11), Oklahoma (7), Manitoba, and Arkansas (6). Purple Finches from Michigan have also been recovered as far as Quebec, New Hampshire, Mississippi, Texas, Alberta, and British Columbia. The large number of reports of nestlings returning to their natal site in a late breeding season in Mackinac County in the 1950's are probably mis-coded adults as most dates of supposed nestlings were May, earlier than the known breeding season (Wood, 1951).
  •  House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus
    • Locally common in towns in southern Michigan, increasing in numbers in recent years. Most sightings are in the southern third of the state. Permanent resident, with banded birds retrapped in all seasons (E. Cox). First observed in Michigan in Berrien Springs, Berrien County, on 13 February 1972 (OBC 11:10, 1972) and near Muskegon on 2-3 February 1974 (UMMZ). First nestings in Michigan were seen at Southfield, Oakland County, 17-30 July 1981, fledglings begging and being fed by both parents, and in Shorewood Hills, Berrien County, on 3-4 June 1981, male feeding fledgling (UMMZ). Michigan birds are derived from expanding populations in northeastern United States, where they were introduced from California in 1930's (AB 36:347-353, 1982). By 1982, House Finches were reported in 11 counties in Michigan (in addition to those above, in Leelanau, Kalamazoo, Cass, Lenawee, Bay, St. Clair, Washtenaw, and Macomb) (JPW 60:39, 130, 1982; 61:104, 1983; UMMZ). In winter 1984-1985 House Finches were seen in 22 counties in Michigan (AB 39:171, 1985).
  •  Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra
    • Nomadic, occurs at all seasons, but irregular and irruptive. More common in the north, and more often seen in winter. Breeding has been recorded near Locke, Ingham County, on 13 July 1880 (Butler, 1898), and at Hillsdale, on Isle Royale on 27 July 1960 (Jordan and Shelton, 1982), and in the Upper Peninsula in the Huron Mountains, Marquette County, on 7 May 1921 (UMMZ 208831, a bob-tailed juvenile) and on 27 January-12 February 1941 (laying female, UMMZ 110722, cf. Wilson Bull. 53:240-241, 1941), in Marquette County again on 30 April 1968 and 7 May 1979, and at Escanaba, Delta County, on 7 May 1969 (JPW 46:133, 1968; 47:128, 1969). In the Lower Peninsula, crossbills have bred in Mackinaw State Forest, Alpena County, in March 1985, nestbuilding and females at nest (UMMZ), near Traverse City, Grand Traverse County, in June 1974 (JPW 52:187, 1974), at Elberta, Benzie County, on 26 April 1970, nestbuilding and courtship feeding (JPW 48:100, 1970; UMMZ), in jack-pine plains around Lovells, Crawford Couunty (young being fed out of nest 1-8 June 1979, young fed by parents 21 and 24 May 1980, two family groups) (UMMZ), at Holland, Ottawa County, on 17 May 1968 (JPW 46:132, 1968), in a cemetery near Rose Lake Wildlife Experiment Station, Clinton County, on 23 March 1964 (JPW 43:37, 1964; UMMZ), and at Hillsdale. Crossbills in juvenile plumage may have moved with their flock from another nesting area. Juvenile UMMZ 116280 taken near Red Oak, Oscoda County, on 15 June 1948 was probably local because the bill is short and the mandibles are barely crossed. Ten adults and 2 other juveniles were taken in Oscoda County that year in February, March, and June; three of these were adult males (UMMZ) with testes 4-6 mm length. Independent juveniles banded on Baraga Plains, Baraga County, on 18 July 1966 and 19 June 1967 (notes in UMMZ) also suggest local breeding in Michigan. Groups including juveniles were seen in several counties in 1984 (JPW 62:109, 1984). The known breeding records in Michigan occur between February and July.
  •  White-winged Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera
    • Irregular and irruptive, observed mainly in winter and most often in the north. Usually uncommon in all seasons. Nesting records near Escanaba, Delta County, on 27 April 1891 (Barrows, 1912) and in Huron Mountains, Marquette County, on 19 January 1941 (Wilson Bull. 53:240-241, 1941). Several observations in summer in the northern Lower Peninsula and on islands in northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron (ZVT; Pettingill, 1974; AB 38:1025, 1984). Seen once in summer in southeastern Michigan in St. Clair County on 5 June 1974 (Kelley, 1978).
  • Common Redpoll, Carduelis flammea
    • Winter visitor, common in the north, irregular but often numerous in southern third of state. Attracted to thistle- seed feeders in winter. Like many other cardueline finches, Common Redpolls may fly great distances. Birds banded in Massachusetts and North Dakota in one winter have been recovered in a later year in Michigan, and a bird banded in Michigan turned up two years later in Minnesota. The most remarkable recovery was a bird banded at Marquette on 7 April 1964 and recovered on 15 April 1965 in the USSR near the Sea of Okhotsk at 59.5º N, 144.4º E, a distance of about 7250 km.
  • Hoary Redpoll, Carduelis hornemanni
    • 0Winter visitor. Irregular but sometimes locally numerous in the Upper Peninsula; unusual in southern Michigan. Reported throughout the state, mainly in the Upper Peninsula, usually in flocks of Common Redpolls. At Houghton, Houghton County, the ratio of Hoary to Common Redpolls in winter flocks is about 1:100 (N. F. Sloan, UMMZ). Also sighted at Whitefish Point, Chippewa County (WPBO). First records in southeastern Michigan were at St. Clair Shores, Macomb County, and Marysville, Macomb County, in 1972 (photo in UMMZ). Hoary Redpolls reports were received from 17 counties throughout the state in the winter of 1981-1982, a redpoll invasion year (JPW 60:93, 1982).
  •  Pine Siskin, Carduelis pinus
    • Common but irregular transient and winter visitor. Summer resident nesting in the Upper Peninsula, local in the Lower Peninsula. Breeding records include Chippewa County and Siskins have nested locally in recent years in the northern Lower Peninsula (Mackinaw State Forest, Alpena County), in southeastern and southwestern Michigan in Berrien, Kalamazoo, Midland, Oakland, and Washtenaw counties (Wood, 1952; Kelley, 1978; JPW 39:147, 1961; 41:63, 1963; 58:34-35, 1980; 61:7, 1983; KNC; UMMZ). Nested in Ann Arbor on the campus of the University of Michigan from 1976 through 1982 and in 1986. Migrates in large flocks; up to 6000 seen in autumn moving along the shoreline of Lake Michigan. Banding recoveries show movements of siskins between Michigan and most areas of eastern North America. Recoveries of more than 1000 km distance are reported for Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Virginia, Oklahoma, and Manitoba.
  •  American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis
    • Common transient and summer resident. Breeds mainly in July and August, later than most Michigan songbirds (Wood, 1951). Goldfinches banded in winter in other states (West Virginia, Tennessee, Indiana) have been recovered in Michigan during the breeding season from late June through August. Two recoveries are known of birds banded as nestlings and reported in a later breeding season. A young bird banded in Michigan was recovered in New York two years later in June. The other was recovered 22 km from its natal site in Michigan. A bird banded in December at Grand Rapids was recovered in the following winter in Oklahoma. Most banding recoveries of Michigan birds are local and at the same time of year as the banding. One bird at Grand Rapids was in the same spot in February and in August. As in the other cardueline finches, a bird may be either a resident or a migrant according to local conditions. Of the 309 goldfinches marked or controlled in Michigan, most have been recaptured in Michigan. Many have also been recovered in Ontario and Ohio, and a few have been recovered as far as New York, Virginia, North Carolina, and Kansas. Seasonal movements of up to 8000 have been observed along the shoreline of Lake Michigan (Goldeneye 10(6):7, 1971). Winters regularly, more common in southern Michigan.
  •  Evening Grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus
    • Common summer resident in the Upper Peninsula and an uncommon and local bird in summer in the northern Lower Peninsula. Flocks of as many as 1000 birds seen in migration in autumn (AB 40:117, 1986). Nesting records from Isle Royale and Baraga, Marquette, Chippewa, Mackinac, Schoolcraft, and Luce counties (Wood, 1951; Wilson Bull. 68:321-322, 1956; JPW 41:62, 1963; 43:166, 1965; 51:154, 1973; Jordan and Shelton, 1982; UMMZ). Birds in the Upper Peninsula live in hardwood forests and enter the jack pines during jack pine budworm outbreaks. In the Lower Peninsula, nesting has been reported in Presque Isle, Roscommon, and Alpena counties (JPW 48:100, 1970; 52:187, 1974; 53:154, 1975; 55:196, 1977). Seen on Beaver Island in July (JPW 46:132, 1968) and South Manitou Island in July (JPW 55:196, 1977). Formerly a western bird, the species has expanded its breeding range eastward into Michigan within the last 100 years (Barrows, 1912; Canad. Field-Nat. 54:15-25, 1940). The first nesting records in Michigan were at Whitefish Point, Chippewa Conty, in 1923 (Auk 40:314-316, 1923). Irregular, usually uncommon winter visitor throughout the state. Some remain in Michigan in winter and others migrate to the east coast. Their movements are relatively well known from the 1394 banding recoveries available. Many return to the same area year after year in the breeding season. Birds banded at Mt. Pleasant, Isabella County, have been recovered in Ontario, Quebec, Maine, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, as well as elsewhere in Michigan (Cuthbert, 1963). Many birds banded in other parts of Michigan have been recovered in the east, particularly in Massachusetts (BBL). Of the 1051 recoveries other than local returns, the median distance range was 700-800 km, and the largest was 2400 km, near St. Pierre et Miquelon. The five birds aged as juveniles in summer that have been recovered in a later breeding season were found at distances of 190-270 km from their banding site.
  •  House Sparrow, Passer domesticus
    • Introduced species. Common and abundant permanent resident in the Lower Peninsula, less abundant in the Upper Peninsula. House Sparrows were first introduced to Michigan and released in 1876 (Barrows, 1912). House Sparrows are mainly sedentary, and nearly all recoveries are within 40 km of the banding site. However dispersal distances of 412 and 538 km to Ohio and of 1928 km from Texas to Michigan have been reported, all of them involving more than a year between marking and recovery.
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