General Near East (Division 439)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201.

246/Great Books 246. Great Books of the Medieval and Modern Middle East. (4). (HU).

For Fall 1993, this course is limited to great books from the religious tradition of Islam. Beginning with a detailed examination of the Qur'an as the literature of revelation, the readings will cover major examples from the followint additional areas: history and sociology (Ibn Khaldun), philosophical allegory (Hayy Ibn Yagzan), confession and doctrine (Ghazzali), public duties (Ibn Taymiyya), and mystical poetry (Attar). Instruction will consist of both lectures and discussions. Students will be evaluated on the basis of three short papers (5-7 pages) on various aspects of the assigned reading. Each will count for a thord of the final grade. Books and materials for the course should cost approximately $50. (Walker)

362/Hist. 306/Rel. 358. History and Religion of Ancient Israel. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The History and Religion of Ancient Israel: Beginnings to Exile.
NES 362 encompasses a series of studies focused on selected aspects of the cultural history of ancient Israel. Early Israelite history and religion from its beginnings to the Babylonian exile will be examined within their biblical and ancient Near Eastern contexts (Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria, Persia, and Anatolia). Some selected topics for historical inquiry include: Israel's origins, its pre-state civilization, the nation-state, and the post-monarchial communities. Central religious beliefs, practices, and institutions to be investigated include monotheism, prophecy, royal ideology, priesthood, wisdom, the cult, magic, death and the afterlife. No prerequisites required. Lecture and discussion. Critical reading and writing skills are measured in a 12 page term paper (25%) and two examinations each of which requires an analytical essay. The examinations are NOT cumulative (30% each). Regular attendance and daily assignments are also crucial components of the course (15%). Cost:2 WL:3 (Schmidt)

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. Cost:2 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)

478/Jud. Stud. 478/Rel. 478 Topics in Modern Judaism: Modern Jewish Thought (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

An examination of selected 20th Century thinkers and their response to the crisis of Jewish modernity: the breakdown of traditional Jewish culture and its system of meaning; the encounter with, and assimilation of, Western culture; and the impact of the traumas of World War I and the Holocaust. Primary focus will be on writers whose modes of thinking have often been called "existentialist": Franz Rosenzweig, Martin Buber, A.J. Heschel, and the radical theologian, Richard Rubenstein. The literary creations of Elie Wiesel and several seminal Hebrew authors (Bialik and Agnon) will be explored as well. In the final unit of the course, students will have the option of studying the first full-length work of Jewish feminist theology, Judith Plaskow's Standing Again at Sinai. Previous course work in either Judaic Studies, Religion, or Philosophy is recommended. Two exams and a paper. Limit:40. Cost:3 WL:3 (Ginsburg)

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

160/Hist. 130. Introduction to the History of the Ancient Near East. (3). (Excl).

Introduction to the first 3000 years of human history as recorded in the texts of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Antolia, Iran and the Levant. The origins of complex societies in Sumer and Egypt will be briefly considered and the subsequent development of cuneiform and hieroglyphic civilizations studied in more detail, down to their common conquest by the Macedonians in the fourth century BCE. Particular attention will be given to the effects of ecological factors upon economic, political, religious, and intellectual history. A number of primary documents from the Ancient Near East will be read in translation. Course requirements include mid-term and final examinations as well as a 10 -15 page term paper. Cost:2 (Beckman)

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (LR).

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible, using Weingreen's PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF CLASSICAL HEBREW as the text. Daily instruction on grammar with drills. Students are evaluated on the basis of daily homework assignments and weekly quizzes. Cost:1 WL:3 (Schramm)

350/Religion 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustine. (4). (Excl).

The objective of the course is to convey an understanding of the development and meaning of the major dogmas (i.e. opinions) which gained mastery in the Ancient Church. It will be realized that the dogmas did not fall down from heaven, but developed through contention with other dogmas. In order to understand the antithetical nature of the concept of dogma, we shall ask: What are the dogmas protecting? Why are they countering other dogmas? This approach will show the appropriateness of dealing equally with those dogmas which in the end were defeated. Hopefully it will be realized that the use of labels such as "orthodox" and "heterodox" in an academic study of the development of Christian thought is anachronistic. Throughout the course, there will be made an attempt to see if the old dogmatical contentions can be detected under some new cover in our time. There are no prerequisites save a genuine curitosity and a determination to work hard, but a basic knowledge of the rise of Christianity would be advantageous. The class type will hopefully be Recitation. A TA will conduct a weekly discussion session. There will be two exams and a paper. (Fossum)

483/Rel. 488/Class. Civ. 483. Christianity and Hellenistic Civilization. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 Jews, Christians and Gentiles in Middle Judaism.
Early Christianity was one of the many first-century Judaisms; its relations with Hellenistic civilization first developed within the Jewish world. After the conquest of Alexander the Great, diverse attitudes toward the Gentiles (separation, proselytism, tolerance) emerged among the Jewish people. In particular in the western diaspora, a rich literature in Greek (Letter of Aristeas, Wisdom of Solomon, Philo, Joseph and Aseneth, Josephus, etc.) promoted a close encounter between the Jewish and Greek cultures. The study of these Jewish traditions is crucial for understanding the complex and even contradictory characters of Christian proselytism (Paul and Justin). The aim of the course is primarily to become familiar with documents usually neglected as "apocryphal" and to reach a more comprehensive view by studying Christianity within Judaism and Judaism within Hellenism. (Boccaccini)

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Tice)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

221(201). Intensive Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (LR).

The sequence of Arabic 221 and 222 is designed for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic at an accelerated rate. It is primarily intended for highly-motivated students who want to study Arabic for academic purposes. Arabic 221 starts with an intensive introduction to Arabic phonology and script combined with oral basic communication practice. This is followed by short reading selections and situational dialogues including basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical structures. The course offers combined training in the four language skills, plus practice in using the Arabic dictionary. Course requirements include daily preparation of the basic texts and grammatical explanations, extensive oral and written practice utilizing newly learned vocabulary and structures, and written assignments. These assignments involve answers to certain drills and reading comprehension questions, filling out short forms and supplying short messages and biographical information. Class meets six hours per week for six credit hours. Course evaluation is based on class participation, daily written assignments, weekly achievement tests, monthly comprehensive tests and a final prochievement examination. Textbooks: (1) Programmed Course in Modern Standard Arabic Phonology and Script by McCarus-Rammuny, (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Part One by Abboud et al. (Lessons 1-15) and (3) Course pack including supplementary dialogues, activities and cultural material. (Khaldieh)

311(301). Introduction to Classical Arabic. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductiory course in Classical Arabic, the language of the Koran, the tradtions of the prophet Muhammad, Arabic poetry, Belles-lettres, and Arab history, from the beginnings around A.D. 500 to about A.D. 1500. The course begins with the alphabet, phonology, and grammar, and goes on to graded readings from selected texts in the above-mentioned categories. No prerequisites; no prior knowledge of Arabic is assumed. Students who have some prior knowledge of Arabic will not be admitted. Quizzes will given every third week, and a final exam at the end of the term. Cost:1 WL:4 (Bellamy)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

421(401) Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 222 or 201 or equivalent. (6). (LR).

This course emphasizes the use of Arabic language. This is, students will develop the ability to: (1) communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic, (2) understand spoken Arabic, (3) read and understand selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and non-fiction as well as Arabic newspapers and magazines, and (4) enhance writing skills. Use of Arabic is emphasized throughout the whole course based on communicative approaches to learning. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, tests and quizzes, and a final exam. Required text: Peter Abboud et al., Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Part II (lessons 30 45) and Cultural supplementary course pack. Successful completion of Arabic 421 will fulfill the LS&A language requirement. (Khaldieh)


201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (LR).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills. (Staff, Coffin)

301. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 311. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. Review of morphology and syntax. Continued emphasis on oral work and writing skills. Cost:1 WL:1 (Etzion)

401. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course materials consist of texts from Modern Hebrew prose: fiction and non-fiction. Writing and speaking skills will be enhanced through a series of related assignments. Review of basic language structures and enrichment of vocabulary are among the objectives of the course. Evaluation of work will be based on active participation in the course, timely completion of assignments, quizzes and a midterm and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3 (Bernstein)

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The focus of the course is on Newspaper Hebrew and discussion of contemporary issues in Israeli television broadcasts. Reading, listening and writing assignments will be accompanied by a discussion of the issues. We will be generating several editions of a newspaper of our own and a news broadcast. Evaluation of work will be based on active participation in the course, timely completion of assignments, and students' productions. Cost:1 WL:3

431. Modern Grammar I. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The focus of the course is on traditional and contemporary descriptions of the structure of Modern Hebrew, including the verb and noun systems, syntax and semantics. In addition, there will be discussion of new approaches to Hebrew grammar. Modern texts will serve as the basis for the grammatical analysis. Evaluation of work will be based on active participation in the course, timely completion of assignments, quizzes and a midterm and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3 (Coffin)

451. Modern Hebrew Fiction: The First Half of the 20th Century. Hebrew 402. (3). (Excl).

This is an introductory course to Modern Hebrew Fiction. Texts will be selected from a variety of Hebrew writers of the 20th century. Basic literary concepts and methods of analysis of texts will be covered in this course. Reading selections will reflect a variety of genres of Modern Hebrew literature. Evaluation of work will be based on active participation in the course, timely completion of assignments, short papers, and a final project. Cost:1 WL:3 (Bernstein)

543. Medieval Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Readings of medieval genres, including secular and liturgical poetry, the romance and prose narratives. Discussions will center on literacy innovations and the role of medieval Hebrew literature within the context of the history of Western European literature. (Schramm)

551. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

The course will focus on readings and discussions of literary works by S.Y. Agnon and A.B. Yeshoshua. Short stories, novellas and portions of novels will be read. Evaluation of students' work will be based on active participation in the course, timely completion of weekly readings and written assignments, two short papers and a final seminar paper and presentation. Cost:1 WL:3 (Coffin)


201. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

Persian has been called the French of the Near/Middle East. Certainly, Persia/Iran has been in the news. Persian is an Indo-European language, related to English, etc. Its literature, as in other arts, is a major part of Near/Middle Eastern and Muslim tradition. Persian 201 is the first term of a four term sequence. It takes the student through to the basic mastery of the skills of reading and writing, and of comprehension and speaking. Cultural as well as communicative skills are emphasized. By the end of the term the student should be well versed in these skills. Individual student by the instructor to polish and improve the student's Persian language skills. The objective is language use. Students who have special needs, such as those acquiring the knowledge of Persian for reading purposes, only, or for communicative skills, only, will be given special attention, and special sessions. Similarly, students of Iranian heritage, who may know some Persian in its colloquial form, will find the linguistic and cultural content of this course stimulating.

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Persian has been called the French of the Near/Middle East. It is an Indo-European language, related to English, etc. Lack, or partial lack, of the knowledge of the monumental historical achievements of Iran is not only due to inadequate coverage by the media, but also to first and second generation Iranians' failure to inform their children. This course invites students with interest in world affairs, and those children, and emphasizes not only language, but culture. Iranian Studies 401 continues 201/202. Its objective is to lead the student to the improved mastery of the four language skills, viz. comprehension, reading, and speaking and writing. During the course, the student will learn higher levels of language registers, will be exposed to samples of Persian patterns of communicative skills via dialog, samples of expository prose, and of literature. Emphasis is on the use of Persian in these four skills. In addition, multi-media exposure, including video and news material via SCOLA and other means are utilized. Persian is the language of the class, with occasional discussions of linguistic matters in English. Cost:1 WL:1 (Windfuhr)


201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, TURKISH FOR FOREIGNERS (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, TURKISH (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes futher study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' TURKISH GRAMMAR (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of xeroxed materials. Cost:1 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)

511. Readings in Ottoman Turkish. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This course is part of the department's language sequence in the Ottoman/Turkish program. A recitation/discussion type of course in which Ottoman texts of pre-nineteenth century vintage in the Arabic script are read in class, analyzed and discussed from the point of view of language and content. Quizzes, a midterm and a final examination are required. The texts are specially selected for distribution to the class. Cost:1 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)

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