Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110(101). Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the middle ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. If essays are assigned, they will be short and based on the assigned readings. (Tentler)

111(102). Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

As a survey of the last three centuries of European history, this course attempts to account for the process of tumultuous change that has largely shaped the modern world. The lectures (twice a week) are intended to underscore such major themes as the expansion of the state; the development of capitalism; the changing roles of social classes, the family and establishing institutions; and the relationship of these changes to European culture and to the violent conflicts of revolution, war, and European expansion. A textbook is used to provide basic continuity; supplementary readings sample major thinkers and important historical interpretations. Basically, then, the course provides background for the further study of history, of the social sciences, and of Western civilization; but its major goal is to engage the student in historical analysis. To this end, discussion sections (two meetings a week), two papers (one short, one longer), special projects (one required and other optional) are emphasized; and special exhibits and films will be offered as well. Students are encouraged to pick topics of special interest to them for their independent work, class discussion, and even some of the lectures. Grades are based on performance in these activities in addition to an hour and a final examination. (Grew)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 121. (Arnesen)

151(101)/Asian Studies 111. The Civilizations of South and Southeast Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 111. (Trautmann)

160(331). United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to illuminate a few major episodes and issues in American history, 1607-1865. Among these are the nature of Puritanism, the texture of colonial society, the causes of the Revolution, the party division of the 1790's, the nature of Jacksonian society, and the causes of the Civil War. There is no textbook assigned, the reading instead being in separate books each week. These books include works by major historians, collections of contemporary writings, a contemporary analytical work (Tocqueville's Democracy in America), and a novel (Uncle Tom's Cabin ). The major theme of the lectures is an assessment of one pervasive idea, "The growth and development of American individualism," although there will be excursions into some areas developed in the reading. There will be two hour examinations and a final. One or more of these will be of the take-home variety. The principal purpose of the section meetings will be to develop issues arising from the reading. (Livermore)

161(332). United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

To what extent did industrialism dominate, even determine, the lives of Americans during the second century of United States history? The lectures will examine this question in regard to the changing nature of the economy, politics, values, foreign policy, social institutions, and racial and ethnic relations as America moved from a basically rural nation to the highly industrialized and organized nation we know today. A textbook will be assigned, but the discussion sections will concentrate on case studies exploring the larger themes of the course; change and continuity in American values, industrial and labor organization, race and ethnic relations, political institutions, and foreign policy. There will be an hour examination, short quizzes, and a final. (Berkhofer)

180, 181(103, 104). Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures. No credit granted for 180 to those who have completed 350; no credit granted for 181 to those who have completed 351. (4 each). (SS).

History 180 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

Section 001 Progress or Decay? Conflicting Interpretations of the Development of the Modern World. This course differs from the usual introductory course in two fundamental ways. First, it will not limit itself to a single historical culture but will stress the value of comparison in understanding the experience of many cultures, including our own. Secondly, the course will not follow the "one damned thing after another" approach to history. Rather, it will emphasize the relevance of history as a tool for analyzing pressing contemporary issues. At the outset the course will examine the development of the widespread belief in Western Civilization that humans have progressed during the past three centuries. We will then assess the impact of this belief, and of other basic assumptions, in a variety of critical areas: the expansion of Europe; imperialism and neo-colonialism; the nation state and nationalism; bureaucracy; the military. For each of these topics, the course will consider the alternatives posed by non-Western cultures, whose perceptions of these issues can differ fundamentally from our own. Can Western approaches to these issues be appropriate to non-Western societies? What is appropriate to our own? Students will be asked to consider that there is no one history, but many histories; that uncontested fact is of relatively little significance compared with conflicting interpretations and varying perception of the past. There will be three lectures and one discussion a week. Writing requirements for the term will be two short papers and a final exam. This course is recommended for freshmen and sophomores, but is open to all undergraduates. (Broomfield)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200(311). Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Political history is considered only as a background for cultural changes. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. Students are also expected to read the Iliad and several of Plutarch's Greek lives. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be substituted for one) plus a final examination. Each of the three has approximately the same weight. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading to avoid repetitions. Lectures are mainly interpretive. (Starr)

210(313)/MARC 210. Early Middle Ages, 300 - 1100. (4). (SS).

This course will survey the formation of Western European society from late antiquity to the mid-twelfth century. It is intended as a broad introduction to the period, and will trace demographic and economic decline and growth, changing social forms, and the formation of European political and religious institutions. We will also examine early medieval culture, including popular religious life saints, relics and pilgrimages as well as early science and philosophy, and the fine arts. There will be at least one exam and there may be a short paper. Readings include medieval and modern historians.

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "dignity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945 1975. (4). (SS).

The course treats the Vietnam War both as part of an ongoing revolution within Vietnamese society and as the product of Western interventions in that revolution. It will look at the background of Vietnamese nationalism in the period of French colonialism and coalescence of that nationalism with a militant revolutionary movement. The resulting foreign wars, first with France and then with the U.S., will be discussed in the context of post-World War II global tendencies, including movements for national liberation, Western responses to these movements, and American policies for containing communism. Special attention will be given to the manner of U.S. involvement in and extrication from Vietnam. There will be assigned readings from different points of view, two 75-minute lectures and a one-hour discussion section each week, midterm and final examinations, and an optional paper.

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4). (SS).

An introduction to British history from 55 B.C. (Caesar's invasion) to 1688 (William of Orange's invasion). Particular attention will be given to the development and disintegration of several "British societies," i.e., the Anglo-Saxon, the medieval, and the early modern. A textbook will provide the basic framework for the historical narrative and lectures will supplement rather than repeat the text. Other readings will include literary as well as historical works. There will be an hourly examination, a final examination and a brief paper. The course format will primarily be lectures, with class sessions allotted for discussion. (Herrup)

262(355). The American South. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course concerns the history of one of America's largest minorities: Southerners. Beginning with the colonial origins of Southern society, it will explore the social, economic, political, cultural, and religious characteristics that have, until recently, made the South a region unto itself. Readings will include the work of distinguished historians of the South like C. Vann Woodward, Charles Sydnor, Edmund Morgan, Eugene Genovese, John Hope Franklin, and Harold Woodman, as well as the work of literary and journalistic interpreters of the South, such as Frederick Law Olmsted, Michael Shaara, and William Faulkner. Some background in American history is advisable though, for energetic students, not essential. The course will be taught through lectures and discussion. Requirements include a midterm and final examinations, and a short (10-page) final paper. (Fields)

274(201)/CAAS 230. Survey of Afroamerican History I. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 230. (Wilson)

283(263). Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

284(261). Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (4). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. This course will study a variety of historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision-making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Indians, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. The readings will focus on the English-speaking world since 1492, although comparisons with other societies will be introduced.

This course is a basic introduction. No background in medicine or history is assumed or required. Classes will be taught in lecture format, using a variety of audio and visual source materials. Reading assignments will emphasize primary source documents, such as old newspapers, magazines, and vintage medical journals. Modern historical articles will also be assigned. There will be a midterm and final exam, and periodic short quizzes. (Pernick)

286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (4). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all concentrations, there are no pre-requisites; the course focuses on both Church History and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic and Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the west (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversions of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches (Coptic and Syriac). We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no text book. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam (which can be taken orally or as a written) and a final are required. (J. Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

324/Rel. 324. The Biblical and Patristic Roots of Christian Mysticism. (3). (HU).

See Religion 324. (Stuckey)

332/REES 395/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395.

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine via talks, books and films America's wars of the past eighty-five years, with emphasis on those that have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience as they alter from war to war. In larger historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's pattern of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be almost no discussion of tactics or the technical processes of warmaking. The class will meet from 3:00 to 5:00 on Monday afternoons and from 3:00 to 4:00 on Wednesday afternoons, with Monday's second hour ordinarily devoted to film showings. The general format will be that of the lecture, but the instructor asks, and needs, frequent and vigorous student intervention. Reading assignments generally require the mastery of one paperback volume each week. Tentative marking requirements include a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. (Linderman)

369(574). Modern American Culture. (4). (HU).

A lecture course on modern American culture with special emphasis on the U.S. as a consumer society. It focuses on the institutions of advertising and shopping; studies of household budgets; patterns of consumption of various social groups; and the responses of writers to changes in the American standard of living. The readings include Henry David Thoreau's Walden, Thorstein Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women and Economics, Sinclair Lewis' Babbitt, David Riesman's Lonely Crowd, Tom Wolfe's Pump House Gang, and Daniel Yankelovich's New Rules. Requirements will include a midterm examination, one critical essay, and a final examination. (D. Horowitz)

371(288)/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History. (4). (SS).

A survey of the history of American women with particular emphasis on social, economic, and intellectual aspects. The course will examine the historical position of women within the family and the society, focusing on such problems as separate spheres, the nature of women's work, the implications of class, the rise of the "lady", changing notions of sexuality, the meaning of education, and feminism. A particular interest will be the spatial configurations in which women live and work: house, factory, college, settlement house, community, etc. Readings (approximately one book a week) will include historical studies, fiction, social commentary, and anthropological articles. In addition to a midterm and a final, students will write several papers. (H. Horowitz)

384(470). Modern Jewish History 1880 1948. (4). (SS).

This course is built around a series of themes: socialism and the varieties of Jewish nationalism, Jewish life in Eastern and Western Europe, Zionism, the Mandate for Palestine, the Nazi genocide, the Jews in Russia and Palestine and the rise of the State of Israel. The readings are drawn from books, articles in a number of periodicals and some general texts. There will be a midterm and final examination. At least one will be typed at home. (Reinharz)

393. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

A course in the history of the Irish in America. We will survey the literature on this subject and develop from readings and in several texts a knowledge of the main features of that history as presently construed. Following that, lectures and discussions will focus upon selected topics in Irish-American history and historiography. Students will be required three instances of writing, and upon these will the grade be based. First, a journal of commentary on the assigned readings. Tested throughout the course. Second, a term paper (about 10 pages) on a subject worked up by the student. Third, a report of original research into family, local, or regional history (relative to Irish-Americans). There will be no examinations set. Regular attendance and participation in the course meetings will be expected to make the work of the course a success. (McNamara)

396, 397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

History 396 and 397 are offered Fall Term, 1983.

History 396.

Section 001 Soldiers, Diplomats, Merchants and Missionaries: The American Involvement in Modern Japan. This course concerns one aspect of the encounter between the U.S. and Japan. It deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in the changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It focuses on individual Americans from different walks of life government representatives, military figures, businessmen, government advisors, travelers, missionaries, teachers, and explorers their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as a way of examining the broader involvement of Americans in the history of modern Japan. Charles E. Neu's The Troubled Encounter : The United States and Japan, N.Y. John Wiley, 1975 (paperback) will be used as general text for the history of U.S.-Japanese relations. Each student will prepare three biographical sketches. Grades will be based on class discussions of readings and on the quality of oral reports and assigned papers. (Hackett)

Section 002 The West in Asia 1498-1941. "Colloquium means talking together", and this is mainly a discussion course, but based on a wide range of readings. Given the scope of the topic, these can be only samples but will include enough basic materials to provide the context of modern Asian history (India, Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and Korea), into which we will try to fit the Westerners, in their varied and changing roles from Vasco da Gama and Magellan to the end of full-scale colonialism with the Pacific War. What were their goals, and how did they differ over time and between each group and each major Asian area? How and why were they able to win positions of power and influence in Asia, and with what consequences? Reading and discussion are emphasized, but there are also four required essays, each 5-10 pages, to be based on the readings, in lieu of examinations. Grades are based entirely on these essays but each student will also be responsible for one or more oral presentations on selected topics. No prior knowledge of Asia is required, but interest and willingness to read and talk about it are assumed. (Murphey)

Section 003 Work Since the Industrial Revolution. This course will examine the historical process by which work in its modern form arose. Beginning with the industrial revolution, it will consider how people's habits, conceptions, and experience of working have been formed and altered. Included will be a section on work discipline under slavery, a system at once sustained by the industrial revolution and embodying principles antithetical to it. The evolution of work will be traced through readings drawn from social commentators, social theorists, historians, novelists, and individual working people themselves. The class will be conducted through discussions, in which all students will be expected to participate. Students will be asked to write two short (five-page) analytical papers and a longer (ten to fifteen-page) final paper. (B. Fields)

Section 004 European Economic Community. This course will focus on the dynamic relations among the European nations in a regional association; their relation(s) to the international system; and the policies of their private sectors in regard to European integration. While the course centers upon a detailed analysis of the emergence, growth, and problems of the European Economic Community, we shall try to place these developments into the context of the changing political and military setting of post-war Europe. We shall end with a comparison of Eastern and Western European efforts of integration. While the main objective of the course consists in understanding and discussing the "grand" questions of European Integration, the secondary objective of the course consists in familiarizing interested students with administrative and legal practices, economic and financial techniques, and the social reality of European integration. The component will be particularly stressed in papers which will require an above average effort. This course requires individual research efforts of all members of the class. There is only one prerequisite for this course: readiness to do consistent work in preparing for the colloquium sessions. The colloquium will be most suitable for Economics, History, and Political Science concentrators. As an introduction I recommend: Anthony J.C. Kerr: The Common Market and How it Works, Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press 1977 or Steven J. Warnecke, The European Community (Research Resources), New York: The Council for European Studies 1978. (Geyer)

History 397.

Section 001 American Political Development. The colloquium will consider the historical development of American political institutions, processes and practices. Alternative interpretations of American political history will be considered, and emphasis will be placed upon interpretive perspectives rather than specific historical events and personages. Attention will be directed to such themes as political modernization, national political integration, popular participation in politics and government, and political corruption. Reliance will be placed upon class discussion rather than lectures, and student papers will provide the basis for evaluation. (Clubb)

Section 002 Africa. The subject matter of this section is Neocolonialism, the subject area is the Third World with particular reference to Africa, and the subject period is the second half of the 20th century. We shall examine the meaning, origin, and mechanics of neocolonialism; we shall evaluate its impact on the Third World (economic, socio-cultural and political), and we shall analyze the relationship between imperialism, colonialism, capitalism and neocolonialism. Assigned readings will be the focus of the colloquium. Each student is expected to have a useful familiarity with the contents of these readings. I plan to invite some specialist professors in some of the subject areas to lead some of our initial meetings. The requirements for obtaining a grade in the course will be discussed when the group meets. (Uzoigwe)

Section 004 Poverty and Vagrancy in Pre-Industrial Europe. As a measure of relative wealth, poverty has always existed, but as a measure of respectability, poverty is a more recent phenomenon. This course examines the transition in pre-industrial Europe from the belief that poverty was a natural and perhaps even 'holy' state to the view that property was a 'problem' born of laziness and defiance. Through secondary and primary readings (in English), we will examine the changes that caused a real increase in the number of landless individuals in society (using works by C. Cipolla and K. Marx among others), the meaning of these changes for daily life among the poor (using work by N. Davis, O. Hufton, J. Pound, etc.) and societal responses to the new 'problem' (using legislation, literature, etc.). Previous study of European history is useful, but not required. Evaluation will be based on discussions, one oral report to the class and three 5 page essays analyzing attitudes towards poverty and vagrancy. (Herrup)

Section 005 The Evolution of Modern Sweden 1500-1980. We'll take this generally unknown, in some respects typical and in some respects very unusual society through the evolution of the modern state, migration, urbanization, and industrialization into the modern "socialist" era. Text and supplementary reading. One report, one paper, no exams. (Lockridge)

Section 006 Comparative Revolutionary Elites. The course will study and compare the personalities and the writings of selected leaders of opposition movements advocating radical change. The focus of the comparison will be a contrast between several violent and non-violent trends. The examples of violent movements to be studied are: (1) Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism; (2) Anarchism (3) Fascism. The non-violent movements are those associated with (1) Gandhi, Tolstoy, and related "non-violent" resistance groups; (2) communal movements in India, Israel, the U.S. and elsewhere; and the recent wave of "narcissism" with its emphasis on an "inward" voyage as the route to follow towards solving individual problems. The course will be especially interested in relating the ideas to the personalities of their authors and in evaluating the social consequences of those ideas and ideals, judging, that is, their success or failure and their social costs. The course will involve, mainly, discussions of the assigned readings. In addition to active participation in those discussions, the requirements are one term paper and a final exam. (Mendel)

Section 007 Science, Medicine, and Sexuality: Historical Perspectives. Medical concepts about human sexuality and gender have both affected and reflected changes in science and society. This course will examine four aspects of this relationship: 1) comparison of women and men as medical practitioners; 2) comparison of the health problems and medical treatment of men and women patients; 3) biomedical concepts about the nature of sexuality; 4) biomedical influences on gender roles in society. Emphasis will be placed on the ways in which female roles have affected male roles and vice-versa. Readings and discussions will center on the U.S. and England from 1600 to the present. The course will be organized chronologically. No background in history or medicine is required, though a previous introduction to either could be useful. Class will be discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Reading assignments will include primary source materials such as old medical journals and newspapers, as well as modern historical works. Students will be expected to read and discuss thoughtfully the equivalent of a short book per week. A 20-page paper based on original historical research is required. Each student will also be required to prepare two 3-5 page book reviews. There are no written examinations. (Pernick)

Section 008 Modern Science. The reign of Charles II is a key period in the development of English science. Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton, Christopher Wren, Robert Hooke, and a host of lesser scientists dominate the period, as does the major institutional event in the establishment of modern science, the founding of the Royal Society of London. In this course, the milieu of Restoration science will be studied through the documents of the period. We will read one basic book, Michael Hunter's new survey of Restoration science, and then spend the rest of the term "in the archives," looking at the correspondence of the leading and lesser scientists, their published works, their diaries and the Restoration in general. The objective of the course will be to come to understand the Restoration better through one of its major activities. History and culture will be stressed, not science. (Steneck)

Section 010 American Women and Higher Education. This course will explore the critical role that higher education has played in the history of American women. It will examine theories about women's minds and proper sphere; the seminaries, colleges, and universities, in which women have received the higher learning; and women's experiences as they developed college life. An element of special interest will be the question of the differences between single-sex colleges and coeducational universities. Readings will include both primary and secondary sources, approximately one book a week. Evaluation will be based on class discussion and on papers - a short review essay and a research paper. For the research paper, students will be encouraged to examine an aspect of women's experience at the University of Michigan. (H. Horowitz)

Section 011 Immigrant Experience in America. The course is designed to explore the personal and collective experience of immigrants arriving in the U.S. during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Categories of special interest will include the following: immigrant expectation and adaptation; the tension between ethnic exclusiveness and assimilation; the fit of the immigrant within the new city and its policies; native-born reactions; and the condition of ethnicity in contemporary America. Films and meetings with members of local ethnic communities will be employed to convey particular ethnic patterns. Tentative marking requirements include vigorous class discussion and several short analytical essays. The course does not form part of a departmental sequence, nor do special background or prerequisite courses bear in its successful completion. (Linderman)

399(394). Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Contrary to previous years we will meet every two weeks. We will discuss practical problems of research. While there is an agenda, it is a flexible one. The main emphasis is on accommodating and discussing the problems that occur in the research of each individual student. As such it would help to reduce frustration and anxieties. It should be added that this class does not and cannot replace close contact with the special thesis advisor. (Geyer)

402(413). Roman Republic. (4). (HU).

A survey of the rise of Rome to mastery of the Mediterranean world, and correlated internal political, economic, and intellectual changes through the age of Cicero and Caesar. Reading: a general text for facts; several books of Livy in English; several of Plutarch's Lives. One hour examination, one research paper, and one final examination, all counting equally. (Starr)

403(414). The Early Roman Empire. (4). (HU).

An investigation through lectures and discussion of political, social, and intellectual developments within the Roman Empire from the "reign" of Julius Caesar to the revolution of A.D. 193. Students will be expected to read widely in the primary and secondary literature and to submit a ten-page paper on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor. Optional midterm (will be given on demand) and a final examination. (Eadie)

415(458). Intellectual History of Europe, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. (4). (HU).

This course is designed to introduce students to the field of intellectual history while covering the main currents of Western European thought during the early modern era. It will focus on the shift from the traditional Christianity to Enlightenment thought, beginning with the Copernican Revolution and ending with the age of Voltaire and Rousseau. Reading assignments will include selections from works by celebrated thinkers and recent interpretations of controversial issues such as Galileo's Trial, the relation between Protestantism and science, Baroque court culture, the power of the press, the effects of censorship, and the social role of intellectuals. Written assignments will consist of an annotated reading list, an hour exam, and a final. (Eisenstein)

416(459). Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (4). (HU).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870's. This course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's European Intellectual History Since 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, M.H. Abrams' Natural Supernaturalism, Hegel's Philosophy of History, J.S. Mill's On Liberty, Marx-Engels' The Communist Manifesto and Harry Levin's The Gates of Horn. There will be regular class discussions of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

432(501). Russia to Peter the Great. (4). (SS).

The course covers the first seven centuries of recorded Russian history and focuses on such major topics as the Norsemen's conquest of Russia, the Golden Age of Kiev, the Mongol invasion, the rise of Moscow, relations with the West, expansion into Siberia, the Ukraine, and first contacts with China. During the first ten weeks, lectures follow a roughly chronological sequence (to the reign of Peter the Great). The last five weeks feature a series of survey lectures on special topics such as women in Old Russia, Jews and Jewish influences in Old Russian history, Cossacks, the rise of serfdom, Ivan the Terrible, aristocrats and bureaucrats, holy fools, problems in Old Russian culture, and legends and myths that shaped Russian history. The basic text is N. Riasanovsky's A History of Russia. Modest additional readings will be assigned. Questions and comments from the class during a lecture are welcome. The course is open to all students and assumes no prior knowledge of Russian history. (Dewey)

434(503). History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

A history of twentieth-century Russia, which concentrates on the social, political, economic and intellectual forms of Bolshevism as they developed before 1917, and as they were applied in domestic and, to some extent, foreign policies after 1917. Stress is placed on understanding Russian perspectives of Russian history, and on developing an awareness of important aspects of social development generally. Readings are drawn from various literary and historical monographs, rather than from a single text; and students are asked to integrate their own interests with the substantive material of Soviet history through class "projects," which may or may not be written term papers. There is also a midterm exam (with a graded/ungraded option as well as a take-home/in-class choice), and a final (graded, choice of take-home/in-class). (Rosenberg)

436(504). Nineteenth-Century Russian Thought: Political, Social, and Religious. (4). (HU).

Beginning with a discussion of the "intelligentsia" in general and their emergence in Russian, the course covers the various, competing trends in the 19th century Russian social, political and religious thought. The focus is on the contradictions in theory and practice that result when a "westernized" elite tries to come to terms with a profoundly non-western society that is essentially alien to them. Among the central themes are the Westerner-Slavophile dispute, the Nihilists of the 1850's and 1860's, the aristocratic rebels (those like Alexander Herzen and Mikhael Bakunin), Russian populism, and Christian Socialism (Dostoevsky and Tolstoy). Reading assignments are the original works of the individual studied, with a heavy emphasis on Russian literature. There will be a required final examination and an optional midterm. (Mendel)

438(506). Eastern Europe from 1500 to 1900. (4). (SS).

This course consists of two parts. Part I provides a brief survey of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Habsburg Monarchy and their component nationalities (Poles, Lithuanians, Jews, Czechs, Slovaks) to the end of the 18th century. Part II reviews the history of the area in the 19th century against the background of social and economic change (urbanization, industrialization, abolition of serfdom) and new political ideas: liberalism, democracy, nationalism and socialism. Readings will include R.A. Kahn, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1526-1918, P. Wandycz, The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 1795-1918, and H. Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire, 1801-1917. (Szporluk)

442(533)/GNE 473. Ottoman Power in Europe and the Near East, 1258 1789. (3). (HU).

This course is about the changing of the guard that occurred in the Near East when the Turks and Mongols arrived. Among the course topics: Christianity versus Islam in the later middle ages, the permanent Mongol impact on society and government, the economy of the Near East in the Renaissance, land and sea warfare in the early modern era, and "Turkish" art. Readings will range among primary sources, travel accounts, anthropological literature, and scholarly controversies. There will be considerable class discussion as well as lectures, and students will be responsible for two hour exams in addition to the final exam. (Lindner)

447(536)/CAAS 447. Africa in the Nineteenth Century. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 447. (Uzoigwe)

451(548). Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is Edwin O. Reischauer and Albert M. Craig, Japan: Tradition and Transformation, (Houghton Mifflin, 1978). Other reading assignments will be organized with a course pack. (Hackett)

452(549). Premodern Southeast Asia. (4). (SS).

This course will explore the historical development of traditional Southeast Asian societies from prehistoric times through the age of the traditional kingdoms, ca. mid-second millennium A.D. Although some political history will be inevitable in establishing the basic chronological framework, the emphasis, wherever possible, will be on cultural and economic themes. We shall also explore themes from Southeast Asian intellectual history, particularly the idea of history itself. Every other week one session will be devoted to discussion of items from the reading list short articles, historical documents (all such items will be indicated in advance and will be on reserve); occasionally, short handouts will also be included for reading and discussion. The requirements will include one paper (approx. 10-12 pages) and a final exam (and, possibly, a midterm, if the class so chooses).

454(588). The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (4). (HU).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilization of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautman)

460(555). American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

A casual exploration of colonial America from New England down to Virginia, always asking how this seemingly contented collection of colonies could so suddenly, from 1763 to 1776, reject the ties that bound them to England and declare independence. An exploration of the colonial origins of an American consciousness and character. Two textbooks and six other books, some fairly entertaining, alternate lectures and discussions. Two very short papers, an 8-10 page paper, and a final examination. In sum, a look at a society which was going nowhere, yet in fact was going somewhere without knowing it, toward independence and self-awareness. (Lockridge)

462(557). The United States in the Early National Period, 1789 1830. (4). (SS).

This course is an intensive examination of the major political currents in the period 1789-1830. Examples of these topics are the formation of a national government under the Constitution, the gradual and increasingly bitter party division during the 1790's, the foreign policy issues leading to the War of 1812 and the uneasy experiment with one-party politics after the War. The reading consists of major monographs on these topics. There is no text. The one midterm examination will be a "take-home" and for the final examination there will be a choice between the "take-home" and standard two-hour forms. (Livermore)

466(562). The United States, 1901 1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

468/Amer. Inst. 468. Politics, Power, and the Public Sector in America, 1820-1920. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See Program in American Institutions 468. (McDonald)

512(515). From Oligarchy to Reform: Georgian Britain, 1714 1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

British political, social and economic history from the accession of the House of Hanover to the Reform Bill of 1832: the Domination of the landed interest and the Augustan stability; the centralizing factors in the reign of George III; the challenges of the American and French Revolutions; the agricultural and industrial revolutions; new religious currents; the emergence of a successful reform movement and a new political synthesis. (Price)

527(478). New Approaches to Preindustrial France. (4). (SS).

A study of themes in French development from the late Middle Ages to about 1850, and of the methods for their analysis. The course will treat in particular the structure of peasant life, customs, and mentality; demographic trends; the local and national economy; growth of the state and its interaction with the several social groups; and the place of the French Revolution as an expression of short-term and long-term tensions and ideas. Readings include works of Goubert, de Tocqueville, and others. Teaching is by a mixture of lecture and discussion. The course requirements are a midterm and final examination, and one essay of 6 to 8 pages. (Le Roy Ladurie)

531(509). History of the Balkans Since 1800. (4). (SS).

History 531 is a lecture course which surveys the history of the Modern Balkans the area which consists of the present day countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. There are no pre-requisites nor required background. Interested freshmen should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam (with the option of having a one-hour written exam, write one essay question out of about four, or a half-hour oral), one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor) and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: Liberation movements of the Serbs and Greeks from the Ottomans, development of their two states, the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonian problem, Terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, Nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek Resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. (John Fine)

542(553). Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (4). (SS).

This course will deal with the 20th century evolution of the Persian Gulf States of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. The course will focus on the rise and fall of the Pahlevi dynasty with appropriate attention given to those elements of Safavid and Qajar Persia which shaped the formation of modern Iran. Similar attention will be given to the creation of the modern Arab sates around the Gulf and the evolution of the "Arab Gulf" concept. The histories of these nations will be treated in the context of the regional and international relations of these countries to both the Eastern and Western worlds, "defense" strategies in the Persian Gulf and the India Ocean and, of course, the central issue of energy and oil. A central concern will be the implications for internal, regional and international policies of the rising wave of Muslim "revival" and "fundamentalism" as dramatised in the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Lectures will be laced with discussions; a book review, and a final examination are required. (Mitchell)

551(545). Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (HU).

In this course, we shall seek the origins of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, which was so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely for antecedents and shall hear testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, or Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, bandits and warlords, cultural iconoclasm and conservative reaction, nationalism and women's liberation, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Mao's social vision and the People's Republic as a model of development.

Some familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful. Those entering the course without background should be ready to do some catch-up work. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write three short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

559(365). U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (4). (SS).

This course considers the role of the United States in world affairs from the outbreak of the first World War to the present. The emphasis is on American policy and the factors which produce it but attention is also paid to the international setting and to the policies of nations with whom, or toward whom, the U.S. acted. The course is basically a lecture course, although discussion is encouraged. The assigned reading consists only of a textbook, but an intensive term paper, planned in conjunction with the instructor and based upon reading in numerous books is also required. There is one hour examination. The final examination consists of one two hour essay. (Perkins)

566(573). History of the American City. (4). (SS).

History 566 is a general survey course of the history of American cities which is especially concerned with the period from the onset of the industrial revolution (circa 1840) to the present. It will consider cities primarily as systems of social relationships and focus upon the interactions among economic development, class structure, social differentiation, and political economy. Both chronological and topical approaches to the subject will be presented, and topics to be considered in some detail include the development of the urban class structure, the origins and professionalization of urban institutions such as police, schools, etc., machine and reform-style urban politics, the urban experience of racial and ethnic minorities, and the political economy of post World War II suburbanization, urban renewal, and central city fiscal crisis. On average there will be two lectures and one discussion of required reading per week. Students will read about ten paperback books, write an essay-type midterm and final examination, and prepare a brief (5-8pp.) interpretive essay based upon the course readings. Graduate students will be expected to accomplish an essay of greater length and complexity. (McDonald)

571/Amer. Inst. 471. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (SS).

This course will analyze the American family from the colonial period to the present. It will trace changes in the family from a pre-industrial society to a post-industrial one. The approach is topical and will cover such issues as the use of birth control and abortions, childbearing practices, adolescence, role of women, old age, and death and dying. Particular attention will be placed on analyzing the impact of changes in American institutions on the development of the family. Course format consists of lectures and classroom discussions with an emphasis on a critical reading of the assigned materials. The grading will be based upon the midterm and final examination. Some of the reading will include Michael Gordon's The American Family in Social-Historical Perspective, Nancy Cott and Elizabeth Pleck's A Heritage of Her Own, David Fischer's Growing Old In America, David Stannard's Death in America, James Mohr's Abortion in America. (Vinovskis)

587(597). History of History I. (4). (HU).

This lecture course traces the development of historical study from the world of myth to the rise of historicism in the 18th century. It attempts to account for changing historical conceptions and to relate these changes to developments in methodology and the choice historical subject matter. The course is the first of a two-term sequence. There is no text but students will be advised to read from classical historical accounts and standard historiographical works. The student will be required to consider one historian at length and write a term paper 2,500 words in length dealing with the historian or some aspect of his method. The term paper will constitute 1/4 of the course grade. A midterm examination will constitute 1/4 of the course grade and the final examination will constitute the remaining half. (Tonsor)

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