Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Biological anthropology is a subfield of anthropology dealing with human biology and evolution. This course presents a survey of the major topics in the field. The course is divided into four major parts: (1) human genetics and evolutionary theory; (2) primate behavior and evolution; (3) the human fossil record; and (4) ecological, biological, and demographic variability in modern populations. No special background knowledge is required or assumed. [Cost:1] [WL:1,2] (Hill)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures, discussion section, laboratory and reading, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecology shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology and the changes in physical form that are the consequence of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. The system involving cultural and biological change. The origin of races and their development and relationships are discussed in this context. Class participation and discussion are emphasized and there is a required discussion/laboratory section for elaboration of lecture topics and supervised hands-on experience with primate skeletal material and replicas of human fossils. Student evaluations are based on a midterm and final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Wolpoff)

368/Psychology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order and its major divisions, and provide detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, the special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, behavioral development, kinship systems, sexual behavior, aggression and competition, and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, but it also serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369, PRIMATE SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS. Two lectures hours, one film, and one discussion weekly. One midterm and one final exam. [WL:1] (Wrangham)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course will be concerned primarily with the theory and models of population genetics and their application to human genetic variation. The major emphasis will be on the forces that determine gene frequency change among human populations. Text is: D.L. Hartl, A PRIMER OF POPULATION GENETICS, Second Edition, 1988. Grade will be based on midterm and final exams. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Livingstone)

466. Fossil Evidence and Evolutionary Theory. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

An outline of the genetic and ecological aspects of evolutionary theory and their application to the interpretation of human evolution and the human fossil record. Lectures, course pack, and handouts. Grade based on midterm and final exams. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Livingstone)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory|slash|Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Exposure to anthropology's cross-cultural, comparative and holistic viewpoints, and to ethnography, the field's characteristic data-gathering procedure, are important in a liberal arts education. Anthropology 101, which surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology) provides students (generally freshmen and sophomores) with a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. Anthropology 101 stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. Anthropology 101 teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. As is proper for a distribution course, the principal aim of Anthropology 101 is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology, as well as surveying its content. (As such it is also recommended for anthropology concentrators.) Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex-gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings include several paperbacks. Students must register for the three weekly lectures (section 001) and a discussion-recitation section. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. [Cost:2] [WL:1,3,4] (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist primarily of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of archaeology as a social science with a general survey of world prehistory. The presentation of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an exploratory social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background; b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of more complex, ranked societies from these simpler farming societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be two (1 1/2 hour) lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two take-home exercises that give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. Required Readings: ARCHAEOLOGY, by David Hurst Thomas, 2nd edition, 1989; IN SMALL THINGS FORGOTTEN: THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF AMERICAN LIFE, by James Deetz; DANCEHALL OF THE DEAD, by Tony Hillerman (modern murder mystery featuring a Navajo tribal policeman, an archaeologist studying Paleoindian remains in the Southwestern U.S., his dedicated graduate student, and Indian youths caught between traditional and White value systems.) A course pack with articles supplementing text. [WL:1]

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. This course allows students to explore in some depth particular Native American cultural traditions emphasizing both the "old ways" and how such ways are interpreted by community members and outsiders. Secondly, we will look at cross cultural dynamics in the fields of political encounter between various Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include family relations, alcoholism, land rights, and freedom of religion. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? Finally, we look at contemporary Native American fiction and non-fiction as cultural forces which challenge Western constructions of who Native American peoples are. Here we use traditional anthropological methods and "postmodern" deconstruction in a questioning manner. How can we understand images and image-makers from different cultural, historical and political positions? Grades will be based on four short papers. (Bierwert)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with late traditional and contemporary China, with an emphasis on the peasantry. The focus is on continuities and changes over the past 200 years. The first part of the course deals with regional and cultural variations, including the cultures of some of China's minority peoples, and with the socio-economic organizations of traditional China. The next segment deals with popular interpretations and expressions of China's major religions, folk art and literature, and forms of rebellion. In the last segment we discuss the reorganization of Chinese society since 1949, dealing with contemporary family and community organization, social stratification, the successes and failures of different forms of "collectivization," and some of the current social problems in the Peoples Republic of China. This is a lecture course with in-class discussion, open to students with junior standing or above. The readings are drawn mainly from the ethnological/cultural anthropology literature, supplemented with materials from the fields of literature, sociology, history and economics. They are drawn from Western and Chinese scholarship with translations of Chinese primary sources provided in a course pack. There is a midterm (essay) and a final exam (essay). Undergraduates have the choice of writing two short critical papers or a longer research paper on a topic of their choosing. Graduate students are expected to write a research paper or a review of a significant segment of the scholarly literature on Chinese society and culture. [Cost:3] [WL:2] (Diamond)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology. [WL:1] (Dresch)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Owusu)

513/CAAS 424. Urbanization and Technological Change in Africa. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 424. (Clark)


330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construct "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics. There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic text; 2) the critical reading of ethnographic reports; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve these techniques. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Grades will be based on six short papers (six pages each). [WL:1] (Carroll)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; infants, women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or 3 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. [Cost:1] (Owusu)

353/CAAS 427/Women's Studies 427. African Women. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 427. (Clark)

431. American Kinship. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

The notion of 'the person' in Euroamerican culture, and its prime constituents: 'adults'/'children'; 'male'/'female; etc. The "life-cycle" (as culturally construed) from conception to death. The ideology of 'kin ties' - where they derive from; what they are supposed to entail. 'The family' (as a cultural construct), nuclear and extended; 'distant kin'. Cultural dimensions of the 'household'. Living arrangements. Cultural aspects of the physical apportionment of living (and working) space. 'Motherhood'/ 'Fatherhood', 'childhood and 'adolescence'. Adoption. Siblingship. Marriage, courtship, sex. Kinship as an autonomous cultural (i.e., symbolic) domain (independent, to a large extent, of non-kinship considerations, such as economics). Kinship as an "idiom" in which other matters are expressed. Constants and variables in American kinship historically. Constants and variables in American kinship geographically, by ethnic group, and by class. Other sorts of relationships that are like kin relationships: 'friendship', etc. Conclusion: what a specifically anthropological approach can add to other sorts of studies of kinship. Preliminary oral reports and final written reports (every three weeks about 8-10 pages of well-edited essay each time) will constitute the basis for assigning final grades. [WL:4] (Carroll)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course approaches universal aspects of religion-religious experience, the concept of the sacred, the sense of the divine, the notion of occult power, through an analysis of the most prevalent form of religious behavior, namely ritual. Having examined and discussed religious concepts and actions in their own right the course will consider their places in human affairs. Although the course will be universalist in its orientation, illustrative materials will be drawn from a range of simple and complex societies. There are two take home examinations. Although there are no prerequisites a background in anthropology, the social sciences generally, religion or philosophy will be helpful. Junior standing is required; enrollment is generally about 75% undergraduate, 25% graduate students. [Cost:3] [WL:2] (Rappaport)

454. Symbolic Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 330, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course outlines major anthropological approaches to symbolism while also trying to sharpen student's skills in symbolic analysis of the world around them. It first examines the classic anthropological work on myth, ritual and magic, and then considers texts that treat symbolic analysis as a necessary perspective on all fields of activity, including the apparently prosaic realms of politics and economics. Finally, it looks at recent work that deals with symbols as instruments of domination and vehicles of resistance. Throughout, selected readings and discussion are used to show how these approaches can be used to make sense of life in the United States. Lectures are combined with a certain amount of class discussion and both are tied closely to the reading of required text. Grades for undergraduates are several short papers and a final exam. For graduate students, a research paper takes the place of the exam. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Rouse)

459. Inequality in Tribal Societies. Two courses in ethnology. (3). (Excl).

INEQUALITY IN TRIBAL SOCIETIES. What is the principal locus of the production of inequality in human society? This has been an important concern of humanistic social thought since the Enlightenment. All those who have examined the problem have had recourse to consideration of relatively egalitarian pre-modern societies in which forms of hierarchy associated with the nation state and industrialized world economy are absent. These ethnographic cases provide a critical testing ground for general social theories of inequality because the latter explicitly or implicitly "predict" the social and economic configuration of the most egalitarian societies. Both received wisdom and recent theory have emphasized the production and circulation of accumulatable forms of wealth as the source of inequality. Unequal accumulation and relations of dependence and indebtedness are seen to follow inevitably from the sheer presence of wealth (which should thus be absent in egalitarian societies). The Marxian position holds that all social inequalities are grounded in the dynamics of a particular mode of production and are either directly generated by this or built-up upon core relations of inequality that are so generated. There should then be a one-to-one relation between economic inequality and social inequality (i.e., differential prestige, privilege and moral evaluation). Recent elaboration of this perspective sees social inequality as rooted in the social relations of production entailed by bridewealth systems in which senior males gain control over the labor of wives and junior males by their control of matrimonial goods. The exchange of persons for persons is also replaced by an exchange of persons for goods so that accumulation of wealth becomes a precondition for the reproduction of kin relations. If the evolutionary road to inequality is paved with bridewealth as this perspective suggests then egalitarian societies should lack marriage payments, for these are seen as a central locus for the production of inequality. The course will examine these issues. It is open to advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Format is part lecture, part seminar. Substantial term paper required. Prerequisite: two courses in ethnology. (Kelly)

SECTION 002. This course explores the picture of American society and culture that emerges from ethnographic studies, that is, from extended resident fieldwork within various communities. Particular attention is paid to issues of class, race, ethnicity and gender, and the relationships between those factors. Attempts will be made to include studies from a range of historical periods (within the 20th century), from different parts of the country, and covering a variety of classes, ethnic groups, and other sorts of social entities (e.g., religious groups, occupational groups, activity centers). Reading will involve about a book a week. The class will be conducted as a seminar. There will be two short papers and one long final paper. [Cost:5] [WL:2] (Ortner)


472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

See Linguistics 409. (Heath)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Wiegand)


387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (Excl).

The discovery of America was by paleo-Asian who walked across a Bering Sea land bridge more than 12000 years ago. "Prehistory of North America" traces the migrations of these people throughout North America and explores their later adaptation and cultural evolution through the methods of archaeology. The course details their livelihood in the post-Pleistocene environments, the expansion of their subsistence bases over time, and the consequences of agriculture to their culture. Social changes, cultural achievements, and artistic expression are emphasized. The course details the archaeology of all North America from the first peoples arrival until European contact. The prehistory of Alaska, Canada, and all 48 contiguous states is covered. Course material will be presented in lecture and discussion in class. The course is an excellent complement to Indians of North America, American History, and Pleistocene Geology. [Cost:1] [W:1] (Ward)

488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the Prehispanic culture sequence for Mesoamerica outside the Maya region. It begins with the first evidence for humans in late Pleistocene Mexico, and proceeds to a discussion of Archaic hunting-and-gathering period of 8000-2000 B.C. The origins of agriculture during this preceramic period are documented, as well as the rise of sedentary agricultural villages by 1500 B.C. The course then considers the evolution of ranked societies during the Formative (1500 B.C.-A.D. 100) and of urban stratified societies during the Classic (A.D. 100-800). The evolution of Mexico's ethnohistorically documented Postclassic societies the Toltec, Aztec, Mixtec, Zapotec, Huastec, and Tarascans is then traced up to Spanish Conquest of A.D. 1519. There will be two lectures a week, accompanied by reading of a course pack of relevant journal articles and book chapters. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Flannery)

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