Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. Students with inadequate preparation for University studies should find this course to be helpful as a background for studying other courses. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, semantic memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles; motivation, anxiety and attributions; learning in groups; and, self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and a weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

Psychology 170 and 171 are intended to provide a comprehensive introduction to psychology for students who take both courses. Psychology 170 emphasizes experimental psychology; Psychology 171 includes personality, abnormal and social psychology, as well as human experimental psychology. Psychology 170 includes biological psychology and cognitive psychology topics such as perception, learning, memory, and motivation. The course meets four hours per week. Sections are taught by teaching assistants who have complete responsibility for their sections. Because there are variations among sections in emphasis and teaching style, students are encouraged to sit in on several sections during the first week of classes before making their final choice. (McKeachie)

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a time slot ONLY (sections 001-010). Students should check the TIME SCHEDULE (final edition) for the day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-010). During this first meeting, the instructors present their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. Students, then, apply to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to the instructor at this first meeting. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych. 171. Wait list (section 099) students must attend the special meeting listed in the Time Schedule. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-010) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR to the meeting to retain their space in the course or on the Wait List.

NOTE : The early edition of the Fall Time Schedule listings for Psychology 171 have changed. The correct listings are:
Sec 001 MW 10-12 noon
Sec 002 MW 1-3pm
Sec 003 MW 3-5pm
Sec 004 MW 7-9pm
Sec 005 TTh 10-12noon
Sec 006 TTh 1-3pm
Sec 007 TTh 7-9pm
Sec 008-010 have been deleted.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. The major objectives of the course are to increase knowledge concerning causes of behavior and to develop an ability and desire to learn more about behavior, especially human behavior. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, creativity, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation and human sexuality, emotion, personal theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy, interpersonal relations, aggression and violence, and environmental psychology. The lectures are offered TTh 10-11 a.m. and are repeated at TTh 12-l p.m; students in the course attend only one of the two presentations of each lecture. The discussion sections provide an opportunity to pursue particular topics in greater depth and detail, to share experiences with others, and to learn from this sharing. There is a common textbook used throughout the course but the discussion sections require some additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects or film critiques. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections.

The early edition of the Fall Time Schedule listings for Psychology 172 have been changed. The correct listings are:
Sec 001 TTh 10-11am* OR
Sec 001 TTh 12-1pm*

*Students must attend either the 10-11am lecture or the 12-1pm lecture and elect one discussion section (002-029).
Sec 002 MW 1-2pm
Sec 003 MW 1-2pm
Sec 004 MW 2-3pm
Sec 005 MW 2-3pm
Sec 006 TTh 10-11am
Sec 007 TTh 10-11am
Sec 008 TTh 10-11am
Sec 009 TTh 10-11am
Sec 010 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 011 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 012 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 013 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 014 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 015 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 016 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 017 TTh 11-12noon
Sec 018 TTh 12-1pm
Sec 019 TTh 12-1pm
Sec 020 TTh 12-1pm
Sec 021 TTh 12-1pm
Sec 022 TTh 12-1pm
Sec 023 TTh 12-1pm
Sec 024 TTh 1-2pm
Sec 025 TTh 1-2pm
Sec 026 TTh 2-3pm
Sec 027 TTh 2-3pm
Sec 028 WF 10-11am
Sec 029 WF 11-12noon

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.

Section 002. This section is taught on a "mastery system". Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Time Schedule for proper credits per section. Information regarding registration, lecture/discussion times, and field work will be available at a MASS MEETING ON WEDNESDAY, MARCH 27,1985 at 7 p.m. in Auditorium B Angell Hall. For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two separate sections of Psych 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300 309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300 309.
Section 001 Working with Children.
Directed experience with children aged 18 months 6 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 8-12 hours/week on a regular basis. Additional possibilities include field-based placement at Family Day Care, Montessori, Head Start, co-ops, day care centers and nursery schools. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. For permission to enroll call 763-6784. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4). (NS). No credit to students with credit for Psych. 431.

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with biological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. The organ responsible for these functions is the brain, and therefore much of the course deals with brain-behavior relations, but other biological influences, including hormones, will be considered. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), sleep and waking states, sexual behavior, regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), and learning and memory. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores only. One cannot obtain credit for Psych 331 and 431. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses.

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

368/Anthropology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

See Anthropology 368 for description. (Wrangham)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be two small papers and two long, integrative essays. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams, classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The course will consider marriage and the family as social institutions, as small social organizations, and as interpersonal systems. We will look at variations in the form and function of families over time and across cultures. We will discuss various theories about family interaction and empirical approaches to marital and family exchange. (Douvan, Veroff)

404. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

This course is designed to cover through lectures, readings and discussions, the role of nonverbal communication in social interaction. The class will review the theoretical and empirical literatures on nonverbal communication which span a number of related topics. These topics include emotional expressions, visual behavior, body movements, paralanguage, and territoriality among others. The second half of the course will focus on the applied aspects of nonverbal behavior such as the acquisition and development of it in children; deceptive communication, cross-cultural differences, etc. The course requirements include a midterm, final and major class project. Some of the readings: M. Knapp, Nonverbal Communication in Social Interaction; E.T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension; N. Henley, Body Politics. (Coleman)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning March 25. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; or Biol. 100, 105, 112, or 114; or Physiol. 101. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. (W. Holmes)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course presents a systematic study of the nature of social incentives across the life span how they originate in human development, how they persist as generalized motives, and how they are aroused in everyday adult life. The course relies heavily on a 1984 book, Human Motivation, by McClelland, although a number of short theoretical or research papers on other points of view are also assigned. Weekly lectures will highlight the developmental perspective. Discussions will cover not only the readings (students assigned discussion responsibilities) but also research methods. Research designs are required as term group projects. Both short-answer and essay in-class exams. (Veroff)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

Recognizing patterns in a complex and uncertain world is extremely difficult. The fact that people do it so well is an amazing accomplishment. The course begins by looking at some ways this impressive feat might be carried out. To solve this theoretical challenge it turns out to be necessary to look at the way people acquire and store knowledge about their environment. The knowledge people have (and the way it is organized) provide a way of looking at not only how people recognize patterns, but also how they think and solve problems as well. Class sessions are somewhat disorganized discussions. The reading list is extensive and doing the reading is essential if what goes on in class is to make sense. Grades are based on a midterm, a final and a one-page paper that attempts to summarize the principles learned in the course. Enrollment in this course is by application only; application forms are available in K106 West Quad. (S. Kaplan)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).

The focus of this section is adult human memory. We shall examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and limited discussion where appropriate. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in their junior or senior years.

451. Development of Language and Higher Mental Processes. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course examines children's early language and conceptual development. Through lectures and discussions, we will cover: the development of word meaning, the organization of early concepts, and the nature of early grammatical knowledge. We will also consider how language development relates to logical thinking and social knowledge. Emphasis will be placed on contemporary research and theory. Students will be evaluated by two exams and a project. (Gelman)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on two exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and one paper. This course will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 519 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the child becomes a social being. Attention is given to cultural variation in socialization and social development, and contrasting theoretical perspectives on each content issue. Topics include (a) moral development,(b) affiliation and attachment, (c) early peer relations, (d) social play, (e) role-taking, empathy, and social cognition, (f) sex role development, and (g) social-structural influences including poverty, unemployment and school-related factors. (McLoyd)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is a basic undergraduate course in child psychology which covers the period from infancy to (but not including) adolescence. Cognitive development, socialization, and physical growth are examined. Discussion sections will meet but not every week. There are three exams and a chance of a term paper or nursery school participation and a brief report of that experience. (L. Hoffman)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories in group behavior. Topics in this section include the formation and development of groups, their decision-making and problem-solving processes, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on the design of groups and organizations along with methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience. The final part of the course involves observing a work group, and applying the methods and theory covered in the first two parts of the class while working independently. Grades will be based on a midterm, a final exam, a group observation project and class participation. (Denison)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465 for description. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).

The major subjects covered are dose-effect analysis of drug action, behavioral effects of drugs and disease states. The major classes of CNS active agents: neuroleptics, minor tranquilizers, anti-depressants, alcohol, stimulants, depressants, narcotics, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are also covered. The course may become part of a sequence of psychobiology. It will be offered in the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). Compiled readings will be available at the beginning of the term. The course will be taught with both PSI and discussion. (J.H.Woods)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (SS).
Section 001 Human Infancy.
In the past two decades an enormous amount has been learned about the nature of human infancy. This course will survey what is known about the development of human infants during the first two years of life. Both basic research and applications will be covered, including issues relevant to social policy. Topics will include: the biological basis of development, the prenatal period, the neonate, physical and motor processes, sensory and perceptual development, learning and memory, cognition, early language development, social interaction, emotional development, separation and attachment, and the high risk infant. The course will be taught primarily through lectures supplemented with visual aids (slides, films, viewgraphs). There will be three exams plus several short, written projects. This course is more focused and advanced than Psychology 457. It is comparable in level to Psychology 451, 453, and 459. (Olson)

Section 002 Developmental Psycholinguistics. This course is designed to give advanced undergraduates an understanding of the human capacity for language and its role in the individual's life from infancy to old age. Topics include the biological preparedness for language, process of acquisition, the representation of linguistic knowledge, integration of linguistic and world knowledge for language use. Special attention is given to early and late periods in the life span when aspects of language organization are most vulnerable to change. Some prior experience with psycholinguistics or linguistics is expected (Psych. 447 or 451 or Ling. 211, the equivalent, or permission of the instructor). Th course format will be one-half lecture and one-half discussion of primary source readings. The students will be required to participate actively in discussions and to write a paper reporting their observations of some aspect of language behavior and how they bear on theories of language and language use. (Shatz)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).
Attachment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.
Recommended prerequisites include (1) a background in at least one of the following areas: (a) evolutionary theory/animal behavior (b) developmental psychology (c) ethnology (2) and permission of instructor. This is a new, experimental course for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students that considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, psychiatry, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory and social behavior, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman animals, and ethnological studies of human attachment behavior, including data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation, a few short essays, and one longer, research paper. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. (B.B.Smuts)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

511. Advanced Laboratory in Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or 431. (4). (Excl).

This laboratory course is intended to provide practical experience with some of the basic research paradigms and techniques used in the study of brain-behavior relations. Laboratory exercises include sessions on functional neuroanatomy (dissection of sheep brain), the behavioral effects of manipulating brain neurotransmitters and psychoactive drugs, the hormonal control of reproductive behavior, animal models of psychiatric and movement disorders, electrical stimulation and recording from brain structures, and methods of analyzing behavior, etc. There is a one hour lecture, and a three hour lab each week. Grades are based on lab reports written in a formal scientific style.

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (SS).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and Midas procedures and carry out psychometric analyses on these data. Finally, each student critically reviews a published test or inventory, evaluating its psychometric characteristics and applicability. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
"Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political currents to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, non-independent fashion with other students and instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term probably as part of a loosely-structured team. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some six additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

Section 002 Inference and Social Behavior. This section will demonstrate a variety of techniques of experimental social psychology. Special emphasis will be placed on the study of social inferences judgments that we make about ourselves and others. Students will carry out their own study or experiment. (Nisbett)

Section 003. Purpose is to teach basic research techniques of social psychology. Students do survey, field study, and experiment. For extra credit they may also design and carry out their own research project under supervision of the instructor. Projects are usually done in groups of two or three. Class attendance is important. Students must work outside of class to complete projects. Grade is based on final examination (15%) and individual research reports (85%) . (Burnstein)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459, and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. Application blanks are on the bulletin board near 3406A Mason Hall. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in-class discussions during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Cantor)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (SS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average around "B". (Yates)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (SS).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

530. Advanced Comparative Psychology. Psych. 331 or 430, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course presents a detailed examination of animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Students must have a basic understanding of modern Darwinian theory (e.g., Psych 430, Psych/Anthro 368 or 369) and an interest in applying this theory to a vigorous analysis of various issues in animal behavior. Topics include (1) the level of selection (genes, individuals, and kin selection), (2) altruism, cooperation, and reciprocity, (3) the evolution and ecology of social systems, (4) the evolution and ecology of mating systems, (5) sexual selection and mate choice, and (6) strategies of reproduction by males and females. A lecture format is used and supplemented with class discussion of course pack articles. Grades are based on two or three take-home essay exams. (W. Holmes)

531. Selected Topics in Psychobiology. Psych. 331 or a serious interest in psychobiology and some background in biology or physiological psychology. (3). (Excl).

In-depth discussions of selected topics in physiological psychology including: hormones and behavior, evolution and ontogeny of hemispheric specialization, sex differences, mechanisms underlying physical and emotional pain, physiology of motivation, biological approaches to psychiatric disorders, memory and learning, etc. Selected articles will be assigned. Midterm and final exam. (Valenstein)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This lecture/discussion course deals primarily with the cognitive and behavioral effects of dysfunction of the human central nervous system. The first part of the course will briefly review basic neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology and neurophysiology. This will be followed by an introduction to the neurological exam, methods of neurological diagnosis, neuropsychological testing and neurological disorders (including vascular, demyelinizing and infectious diseases, tumors, epilepsies and congenital anomalies). After this we will examine the concept of cerebral asymmetry and the disorders of language, learning and memory, perception, personality, visuo-spatial functions and motor control which result from human brain damage. A discussion of possible sex differences in brain organization and the use of psychosurgery in treating psychiatric disorders will also be included. Although we will concentrate on the effects of human brain damage we will attempt to integrate relevant data from the "animal" literature, as well as studies with normal human subjects. Grade based on objective type exams.

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

This course examines some of the properties and major problems of human organizations, emphasizing system-level variables and activities. Organizational structure, adaptation to the environment, and problem solving in such key areas as coordination and control, integration, and conflict, and related social-psychological phenomena constitute its main concerns. The course approaches organizational structure and functioning from the perspective of open system theory.

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).

This course will trace some of the major and better-known Western ideas concerning the mind and behavior from the ancient Greeks, through medieval thinkers, 18th and 19th century philosophical schools to the beginnings of modern psychology. Subsequently, 20th century trends in psychology and various schools of psychology will be discussed and evaluated in a framework of the social and scientific ideas of the time. Evaluation will be based on a single term paper and a final exam. (Butter)

579. Modern Viewpoints in Psychology. For juniors, seniors, or graduate students with several courses in psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed 390. (3). (Excl).

The biggest strides forward in modern psychology seem to be in developmental, physiological and cognitive psychology. These will be the major topics and we will examine what recent theory contributes to the old questions about mind, brain and behavior. We will range broadly rather than deeply over these areas and issues. The purpose of the course is integration of viewpoints rather than isolated descriptions. We will also continually remind ourselves of implications and applications of theories to keep topics from being too abstract. You should have had some courses in psychology but which ones does not matter very much. Readings will be assigned since no textbook exists. I will lecture but we will also stage some dialogues (not debates) so that questions, objections and understandings can surface. There will be two exams on conflicting or integrative issues (brief essays not memory quizzes). A paper will also be required. Student evaluations will be based on the paper, exams and the dialogues. Comments and suggestions on the course will be welcomed. (Withey)

590. Senior Honors Research I. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues. (Weintraub)

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