Neural Response to Threat in Children with Early-Life Stress:A Quantitative Meta-Analysis (619)Parenting, Stress, and the Brain:Neurodevelopmental Pathways of Gene-Environment Interactions from Toddlerhood to Adulthood -
Abstract: Early maltreatment, such as childhood trauma and neglect, is associated with profound alterations in brain function. However, most investigations have only examined the effects of early life stress on one structure, the amygdala. To begin to understand how early life stress affects the entire brain, we undertook a quantitative meta-analysis. This meta-analysis explores whole-brain functional alterations across multiple studies of youth with history of maltreatment. By calling attention to other brain regions that are functionally altered by child maltreatment, this analysis could provide a more complete understanding of how maltreatment might impact brain development.
Bio: Tyler received her bachelor's in Neuroscience from the University of Pittsburgh. She is currently a PhD student in Developmental Psychology and works with Dr. Christopher Monk and Dr. Luke Hyde. Tyler is interested in the effects of early life stressors on brain development trajectories, and how this may relate to adolescent psychopathology. Today she will be presenting her 619, which explored alterations in neural activity in maltreated youth.
Literature has linked early stressful experiences to neural functioning longitudinally, yet these studies predominantly look at extreme sources of stress such as childhood maltreatment and extreme poverty. The current study examines the longitudinal relationship between observed parenting at age two and amygdala reactivity to threat at age 20 in a high-risk low-income sample of 170 males. Results indicate divergent relationships between parental warmth and harshness in toddlerhood and amygdala reactivity to threat in adulthood, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic indicators. These patterns were robust to measures of parenting and socioeconomic indicators in early adolescence, providing evidence for a sensitive period in the development of amygdala reactivity. Furthermore, the relationship between parenting at age two and amygdala reactivity at age 20 was moderated by genetic variants in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) gene such that individuals with the protective alleles at rs7209436 and rs110402 were bolstered against the neural effects of early lack of parental warmth.
Bio: Arianna received her B.A. in Psychology from UCLA, after which she worked at the Child Trauma Research Program at UCSF and the longitudinal study of girls with ADHD at UC Berkeley. She is currently a PhD student in Developmental Psychology at the University of Michigan working with Dr. Luke Hyde and Dr. Chris Monk. Arianna is interested in testing Imaging Gene-Environment models in the prediction of emotional lability . Today she will be presenting her 619 which examines the interaction between early parenting, genetic variation in the stress response, and brain development across childhood.