Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. Students with inadequate preparation for University studies should find this course to be helpful as a background for studying other courses. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, schema and semantic memory; cognitive skills; language generation; problem solving; creativity; learning styles; motivation, anxiety and attributions; learning in groups; and, behavioral control: self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and a weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about areas of psychology which emphasize a study of the brain and behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Each section is taught individually by a graduate teaching fellow who has complete responsibility for his/her section. Because there are substantial variations among sections in content and teaching style, students are encouraged to sit in on several sections during the first week of classes before making their final choice.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a time slot ONLY (sections 001-010). Students should check the TIME SCHEDULE (final edition) for the day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-010). During this first meeting, the instructors present their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. Students, then, apply to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to the instructor at this first meeting. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych. 171. Wait list (section 099) students must attend the special meeting listed in the Time Schedule. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-010) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR to the meeting to retain their space in the course or on the Wait List.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. The major objectives of the course are to increase knowledge concerning causes of behavior and to develop an ability and desire to learn more about behavior, especially human behavior. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, creativity, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation and human sexuality, emotion, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy, interpersonal relations, aggression and violence, and environmental psychology. The discussion sections provide an opportunity to pursue particular topics in greater depth and detail, to share experiences with others, and to learn from this sharing. There is a single text for the course, but the discussion sections require some additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects or film critiques. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. (Morris)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 002.
This section of Psychology 192 is taught on a "mastery system". Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any students who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. Generally speaking, students must put their names on the wait list for one semester in order to be admitted to the course the next semester, since the demand for the course is great. (McConnell)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Two credit projects require six hours of work per week including four hours of fieldwork, log writing, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Information regarding registration, lecture/discussion times, and field work will be available at a MASS MEETING ON MONDAY, MARCH 26 AT 7 PM. Students attending this meeting will be given priority in setting placements. For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two settings of Psych 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R. D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300 309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300 309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Committee on Undergraduate Studies. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300 309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300 309.

Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with biological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. The organ responsible for these functions is the brain, and therefore much of the course deals with brain-behavior relations, but other biological influences, including hormones, will be considered. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), sleep and waking states, sexual behavior, regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), and learning and memory. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores only. One cannot obtain credit for Psych 331 and 431. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Robinson, Holmes, Valenstein, Uttal)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include organizational design; motivation; work-related attitudes; leadership; decision-making; group behavior; organizational change; work and health; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be two general lectures and one small group discussion section. The discussion sections will review the materials of the texts and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (A. Tannenbaum)

368/Biol. Anthro. 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

See Biological Anthropology 368. (Wrangham and Smuts)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be two small papers and two long, integrative essays. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a critical overview of problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. Consistent with the underlying paradigms of the area, the course emphasizes understanding of social problems from the perspective of person-environment interactions and an ecological and general systems approach. In this framework, it examines the nature of community and community systems, aspects of helping and helping services, dynamics of social services institutions and community mental health, and emerging models of social and community intervention. Through widely varied readings, guest presentations, and class projects, the course explores issues of pro-active and preventive social programming, self-help and social support, empowerment and community actions, and community-based research and social change. Student learning and grading will be based on active class participation, a series of short papers, one major term project, and a take-home examination. Students are encouraged, but not required, to participate in volunteer field-work related to course content, and will be allowed to utilize that experience in addressing course requirements. (Kieffer)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course was designed primarily for persons interested in pursuing programs that would involve direct work with families. Its thrust is decidedly "clinical" as opposed to "social survey" or "cross-culturally comparative". These latter topics will be touched on only insofar as they enlighten what is happening (or not happening) to the family in contemporary American society. Thus, the course will deal with the history of socio-clinical concern with the "plight" of the American family in the last 20 years. The conceptual orientations in the course will be distinctively those of "general systems theory" and "symbolic interactionism". The sociology of deviance within the family system will receive major emphasis psychopathologies will be reconstrued within a family systems context. The organization of the course will, in fact, be developmental. That is it will trace the life cycle of families from mate-selection through developmental crisis to dissolution, single parenthood, remarriage, family reconstruction, and do so with a continual awareness of social context. Contrasts and parallels with other "clinical" theories and therapies (i.e., psychoanalytic) will serve as constant counterpoint, and be used to highlight implicit and/or explicit assumptions about family dynamics, as well as ethical concerns about how, why and when one intervenes in family systems. Concomitantly, social modes of "researching" families in today's society will be considered on ethical, heuristic, political and presumptive grounds. Dilemmas for the "researcher" and the "researched," the "treated" and the "treater" will be considered. Required texts are Goldenberg and Goldenberg (eds.), Family Therapy: An Overview, Bermann, Scapegoat: The Impact of Death Fear on an American Family , Napier and Whitiker, The Family Crucible and a course pack. Grading in the course is based on class presentation and discussion (15%), a midterm exam (20%), a final exam (30%) and a term paper. (Bermann)

Section 002. The course will consider marriage and the family as social institutions, as small social organizations, and as interpersonal systems. We will look at variations in the form and function of families over time and across cultures. We will discuss various theories about family interaction and empirical approaches to marital and family exchange. (Douvan, Veroff)

Section 003. The purposes of this course are to familiarize students with family theories, assessment procedures and interventions; to explore conceptualizations of effective and ineffective family functioning; and to acquaint students with major stressors affecting family life and the ways families organize themselves to respond to those stressors. Topics included in the course are theoretical approaches to families including general systems, structural family, psychodynamic and behavioral. Also included are empirical theories regarding marital relationships and a review of several major stressors including work, divorce, family violence and chronic illnesses and the impact that these stressors have on family life. The course will use both lecture and discussion formats. Evaluation of student's performance will be based on two short multiple choice exams, several take home essays related to lectures and reading and a three-part family assessment. Goldenberg and Goldenberg, Family Therapy, An Overview and journal articles will comprise assigned readings. (Barbarin)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LS&A Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning March 26. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward of the Neuropsychiatric Institute at University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

Section 002. The focus of this course will be on research strategies and methods which are brought to bear on understanding the nature and treatment of psychopathology. Special attention will be given to the integration of clinical and research data. As part of this course, students will serve as part-time research assistants (approximately two hours/week) to faculty members in order to gain "hands on" clinical research experience. This may include interviewing subjects, coding fantasy material or results of psychological tests, participating in the design of questionnaires etc. In no case will students be asked to do drone-like work. The aim is to become an active member of a functioning research team. In addition to this experiential component, the course will cover readings drawn from the areas of general epistemology, research methods, and theories of psychopathology. Two papers (each approximately 2-3 pages long) and a final paper (5-7 pages long) focused on evaluation of published clinical research round out the formal requirements. The course is intended for students planning graduate work in either the social sciences (e.g., clinical psychology, applied developmental psychology) or in areas in which such sophistication in understanding reports or clinical research is helpful (e.g., medicine, certain areas of law, education). Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning March 26, l984. (Kalter)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; or Biol. 100, 105, 112, or 114; or Physiol. 101. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. (W. Holmes)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology or Physiology. (3). (NS).

This lecture course surveys the field of physiological psychology, emphasizing the study of central nervous mechanisms of behavior, cognition and perception. Following background lectures on neurophysiology, neuropharmacology and neuroanatomy, the course will deal with neuromechanisms of sensory processes and of motor control (movement and posture). Other topics include brain mechanisms of sleep and waking states, motivation, learning and memory. Much of the material comes from studies employing animals. However, whenever possible, research dealing with human brain function and behavior will be discussed, as in topics dealing with the neuropharmacology of psychiatric disorders and specialization of function in each of the cerebral hemispheres. Prerequisites include Introductory Psychology and Zoology or Physiology. Several objective examinations will be given during the term, as well as a final examination. (Butter)

435. Sensory Functions. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology, or Physiology. (3). (NS).

All information about the world around us as well as within us is made known through our various senses (vision, hearing, smell, etc.). Our sensory capacities, as revealed by our behavior in the detection and discrimination of different environmental events (visual, auditory, olfactory, etc.), and the manner in which the senses receive and transmit information to the central nervous system and brain form the subject matter of this course. Sample topics include color vision, depth perception, sound localization, and sensory disabilities such as color blindness and hearing loss brought about by exposure to loud noise. Evaluation will be made by three midterms and one final exam. Instruction is by lecture-discussion format. Discussion is encouraged. (Uttal)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes scientific study of motivation. It considers principles of motivation in depth. It aims to encourage further development of an understanding of science in the context of studying some intrinsically interesting problems: the methods employed to measure individual differences in personality that influence motivation, and the details of the motivational process that underlies behavior. The analysis of personality-motivation-action focuses mainly but not exclusively on the inevitable conflict between the hope of success and the fear of failure arising in efforts to achieve and what has been learned in extensive studies of motivation to achieve. Much of the lecture/discussion concerns algebraic models of motivation, evaluation of experimental findings, even computer simulation of motivational problems. Generally some background in several psychology courses and statistics is recommended but not required. Students having only introductory psychology are not advised to take this course unless they feel competent and comfortable with algebra and have a strong interest in scientific psychology. Assignments involve a combination of text and reserve or course pack readings. Final grade is based on several hour exams and written work (problems or essays) submitted during the term. (Atkinson)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

This course reviews psychological research on higher mental processes, and relates it both to psychological theory and to practice. A number of specific topics are covered, including the organization of knowledge, concept acquisition and use, induction, logical reasoning, mathematical reasoning, language and thought, analogical reasoning, mental imagery and visual thinking, individual differences in thought processes, creative thinking, and problem solving. There will be lectures, in-class discussions, and small-group discussions on these topics. Three exams are given, each covering one-third of the course. There are also a series of short written projects linked to the course content. Textbooks will include The Minds Best Work by D.N. Perkins and Conceptual Blockbusting by J.L. Adams. (G. Olson)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).

The focus of this course is adult human memory. We shall examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and limited discussion where appropriate. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in their junior or senior years. (Jonides)

451. Development of Language and Higher Mental Processes. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course will examine how children acquire their first language, and closely related topics in cognitive development. Through lectures and discussion, we will cover: the development of word meaning, concepts, and categories; early grammars; the relationship between language development and cognitive development. Emphasis will be placed on contemporary research and theory. Students will be evaluated by two exams and a paper. (Gelman)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology - psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on two exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and two summaries of research articles. This section will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 519 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The primary purpose of this course is to expose students to the theories and research findings relating to the processes by which an individual becomes a social being. An attempt is also made to make the course personally meaningful so that students gain some insights into their own social development so that they can develop practical applications of the material. For psychology concentrators, some time is spent critically examining research methods and suggesting problem areas needing further investigation.

454. Analysis of Interpersonal Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Sections 001-004.
The purpose of this course is for students to gain an understanding of interpersonal relations as they develop in an unstructured group setting. As members of the group, students observe and attempt to understand the processes of their own group. What caused the group to take the turn it did? Why is its mood different today? What norms are emerging? Who are its leaders - formal and informal? What myths, fantasies, or assumptions seem to underlie group moods or behaviors? What role does each of us play in the group? These are some of the questions we try to answer. In brief planned sessions students analyze the previous session, and apply concepts and insights from the literature on groups in the effort to understand this group's history and development. In longer unstructured sessions students interact and reflect on the process. Three papers during the term each include: (1) an analysis of a third of the sessions' key events, meanings, myths, mood shifts, norms, leaders, etc.; (2) further analysis of these sessions in terms of theories and concepts from readings; (3) an analysis of one's own part in the group. Psych 454 provides in depth, experiential learning about groups through participation in a self-analytic group limited to twenty people. (J. Mann)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course considers the physical, cognitive, and emotional-social development of children from conception to adolescence. Methodologies and theories are evaluated. The emphasis is on the development of normal children in western cultures, although some cross-cultural data and factors making for difficult development are also considered.

458. Gender and the Individual. Introductory Psych. (3). (SS).

In this course, we will explore the existence of sex differences in roles, behaviors, and beliefs; discuss the possible origins of these differences from a biological, psychological and sociological perspective, and explore the implications of sex differences and gender roles for men's and women's lives. The course will include two lectures and one discussion group meeting each week. Performance will be evaluated in terms of participation in the discussion group, two midterm exams, and a term paper. Students should have some background in either psychology, biology, or women's studies. (Eccles)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. Credit for Psychology 459 is not granted to students who have earned credit for Course Mart 383 (Dimensions of Human Aging), Public Health 595, or both University Course 435 and Education H520. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes in adulthood and old age using a life span developmental perspective. Special emphasis is given to such topics as continuity across the life span; men and women in middle age; normal biological aging; aging, health and health behaviors; intelligence over the life course; housing issues among the elderly; retirement; common psychological problems of the elderly; death, dying and grief. Time permitting, additional special problems of the elderly will be considered as well as the future of aging and a life-long perspective on aging. The course consists of both lecture and discussions. The students are required to complete assigned readings, class exercises, and/or projects. Evaluation will be based on the above in addition to examinations and written paper(s). (Antonucci)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories of group behavior-formation and development, decision-making and problem-solving, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on the use of groups in the design of organizations and methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experimental and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from the contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience. The third section of the course involves observing a work group, applying the methods and theory covered in the first two parts of the class, and working independently. (Denison)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course examines a wide spectrum of deviant behavior, including normal variants of functioning, neurotic difficulties, character pathology, and the psychoses. Selected additional topics vary somewhat, but can include childhood psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, multiple personality, manic-depressive disorder, and the issue of the criminal insanity defense. The possible causes of the various forms of psychopathology are examined, with emphasis on psychological causation; attention is also given to recent advances in psychophysiological correlates of mental illness. Treatment modalities are addressed, including forms of psychotherapy, behavioral methods, and psychopharmacology. Finally, there will be discussion of social and legal issues relevant to the deviant individual. This is a lecture course, with a recommended discussion section. Students will be evaluated primarily on the basis of examinations. (Ludolph)

476/Environ. Studies 355. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 476 attracts students from a variety of fields; many of them are professionals in environmental design and planning. The course focuses on information processing and its evolutionary background, on human needs in terms of informational requirements, and on the way the environment supports or hinders the processing of information. Such topics as trust and community, territory and privacy, and the role of identity are viewed in the context of this informational approach. Course requirements include a midterm and a final examination, as well as several small projects carried out by cross-disciplinary student groups. Admittance to Psych 476 is by application only. Forms are available in the Undergraduate Psychology Office, 580 Union Drive, K-106. (S.Kaplan, J.Talbot)

482/Soc. 482. Personal Organization and Social Organization. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on the interaction of social roles and personality. Selected life roles such as marriage, parenthood, and work are studied not so much from the point of view of their sociological significance but of their impact on people's motivations, attitudes, and feelings. The course first examines the general analytic problem of thinking about personalities in interaction with social systems. Then it examines each of the three life roles. Empirical findings rather than theoretical analyses are highlighted and sex difference in these roles are emphasized. A course pack of varied articles and chapters from books plus Worlds of Pain are read and discussed. Course requirements allow a choice of writing integrated essays or a short answer examination. Two such evaluations are required. An empirical research effort is also required as a term project. Students select a life role (e.g., a specific occupation or a husband/wife or mother/father role) and obtain firsthand data on how that role affects the experience of people in that role. Group projects are encouraged but are not mandatory. (Veroff)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course provides a survey of research on attitude and belief formation and change, with special emphasis on the role of inference processes in producing beliefs and on the role of social inference in altering beliefs. The question of people's awareness of their beliefs and inference processes is discussed at length, as are questions of the degree to which, and the manner in which, beliefs influence behavior. Psychology 382 would be helpful, but not essential, background.

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (SS).

| Section 001. Introduction to Health Psychology is designed for upper-level undergraduate students who are interested in the specific contributions of psychology to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, and to the analysis and improvement of the health care system. The goals of this course are to (a) identify those areas of health, illness, and treatment delivery which have been studied by social science researchers; (b) explore and evaluate psychological contributions to these areas; (c) consider ways in which psychological research can be used to improve the health care delivery system. A background in psychology is helpful, but not required. There will be a reading assignment for each class period. Students are expected to come to class prepared to discuss the assigned readings. GRADING will be based on three exams and one paper. Material for the exams will come from the reading assignments as well as class presentations. The paper will take the form of a research proposal and will be due by the end of the term. (Emmons)

Section 002: Economic/Work Conditions, Family Life, and Child Development. The purpose of this course is to explore and highlight the ways in which social-structural features related to work and the economy impact on family dynamics, especially as they relate to the socialization of children. A major assumption underlying this course is that the socialization process is limited to neither innate factors which emerge in the course of biological maturation nor those people who raise the child from infancy. A third factor, society, intrudes itself into the socialization process. Indirectly, its effect is felt by its shaping of the broad environment within which socialization agents and children function. It is this factor, as it relates to work and the economy, on which this course focuses. First, we will explore how occupational milieu and various aspects of the structure and organization of work life shape family dynamics, parental childbearing values, and, in turn, children's personality development and behavioral orientation (e.g., academic achievement). Second, we will examine the effects of maternal employment on children, with special attention given to dual-career families. Third, the ways in which poverty and associated conditions (e.g., female-headed households, welfare) affect the psychological and physical development of children will be examined. Finally, we will explore the ways in which unemployment affects family functioning and the child's physical and mental health. The social policy implications of existing research and theory about each of these four major issues will be discussed. Readings will consist primarily of review chapters and data-based journal articles. Students will be required to complete two take-home essay exams. Seminar format. (McLoyd)

Section 003 Families and Loss. A developmental framework of attachment and loss theory will precede an examination of issues and theories related to mourning, including a critique of stage theories of grieving, the concept of chronic sorrow, and children's understanding of loss and the ability of children to grieve. A family systems approach will explore the impact of significant loss on the family and its marital, parental, and sibling subsystems. An overview of losses arranged on a life cycle continuum will address the following: infertility; pregnancy loss; premature birth; death of a child; death of a parent/spouse; chronic illness and disability; divorce; and other situations of family loss. An in-depth study of the following selected family losses will then be undertaken; death of a child/sibling; death of parent/spouse; divorce; infertility and pregnancy loss. The importance of social support, the role of formal and informal interventions, the availability of various coping strategies, and the meanings and roles of hope, faith, and a sense of continuity will be explored. The format will include lecture, presentation, selected films and videotapes, and discussion. Student evaluation will be based on consistent and active participation in class, completion of readings, three short written projects, a major paper, and a final exam. (Mikus)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 266: Research on Family Assessment.
This research laboratory course will acquaint students with structured methods of family assessment, especially methods which use self-report scales, observations and simulations. In the course, students will get an overview of assessment techniques widely used in family research and intervention. In addition, students will learn how family measures are constructed and validated, how measures relate to family theory, how to evaluate the psychometric properties of existing family measures. The course will examine the use of Cronbach's Alpha and Cohen's Kappa to estimate internal consistency and inter-rater reliability and Campbell's approach to construct validity. The course will rely on lectures, demonstrations, readings and discussions to cover course material. Using a team approach, students will design and conduct a validity study of a paper-and-pencil measure of family process. Evaluation of student performance will be based on class participation and on the final written report of the results of the validity study. Throughout the course emphasis will be given to several family assessment techniques widely used in clinical intervention and research (viz., Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Environment Scale, Family Process Scales, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and SIMFAM) and to problems of evaluating families in special situations e.g. divorced, single parent, seriously ill, culturally different, etc. (Barbarin)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

512. Advanced Laboratory in Motivation and Behavior. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 442. (3). (SS).

This advanced lab is designed for students who have already taken Psychology 442. It will emphasize computer simulation of motivation and the role of the computer in planning empirical investigations and in spelling out the behavioral implications of the theory of motivation. Each student will have an opportunity to explore some unresolved problem at the frontier of the science. The work will culminate in a report including the design for an empirical study and plan for statistical analysis of expected results. Background in computer programming is helpful but not required. Students with unusually strong academic records may request permission to take this lab concurrently with Psychology 442. (Atkinson)

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (SS).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and Midas procedures and carry out psychometric analyses on these data. Finally, each student critically reviews a published test or inventory, evaluating its psychometric characteristics and applicability. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).

Purpose is to teach basic research techniques of social psychology. During the first half of the term students do an already designed survey, field study, and experiment. In the second half of the term, students design and carry out their own research project under supervision of the instructor. Projects are usually done in groups of two or three. Class attendance is important. Students must work three-four hours each week outside of class to complete projects. Grade based on final examination (25%) and individual research reports (75%). (Burnstein)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459, and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. Application blanks are on the bulletin board near 3406A Mason Hall. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in class projects during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Cantor)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (SS).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

530. Advanced Comparative Psychology. Psych. 430. (3). (Excl.).

The comparative biology and psychology of animal communication, from insect signals to human speech, will provide the subject matter for this course. The major focus will be on the evolved relationship between communication and perception that is, on the perceptual specialization that animals, including humans, have developed for the communicative signals of their own species. Although the emphasis will be on behavior in both field and laboratory studies, some attention, will be paid to the anatomy and physiology of the targeted sensory systems. Class discussions and presentations will be a major part of the course. Two papers are required; the first will be a shortened first version of the second; the second, due at the end of the course, will be a revised, improved, and more complete version of the first. Upper level undergraduates with consuming interests and some background in psychology, zoology, biological anthropology, or linguistics are encouraged. (Stebbins)

531. Advanced Physiological Psychology. Psych. 431. (3). (NS).

In-depth discussions of selected topics in physiological psychology including: hormones and behavior, evolution and ontogeny of hemispheric specialization, sex differences, mechanisms underlying physical and emotional pain, physiology of motivation, biological approaches to psychiatric disorders, memory and learning, etc. Selected articles will be assigned. Midterm and final exam. (Valenstein)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

Students in this course are assigned to various institutions where they work with a group of children, adolescents, or young adults for about three to four hours a week. There are also weekly class meetings to provide for the discussion of relevant material and for group supervision opportunities. Assignments include readings about development and the effects of institutionalization, weekly logs, and a final paper. Lab fee. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

To educate students about: (1) application of scientific study of human behavior and experience; (2) principles of developmental and social psychology; (3) effects of ADOLESCENCE, a period of rapid biological, psychological and social change. Intended to contribute to students' liberal education by providing concepts which may enrich students' appreciation of scientific and cultural materials and help them lead more self-conscious lives. The approach to adolescence will be BIO-SOCIAL: focusing on development of adult sexual capacity and on socialization into adult social roles. Teaching methods will include lectures, discussions, films, autobiographies, textbook, research articles, field experiences, four short-essay take-home examinations, and a term paper. No regular lectures will be delivered during class hours; lectures will be on tape cassettes on reserve at UGLi. In addition to discussions of assigned readings and lectures, class meetings will be devoted to topics about adolescence in which the class expresses particular interest. Students may also participate for credit in Outreach projects with adolescents or in ongoing research on adolescence. (Gold)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).

This course will trace some of the major and better-known Western ideas concerning the mind and behavior from the ancient Greeks, through medieval thinkers, 18th and 19th century philosophical schools to the beginnings of modern psychology. Subsequently, 20th century trends in psychology and various schools of psychology will be discussed and evaluated in a framework of the social and scientific ideas of the time. Evaluation will be based on a single term paper and a final exam. (Butter)

579. Modern Viewpoints in Psychology. For juniors, seniors, or graduate students with several courses in psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed 390. (3). (Excl).

The biggest strides forward in modern psychology seem to be in developmental, physiological and cognitive psychology. These will be the major topics and we will examine what recent theory contributes to the old questions about mind, brain and behavior. We will range broadly rather than deeply over these areas and issues. The purpose of the course is integration of viewpoints rather than isolated descriptions. We will also continually remind ourselves of implications and applications of theories to keep topics from being too abstract. You should have had some courses in psychology but which ones does not matter very much. Readings will be assigned since no textbook exists. I will lecture but we will also stage some dialogues (not debates) so that questions, objections and understandings can surface. There will be two exams on conflicting or integrative issues (brief essays not memory quizzes). A paper will also be required. Student evaluations will be based on the paper, exams and the dialogues. Comments and suggestions on the course will be welcomed. (Withey)

590. Honors III. Psych. 390 and permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues. (Weintraub)

Section 002. See Section 001. (Zajonc)

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