Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

The first half of the European history survey course covers a sweeping period of over a millennium. The course is designed to expose students to general outlines and chronology of European history and to encourage critical, skeptical analytical thinking. To anchor our flying coverage of this long and varied time, we will focus on developments in culture (art, architecture, literature), social organization (family, community, gender relations), and in political organization and theory. Readings will include a textbook, primary sources, challenging interpretive essays. Lecture time will be punctuated by small-group discussions and active participation is strongly encouraged. Slides will frequently accompany lectures. Cost:3 WL:1 (Kivelson)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilizations of China, Japan, Korea, and Inner Asia. It aims to provide an overview of changing traditions from ancient to early modern times (ca. 1660 AD) by outlining broad trends which not only transformed each society, economy, and culture but also led to the development of this region into distinctly different modern nations. The development of state Confucianism, the spread of Buddhism, the functions of the scholar and the warrior, the impact of the military empires of Inner Asia, and the superiority of pre-modern Asian science and technology are some of the topics we will cover. In addition to the required textbooks, we will read contemporary accounts and view slides and films to acquire intimate appreciation of these cultures. Course requirements include successful completion of: quizzes given in sections; four major tests given in class on October 3 and 25, November 15, and December 8; one report/project (5 pp. plus bibliography and notes). Cost:2 WL:3 (Forage)

151/UC 172/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This course is an introduction to the civilization of India, that is, the region of South Asia consisting of the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. We will begin with the first Indian civilization, that of the Indus Valley, and go on to the Vedic age, the formation of empires and the classical civilization of India, its social organization, arts, and sciences. We will then examine the encounter of India with Islamic and European civilization, and the formation of the independent nation-states of today. Course requirements include short papers, midterm, and final exam. (Trautmann)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This lecture/discussion course will examine central issues and events in the history of the territories that became the United States, and the peoples who lived there, from the late 16th to the middle of the 19th centuries. Among the topics that will be considered are the territorial expansions of Europeans into the Americas; the creation of Anglo-American colonies; the social, political, and cultural orders of British North America; the creation of an independent American republic in the Revolution, and the destruction of that first republic in the War Between the States. The required readings will include both primary and secondary sources, and will be examined in weekly discussion sections. There will be both a midterm and a final examination, and active class participation will be expected in the sections. (Thornton)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 surveys the evolution of the United States from an agrarian nation with little concern for foreign affairs to the world's preeminent economic power with self-defined global interests. Within this context lectures, reading assignments, and discussion sections will stress the changing nature of the concept of freedom within the United States since 1865. This examination necessarily will focus on the lives of individual citizens, the transformation of the labor force and the workplace, and the role played by race, ethnicity, class, and gender in determining a person's place with the greater society. In so doing the course will address the era's major reform movements (Reconstruction, Populism, Progressivism, the New Deal, and the Great Society) as well as the nation's reaction to demands placed upon it in international affairs. Course requirements will include at least one essay, a one-hour midterm examination, and a two-hour final examination. (Fitzpatrick)

170/Amer. Cult. 170/UC 170/WS 210. New Worlds: Colonialism and Cultural Encounters. First-year students only. (4). (Introductory Composition).

See American Culture 170. (Karlsen)

195. The Writing of History. (4). (Introductory Composition). This course may not be included in a history concentration.

"The Writing of History" courses offer students the opportunity to learn writing through the study of historical texts, debates, and events. Each "Writing of History" section will study a different era, region, and topic in the past, for the common purpose of learning how history is written and how to write about it. Students will read the work of modern historians as well as documents and other source materials from the past, such as historical novels, letters, diaries, or memoirs. In each case the goal will be to learn how to construct effective arguments, and how to write college-level analytic papers. History 195 satisfies the first-year writing requirements. Each section will enroll a maximum of twenty students.

Section 001 North Africa and Europe in the Mirror of Colonialism. North Africa has played a special role in the European imagination; it has stood for the exotic, the picturesque, the sensual, and the barbaric. At the same time, North Africans have been forced to think about Europe. They have done so in deeply ambivalent ways, portraying Europe as home to both violence and enlightenment, both greed and high culture. In this course we will consider the cultural encounter of Europe and North Africa - above all France and the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) - from the early nineteenth century until the present. We will survey European conquest and colonialism, together with North African nationalism and the drive for independence. But our central aim will be a history of cultural perception, a study of the ways in which North Africa and Europe perceived each other. Sources will include novels, press illustrations, travel accounts, political speeches, painting and poetry. Requirements: weekly writing assignments; active participation in discussion. (Shaya)

Section 002 Race, Science and Social Policy in Western Europe and the United States. This course examines racial science and its influence upon government policy in twentieth century western Europe and the united states. Our goal is to understand how and why racial thinking was "respectable" prior to World War II and to consider the different ways in which the issue of "racial purity" shaped politics and social reform within different periods and national contexts. We will begin by exploring the idea of race in late nineteenth century natural science and considering the efforts of scientists, politicians and writers at the turn of the century to apply racial science to social policy. The topics in this part of the course will include popular and elite conceptions of poverty, illness and crime and the movements to reform health, welfare and criminal justice on both sides of the Atlantic, prior to World War I. The second part of the course will concentrate on the transformation of racial practice and the politics of social reform during World War I and its aftermath. We will examine the broad-based interest and support for "racial hygiene" between the wars in various European countries and in the U.S. In the last section of the course, the focus will shift to the role of "applied racial science" in right-wing political ideologies and movements in Italy, France and especially Germany. We will examine the appropriation of progressive ideals of social reform by the fascists in Italy and the nazis in Germany, and we will consider their differing attempts to transform and to politically utilize the idea of the biological "other". (Rosenblum)

Section 003 The Holocaust in Text, Image and Memory. Since World War II and particularly since the 1960s historians, filmmakes, novelists, political analysts and museum directors have all sought to record the plight of European Jewry under nazi domination. Each new representation whether its goal is to commemorate the past, to warn future generations of "history's lessons", or to apply the tools of historical, sociological and political analysis to the events of World War II has shaped the public memory of those events. In this course, students will explore the evolution of this public memory. By examining primary documents, historical accounts, memoirs, fiction, film, and visual images, we will examine how the history of the holocaust has been written, and how themes of bearing witness have shaped that story. (Mandel)

Section 005 Knights and Chivalry: Medieval Warfare, Tournaments, and Courtly Love. This course will explore chivalry as the defining ideology of medieval Europe in the period from 1000-1500. Although it originated primarily as a code of military conduct, chivalry became such an integral part of noble identity and expression that eventually it defined nobility itself. Chivalry was also an international value, and the ways in which chivalry was expressed will be considered in various regions, particularly its role in bringing areas considered marginal or backward into the mainstream of European culture. Topics that will be explored in this course include: the origins of chivalry as a martial code and its later development into courtesy and 'manners'; tournaments, jousts, pageants and other forms of chivalric display; chivalry's mediation of relations between men and women, and its creation of a public role for women; religious elements of knighthood and chivalry, and the turbulent interaction between secular and ecclesiastical authorities; chivalric literature such as Arthurian romances and guides to correct behaviour; and political applications of chivalry as embodied in chivalric orders of knighthood. Chivalry occupies an important place in recent scholarly debates, and there has been much discussion about its 'decadence' in the later middle ages. We will consider these ideas of the decline of chivalry, especially the parts played by values and culture in particular societies, and what they reveal about these societies. We will use a broad range of primary and secondary sources including: rule books for tournaments and jousts, codes of conduct for warfare, guides to good behaviour, chivalric romances, and charters for chivalric orders. The course is primarily a writing course, and thus weekly writing assignments will be assigned. These will include essays, book reviews, group reports, and a research paper. (Anderson)

Section 006 Western Places, Past and Present. How do people interpret the landforms they see? What effect does altering the physical landscape have on their interpretations? What role does this process play in people making history? This course examines a series of American Western places with these questions in mind. From the 19th century midwestern frontier, to the dust bowl, to modern Los Angeles, a variety of times and places will be studied. Readings include essays by popular writers, historical monographs, Navajo myths, and recent works by historical geographers. The course requires four papers each of which emphasizes a different skill: critical analysis, interpretation of primary sources, comparative historiography, and historical synthesis. (Salmanson)

196. Freshman Seminar. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Community and Diversity in Early Modern Europe.
This class explores the problem of community and diversity at a particularly important and formative time in western history: the early modern period. It was during this time that the ideal of universal Christian empire gave way, definitively and inexorably, to that of nation state; that the slow and tedious process of writing manuscripts by hand gave way to the printing press; that the unified catholic church gave way to any number of Protestant sects; that the borders of the world were suddenly extended to include new worlds and new peoples never before imagined. The end result of these momentous changes, as we shall see, was to challenge the apparent cohesiveness of the world, putting into question not only peoples' perceptions of their rights and duties but also undermining the very foundations of individual and group identity. The objectives of this class will be twofold: first, we will be concerned to explicate the social and historical processes that resulted in the destruction of the classical/medieval paradigm of the world; second, we will endeavor to chart the ways in which people sought to reinvest their lives with meaning and coherence. Thus, we will look at a variety of religious, cultural and political movements that attempted to articulate new bonds of loyalty, obligation, and solidarity, while at the same time paying careful attention to the ways in which these positive assertions of identity and community were defined negatively through the subjection of certain groups and categories of people i.e. women, Protestants, vagabonds, natives from the New World as being somehow less than truly human. In this, and in many other respects, the early modern period was perhaps not so different from our own; indeed, insofar as these now distant struggles to redefine that nature of community and authority set the stage for the scientific, industrial and political revolutions of the 17th and 18th centuries, we still live with their legacy today. (Wintroub)

197. Freshman Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 001 European Intellectual History, 1789-1914.
This course will consider major ideas and intellectual movements, principally in Western Europe, from the French Revolution to the outbreak of the First World War. The topics will include: Nationalism; Liberalism; Romanticism; Darwinism; the Rise of Industrialization and Technology; Militarism; Utopian Socialism; Marxism; and Democratic Political Movements. There will also be a consideration of the rise of modern psychological and sociological thought. The method to be employed will include both lecture and class discussion. The student will be required to do a series of written reports on the various topics to be covered in this class. Readings will include both original texts and documents, as well as a general narrative history textbook treating leading historical events. WL:3 (Becker)

Section 002 Women and Gender: Victorian Women. This course is a first-year seminar intended to allow students to explore the history and representation of women in Victorian Britain (1836-1901). The course will use historical scholarship, life-stories, visual images, and literary works - novels, short poems, plays, and non-fiction prose to examine changes and continuities in the real and imagined lives of real and imagined women, and to look at the intersections and mutual effects of material conditions and cultural discourses. Special attention will be paid to the ways in which "Victorian women" are divided and differentiated, especially by class, but also by "race," religion, ethnicity and region, generation, and politics; we will explore the ways in which working-class women (including servants) and women colonial subjects are represented in literary writings by other women, as well as the ways in which they represent themselves, and the ways in which the diversity of women's affiliations and interests are addressed or ignored by the Victorian organized women's movement. (Israel)

Section 003 Critical Thinking in the Renaissance and Reformation. The period from about 1450 to 1600 was obsessed with the need for reform, in religious, political, social, and intellectual life. Reading in this course will be taken from those authors whose moral and intellectual critiques of contemporary life, letters, and society made them the most important promoters of reform in their eras. The reading list is certain to include Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Michel de Montaigne. Other readings will be selected from the works of some of the following: Petrarch, Lorenzo Valla, Thomas More, Machiavelli, Rabelais, Jean Bodin, and Galileo. Our primary focus will therefore be on "great books" and their authors. In the course of the term students will also become familiar with a wide range of reference works, which they will use to gain the necessary background information to place the reading in historical context. Two hours a week will be devoted to class discussion of the assigned readings. The third hour will serve a variety of purposes (preparation for the next assignment, discussion of effective writing, slide presentations, and the like). There will be three short essays (3-4 pages) and a final synthetic exercise of 10-12 pages. A principal goal of the course will be the development of clear, effective writing; comments will, therefore, address problems of expression as well as substantive historical and textual issues. There will not be a midterm or a final examination, but there may be occasional quizzes and student reports. Cost:3 (Tentler)

Section 004 Inventing Women and Men (Inventing Sex and Gender). This first-year seminar will examine the different ways that westerners have imagined sex (the biology of difference) and gender (the culture of difference) and the links between the two. Shifting between primate studies and rock-and-roll bobby-sox culture, we will investigate not only the incredible range of expressing and acting upon sexual difference over the ages, we will also look at how people assumed that such a very different set of meanings and practices were "natural" or "normal." At the center of our discussion will be how historically westerners have shifted between biologically- and culturally-based explanations of difference. From there we will branch out to discussions of the role of science, popular culture, and law in efforts to fix or codify the meanings of femininity and masculinity. We will not neglect to discuss how westerners simultaneously defined Asians and Africans in ways to define European and American virtue. (Frost)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. Cost:2 WL:1 (Humphreys)

210/MARC 210. Early Middle Ages, 300-1100. (4). (SS).

An introduction of the transformation of the Roman Empire into Byzantine, Islamic, and west European successor states between AD 300 and 1000. The course focuses on the social, cultural, and economic developments in the barbarian kingdoms of Europe. Lectures are integrated with weekly discussion of early medieval texts; two short papers and two tests are the basis of evaluation of performance. WL:3 (Squatriti)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).

The course examines the history of Vietnam and the several wars fought there after 1945, with emphasis on the period of American involvement after 1950. It looks at the origins, strategy, and results of American intervention and of Vietnamese resistance. Thus it analyzes both the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history and also the climax of a modern Asian revolution. Cost:3 WL:1 (Collier)

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the sweep of English history from Roman times until the Glorious Revolution. The first half of it is devoted to the Middle Ages and focuses on the formation of the English monarchy, the role of the church in politics and culture and basic social and economic structures. The second half treats the early modern period (c. 1450-1700) and concentrates on the growth of the state, the Protestant Reformation, the English Revolution, and the social and economic changes that followed the Black Death and played themselves out during the reigns of the Tudor and Stuart monarchs. No prior knowledge of English history is assumed in this class, and it is intended to serve as the basis for more advanced work in British history and to provide background and comparisons for courses in English literature and European and American history. (MacDonald)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (3). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, new views on race and gender in the making of China, intellectual and scientific revolutions in the seventeenth century, and literature and society in premodern China. WL:1 (Chang)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (3). (SS).

See CAAS 230.

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (3). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Native Americans, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction, however, first-year students must obtain permission of the professor to enroll. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a challenging and demanding course. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. Required purchases cost $15, but additional required reading assignments, available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $110 additional if bought. WL:4 (Pernick)

285. Science, Technology, and Society After The Bomb. (4). (HU).

The enterprise of science changed dramatically after WWII, both intellectually and socially. The consequences of being able to split the atom and, more recently, to engineer biological blueprints have made science literally a life and death activity that touches every human. This course will explore the growth and implications of scientific and technological development from the end of WWII to the present. There will be two lectures and one discussion per week. Students will work in small groups on one problem during the term, e.g., energy, pollution, global warming, health care issues. Each group will hand in a jointly written report at the end of term and present a class report. Three or four books will be assigned reading. Students will be expected to make use of e-mail and conferencing. Cost:Under $50 WL:1 (Steneck)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

307/ACABS 322/Rel. 359. History and Religion of Ancient Judaism. May be elected independently of Hist. 306. (3). (HU).

See ACABS 322. (Boccaccini)

318. Imperialism and After: Europe 1890-1945. (4). (SS).
Section 001 Europe in the Age of Imperialism and War.
In the period under question, Europeans shifted from proud global domination to abject despair and destruction. Departing from a deep confidence in an almost biological superiority of the European male, Europeans saw their world implode as a consequence of their own actions. Part of the crisis was rooted, this course will argue, in the dubious legacy of modernism. Topics of the course will include the invention of the native and the modern woman, of the engineer, and the housewife, of the flapper and the revolutionary, and of the fascist and the surrealist. We shall focus in particular on the cultural impact of new technologies, war-making capacities and managerial methods to discover how Europeans redefined sexuality, class, race, and "progress." Cost:2 (Frost)

320. Britain, 1901-1945: Culture and Politics. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine British culture and politics from the death of Queen Victoria through the second world war, with particular attention to the nature and structure of politics and the state; the first world war and the processes through which the war experience of mass participation and trauma were understood; cultural and political debates in the interwar years; the growth of mass media; gender; the empire and colonial subjects; the Great Depression; British politics during the rise of Nazi and fascist governments in Europe; and the experience of the Blitz and World War II. Students will be asked to think critically about the various means by which national and personal stories are constituted, repressed, re-imagined and deployed in debates about the meaning and uses of the past. Readings and other course materials will include autobiographies, novels, films, and photographs, and class sessions will include extensive discussion. No previous knowledge of British history will be assumed or required. (Israel)

332/REES 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/Soc. 392. Survey of Russia: The Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Successor States. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Bartlett)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

This course will examine the American experience of war in this century. Lectures, readings, films, and discussions will focus not only on the military experience itself, but on how America's wars real and imagined have shaped the country's economy, politics, and culture. The course will also examine the processes of transmission and memory: how Americans who did not fight learned about those who did, and what all Americans have remembered or have been taught to remember about the wars of this century. Finally, we will consider how the nation's wartime conduct, at home and on the battlefield, has fit into long-standing social patterns and behavior such as our alleged propensity for violence. In brief, we will be looking at the American experience of war as inclusively as a term will allow. (Marwil)

371/WS 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (4). (Excl).

This course will examine how social constructions of gender, race, class, and sexuality have shaped women's lives in the U.S. from the Civil War to the present, and how some women have pushed at the boundaries of those constructions through, for example, changing patterns of work, leisure, education, and intimacy; through political activism; through labor organizing; through involvement in a variety of social movements; and through popular culture. We will emphasize the diversity of women's historical experiences by region as well as by social category, and will situate those experiences in the larger contexts of social, economic, and political change on local, national, and even global levels. Requirements include a midterm, a final, and a paper, as well as active participation in discussion sections. Films will be shown. Cost:2 WL:4 (Palmieri)

373/Amer. Cult. 373. History of the U.S. West. (3). (HU).

See American Culture 373. (Montoya)

378/Amer. Cult. 314. History of Asian Americans in the U.S. (4). (Excl).

See American Culture 314. (Nomura)

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys Jewish history in Europe, America, and the Middle East from the mid-seventeenth century to the 1870s. It begins with the emergence of West European Jews from cultural and social isolation, discusses their political emancipation, and traces their efforts to modernize Jewish ritual and belief. The focus then shifts to Eastern Europe, where the world of tradition persisted much longer. The lectures on Eastern Europe will focus on the religious and social character of Jewish life in Poland and Russia, the development of Hasidism, and the first glimmerings of enlightenment in the mid-nineteenth century. The course will conclude with a look at the Jewish communities of North Africa and the Middle East. There will be an essay-type midterm, a 10-12 page paper, and a comprehensive final. Cost:3 (Endelman)

391. Topics in European History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 History of the Jews in Spain.
A Jewish presence in Spain existed from Roman times to the late fifteenth century. This course, however, will focus on the period from the Muslim conquest of Spain in the eighth century to the expulsion of the Jews by the Catholic monarchs in 1492. We will examine how the brilliant culture of Islamic Spain stimulated a flowering of Jewish culture philosophy, Hebrew poetry (sacred and profane), synagogue architecture, and rabbinics. We will then consider the transition to life under Christian monarchs. Initially, during the Reconquista era, Christian Spain tended to be a rather tolerant society which had absorbed much of Islamic-Spanish culture and social organization. But by the thirteenth century it had become increasingly persecutory towards Jews (and other non-conformists), eventually subjecting the Jews to violence, forced conversion, staged religious disputations, inquisitorial terrors, and, finally, expulsion. There will be two brief papers and a final exam. Cost:2 (Bodian)

394. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 credit course open only to history concentrators by written permission of the instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Section 001 Old Age in American History. Being old in America in the 1990s is both remarkably similar to and incredibly different from conditions in past times. Americans have long perceived old age as a distinct stage of life, and they have always faced their own aging with ambivalence. But people in colonial times would be shocked to see Yuppies denounce their elders as "greedy geezers," they would find it hard to unravel the legal, medical, economic, and ethical issues that currently shape long-term care for the elderly in this country. Through weekly discussions of books and articles, we will try to understand such continuities and changes in the meanings and experiences of old age over time. There will be no exams. Cost:3 WL:1 (Achenbaum)

Section 002 EXPLORATION AND ENLIGHTENMENT. An examination of the major geographical discoveries relating to North America in the 18th century. Focuses on the decline of missionary endeavor, the reawakening of scientific curiosity, and the influence of the European Enlightenment on the course of American exploration and settlement. Topics include: international rivalries, land speculation, the Susquehanna and Ohio Valleys, the Canadian and Pacific Northwest, Daniel Boone, the California missions, Captain Cook, and Lewis & Clark. (Hancock)

Section 003 Urban America, 1775-1800: Class and Culture/Race and Gender "Up Close" and Inescapable. Urban America was a hot house of political revolution, economic change, class formations, the production of gender, race and culture (literary, artistic, and material) as markers of national and class identities. Beginning with the stormy years of political revolution, the course, an amalgam of political, economic, social and cultural history, will examine the ways class and economic issues informed the birth of the new nation. It was then that a revolutionary new class emerged the middle class, product and producer of a new bourgeois culture. Novels, literary and political magazines proliferated. Schools, hospitals, theaters opened. Mob violence, fire and epidemics spread panic and disorder through the new cities. Race and gender were central in this new urban culture and the new urban economy. The course will focus on the writings of contemporary urban Americans, Paine, Franklin, Charles Brockden Brown, Mercy Otis Warren, Susann Rowson. (Smith-Rosenberg)

Section 004 The Inquisition. The Spanish inquisition was established in the late fifteenth century and was formally abolished only in 1834. In the popular mind it has tended to evoke images of autos-da-fe, burnings at the stake, unspeakable torture and unbounded religious fanaticism. The mass of inquisitorial records which have been preserved and studied, however, have permitted a more complex and nuanced picture to emerge. Yet despite the abundance of evidence, controversies abound among scholars. To what degree was inquisitorial persecution motivated by religious zeal, to what degree by social, racial or political aims? Do the records of the trials reflect actual widespread "heretical" activity or are they the product of the paranoid fantasies of inquisitors and the coerced testimony of victims? In this colloquium we will examine the various issues raised and some of the evidence. More broadly, we will try to obtain an understanding of the inquisition in its historical context. (Bodian)

Section 005 Constructing the Political: Representations of Power and the Idea of Virtue in Premodern Political Thought. This course is intended to provide students with the opportunity to reflect upon some of the issues surrounding cultural diversity and the status of the western political/philosophical tradition. Members of the seminar will thus read a series of primary texts (including works by Plato, St. Augustine, Machiavelli, and Hobbes) with an eye to understanding how notions of male and female, slave and free, higher and lower (class/status) have underwritten constructions of both social and political order. Ultimately our goal is to confront directly the arguments of these "canonical" thinkers in order to see how it is that the very different understandings of the past about the relationship between religion and the state, ethics and politics, or the occult and the rational have informed the conceptions of justice, political efficacy and power to which the western tradition is heir. There will be no exams. Frequent, short papers (2-3 pp.) and weekly discussions for the basis for evaluation. (Downs)

Section 006 The Plague in the Middle Ages. This colloquium will consider the question of disease in pre-modern history by focusing on the Black Death of 1348, which began a cycle of plague from which Europe finally emerged only in the seventeenth century. Apart from the demographic and societal effects of plague on the societies it struck a core interest in the course some of the questions to be considered are: (1) medical treatment and the state of medical knowledge during the period; (2) the development of hygiene and the policy and politics of quarantine; (3) posited relationships between diseases of the body and diseases of the soul; (4) the association of plague with other diseases, especially syphilis; (5) plague and the literary imagination. This course will demand two short papers on the readings, one analysis of a source, and a longer research paper on a topic of the student's choice. (Hughes)

Section 007 THE SOCIAL VOICES OF THE TEXT: READINGS IN EARLY MODERN SOCIETY, CULTURE AND POLITICS. In a certain sense a text is an attempt to control us: to contain us within its boundaries and to create a self-contained world of intimate and meditative communication. This hermetic view of the text however has come under increasing fire, with historians, literary critics and sociologists seeking not to analyse texts with regards to their internal coherence and meaning, but rather to break down the walls separating texts from their contexts of production and reception. Writing, and indeed, reading, in this view, are not simply solitary acts, but animated, and given shape, by the complex interactions which regulate relations between individuals, groups, and society. These interactions revolve around the ways that people represent and make sense of their world(s). This course will examine these representations, whether contested or shared, through the texts, images, and objects which were their principle sources of expression. We will thus treat authors and readers alike, not as isolated individuals, but as societal animals endeavouring to use textual media as a means of marking out their and others' positions in fields of social, political and cultural struggle. The course is a seminar, participation in discussion will be an important component of your grade. Beyond this, there will also be short weekly writing assignments of approximately 1-3 pages (double-spaced). In addition three longer papers will also be required, two of these should be from 5-7 pages, while the final paper should be about 10 pages long. (Wintroub)

Section 008 Madness in History. One measure of a society's decency is how it treats it most helpless members, and no group of adults is more helpless than the insane. This class will examine the history of the perception and treatment of the insane from ancient times until the present. We shall see that as Michel Foucault pointed out in his famous Madness and Civilization the ways in which mental disorders have been defined and their victims have been treated reflects sharply the changing values and institutions of successive eras. The class will focus mainly on Europe and America, and it will adopt a broad approach to the problem that embraces the related issues of suicide, homelessness, substance abuse, and poverty as well as the more spectacular forms of mental illness. It will trace the causes and consequences of the rise of the asylum in the west and its abandonment in very recent times, and it will be attentive to the gendering of mental afflictions and to issues of class and culture that have affected responses to them. At least one or two of the class meetings will include interviews with experts experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric problems. A high premium will be placed on participation in our discussions of the weekly readings, which will be extensive. In addition, each student will be asked to write a term paper exploring the treatment of insanity or a related issue in a particular historical setting. (M. MacDonald)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (HU). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Food in Global History.
This course is part of the Fall Term's theme semester established in conjunction with an international conference in Ann Arbor on the global history of food. Through assigned readings, class discussion, and a number of short essays, students will explore how the historical importance of food in human civilization looks different if seen in global context. Students will have wide choice as to the topics of their individual papers. The course will look at global patterns in four broad areas: (1) changes in human diet (as effected by changes in agriculture, demography, transportation, medical theories, and fads); (2) the economy of food (the distribution of staples such as rice, wheat, or corn); trade patterns, ancient and modern; restaurants and bars; commercial campaigns; (3) social structure and food (the effects of migration, gender roles, social class, imperialism); culture and food (rituals, ways of cooking, their representation in literature and art). (Grew)

Section 002 Rome After Empire. (Squatriti)

Section 003 The Sixties: From Old Left to New in Culture and Politics. For Fall Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with American Culture 496.001. (Wald)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, Hist. 398, and senior standing. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. Cost:1 WL:5 Must be admitted. (Scobey)

403. Problems in Roman History II. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Biography, Fiction, and History in Second-Century Rome.
A century after Augustus the Roman empire had achieved a state of social and political equilibrium. Emperors spent more time in the provinces, and provincials became increasingly prominent. This course will focus on the Mediterranean world during the second century AD. Readings will include lives of emperors, ancient novels, letters, cult treatises, and representative modern scholarship. All classes will be discussions based on readings; grade is based on participation in discussions and a series of papers. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost:2 WL:1 (Van Dam)

408(430). Byzantine Empire, 284-867. (3). (Excl).

A lecture course which provides a survey of the History of the later Roman Empire from the reforms of Diocletian that paved the way out of the crisis of the third century, through Constantine's move east and the conversion to Christianity (entering the Byzantine period), Justinian, Heraclius on through the Amorion Dynasty which came to a close with the murder of Michael the Sot in 867. The course will stress political history, giving considerable attention as well to religious history (conversion to Christianity, the great theological disputes over the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ as well as the relationship between the human and divine natures in Christ culminating in the Church councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, the rise of monasticism and Iconoclasm), administrative reforms (Diocletian's and Constantine's reforms, the reforms of the seventh century culminating in the Theme system), demographic changes and foreign relations (Goths, the Slavic and Bulgar invasions, relations with the Bulgars, relations with the Persians and Arabs in the East and later with the Franks and Charlemagne). No background is assumed. Requirements: a midterm written hour-exam. One ten page paper and a final examination. Paper topics are tailored to individual interests. (J. Fine)

420. Modern Germany. No credit for those who have completed or are enrolled in History 418 or 419. (3). (SS).
Modern Germany 1870 to the Present.
This course explores the changing meanings of "Germany" between the foundation of the German Empire in 1866-71 and the reunification of Germany in 1990. It will approach German history through a succession of themes organized chronologically, including: problems of political development under the Kaiserreich; World War I and the German Revolution; the instabilities of democracy during the Weimar Republic; state and society under Nazism; war, race, and Judeocide; divided Germany and reunification. Themes will be treated historiographically. Attention will be paid to political, social, cultural, and economic history. Students will be evaluated by class attendance and participation, reading, midterm and final exam, and a critical term paper. Instruction will be via lectures and discussion. An optional LAC (Language Across the Curriculum) section will be attached to the class. Cost:2 (Eley)

Section 002 Language Across the Curriculum. An optional LAC section will be attached to this course, in which students registered for the class will have the opportunity for readings and discussion in the German language. Additional readings relevant to the weekly themes will be assigned, typically comprising an untranslated essay-length text selected to add a dimension to the main readings and contents of the course, including current articles from the German press as well as historical works. Excerpts from documents and fiction may also be used. Several German language films will also be integrated into the term's assignments. Discussion will be held in German.

429(143). Discovery. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The History, Art, and Cinema of Discovery and Exploration.
This course is suitable for first-year students. Travel, and a fascination for exploration, have been important determinants of European and American culture. This course explores the history of travel, discovery, and exploration through original accounts by travelers and explorers, through artistic depictions of travel, and through a series of movies about exploration and by explorers (some examples are "Grass," "King Kong," "Kamet Conquered," "Destination Moon"). The primary concern of our work will be the impact of travel, discovery, and exploration on the travelers themselves. We begin with the age of Marco Polo, move to the "New World," visit the North and South Poles, climb the highest mountains, and end with real and imagined space travel. Grades will be based on class participation, performance on a regular quiz, and the final examination. (Lindner)

431(531). History of the Balkans Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

This is a lecture course which surveys the history of the modern Balkans the area which consists of the ex-Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania from roughly 1878 to the present. There are no prerequisites nor required background. Interested freshman should feel welcome. Grading is based on: one hour exam, a one-hour written exam, writing on one essay question out of about four, one course paper (approximately 15 pages, topic according to student interest but cleared with instructor), and a written final exam (2 essay questions to be chosen from a list of about 8 questions). Major issues to be covered are: the crisis of 1875-78 with international involvement ending with the Treaty of Berlin, Croatia and Bosnia under the Habsburgs, the development of Bulgaria after 1878, the Macedonia problem, terrorist societies, World War I, the formation of Yugoslavia, nationality problems in Yugoslavia between the Wars, German penetration and the rise of dictatorships in the inter-war Balkans, World War II with Yugoslav and Greek resistance movements (including the Greek Civil War), Tito's Yugoslavia, its 1948 break with the USSR and Yugoslavia's special path to socialism. Nationality problems, the break-up of Yugoslavia, and the ensuing wars. Cost:3 WL:4 (J. Fine)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

A history of Imperial Russia from Peter the Great to World War I, with emphasis on the problems of modernization, political institutions, economic development, and the revolutionary movement. Lectures, supplemented by discussion section. (Rosenberg)

440/ACABS 413/Anthro. 442. Ancient Mesopotamia. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

See ACABS 413. (Yoffee)

444. Inner Asia, Russia, and China. One course in Russian, Chinese or Near Eastern history, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Inner Asia: Creating Nations: Central Asia in the Modern Era.
For Fall Term, 1996, this course is offered jointly with APTIS 591.001. (Kamp)

446/CAAS 446. Africa to 1850. (3). (SS).

The course is an introduction to the peoples and cultures of sub-Saharan Africa. It begins with a survey of the origins of man and early African civilizations and concludes with the trans-Atlantic slave trade. (Lindsay)

451. Japan Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the history of Japan from the dissolution of a semi-feudal system in the early nineteenth century to Japan's rise as a world economic power in the late twentieth century. We will address both the major historical themes during these two centuries of radical change and the issues at stake in historical interpretation. The themes covered in the course include: (1) the decline of Tokugawa power and the rise of a new plebeian social and cultural sphere in the early nineteenth century; (2) Japan's coerced entry into a global market and the Meiji Restoration in the mid-nineteenth century; (3) the consolidation of a modern nation-state and the beginnings of Japanese imperialism in Asia in the late nineteenth century; (4) the rise of social protest and mass culture in the early twentieth century; (5) political reaction and militarism, 1930-1945; (6) Japan's defeat in the Pacific War and the U.S. Occupation; (7) postwar recovery and the contested emergence of a conservative hegemony over Japanese politics and economy; and (8) the myths and realities of Japan's new "information society." Class sessions will combine lecture and discussion. Students are expected to attend class (two 90 minute sessions a week), prepare brief assignments, take an in-class midterm exam and complete a final paper. Both grads and undergrads welcome. Cost:3 WL:1 (Pincus)

455. Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (3). (Excl).

The greater part of this course concerns itself with the history of ancient India in its classical age beginning with the empire of the Guptas, and attempts to analyse the components of Indian civilization in its classical form (kinship, caste, political organization, religious institutions). It then examines the Turkish invasions and the challenges posed by Islamic rule. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of any of its participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (3). (SS).

A different course every term it is taught, in general "Colonial America" focuses on the people of the time, often encountered speaking in their own voices, and on their broad cultural characteristics and problems as the nation moved toward the Revolution. This instance, we will focus primarily on Puritans, in England and in New England, and on Puritanism's consequences for the American tradition. Few lectures; mostly discussion. An exam, two quizzes and a paper are the usual assignment. Standards are high, and it is not unusual to find that students are asked to re-write papers which are not clear (with a 1/3 grade penalty). So, lucid, precise, well-organized writing and skills in the use of evidence is, if not a prerequisite, something we hope to achieve. Cost:2 WL:1 (Juster)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups and women in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Please note that discussion sections have been added. Undergraduates electing this course must register for section 001 and one discussion section. Cost:3 WL:1-3 (S. Fine)

476/Anthro. 416. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the colonial period in Latin American history from the initial Spanish and Portuguese contact and conquest to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. It will focus on the process of interaction between Indians and Europeans, tracing the evolution of a range of colonial societies in the New World. Thus we will examine the indigenous background to conquest as well as the nature of the settler community. We will also look at the shifting uses of land and labor, and at the importance of class, race, gender, and ethnicity. The method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Each student will write a short critical review and a final paper of approximately 10 to 12 pages. There will be a midterm and a final. Readings will include works by Inga Clendinnen, Nancy Farris, Karen Spalding and Charles Gibson, as well as primary materials from Aztec and Spanish sources. The text will be Burkholder and Johnson, Colonial Latin America. (Frye)

Section 004 Language Across the Curriculum Section. Students who enroll in this section should also enroll in University Course 490.002, a one-credit course which will count towards a certificate in advanced second-language competence. Students will complete extra reading and writing assignments in Spanish and discussion will be conducted in both Spanish and English. Please note meeting time for this section is longer. This is for undergraduates. Students should have 4th-term Spanish competency.

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 101 or 102. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 491. (Levenstein)

A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

528. Modern Italy, 1815 to the Present. (3). (Excl).

Italy's remarkable changes and surprising continuity over the last two centuries in politics, economics, and culture provide the themes of this course, which studies the national movement (the Risorgimento) that created a modern state after l500 years of division, the invention of Fascism, and Italian democracy today. It studies how an agricultural society began to industrialize and in the last generation became one of the world's wealthy nations. It looks at the persistence of regional differences, the controversial role of the Church, and the conflicts surrounding Italian culture. Lectures and discussion, independent reading on topics of the students' choice, hour exam, and final. (Grew)

542. Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the early modern and modern evolution of the Persian Gulf region, giving especial attention to Iran, but also attempting to give insights into the development of neighboring Gulf states such as Iraq, Bahrain, and Kuwait. The early part of the course will look at the rise of Shi'ite Islam as a political factor in Iran and Iraq during the Safavid era, and will also examine the early impact of the European trading empires, such as the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British, on the Persian Gulf region. Important social groups such as pastoral nomads, urban guilds, and peasants will be analyzed. The course will then cover the nineteenth century, a time of increased Russian and British influence over Iran, and of British hegemony over the Persian Gulf. The second half of the course will cover the twentieth century, dealing with the heyday and decline of British and Russian imperialism in the region, the impact of petroleum, Pahlavi absolutism and Islamic revolution, the rise of the Baath party and Saddam Hussein in Iraq, the Gulf wars, and American involvement in the region. Lectures will be interspersed with discussions. A midterm, final, and a short term paper are required. Cost:4 (Cole)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (3). (Excl).

In this course, we shall seek the origins and lineaments of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely in the preceding century and more for antecedents and predisposing social change. We shall examine the testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, trends in Confucian thought and the role of popular culture, nationalism and women's liberation, cultural iconoclasm and neotraditionalism, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Maoism and its debunking. Previous familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful but is not required. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write two short papers and take a final exam. Cost:3 WL:4 (Young)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the intellectual discourse of Americans from the middle of the nineteenth century to the near present. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, the structure of knowledge, morality, social organization, race, gender, and the responsibilities of the intellectual to society. Cost:3 WL:1 (Cándida Smith)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, and a multitude of recent business developments and trends. Cost:1 WL:3 (Lewis)

590. History Topics Mini-course. (1-2). (Excl).
Section 001 Outcastes and Boundaries: Social History of Premodern Japan. (1 credit).
This mini-course features Professor Yoshihiko Amino, a foremost medieval historian known for his bold methodology and path-breaking reinterpretation. The course explores medieval Japan's social, spatial, and symbolic structures; how these structures defined and situated the marginal groups in relation to the dominant population that formally represented a Japanese polity. It considers how the meanings given to the relationship between these two groups had and still have a profound effect on constructing what came to be called the "Japanese culture." The course is taught in Japanese, with an interpreter, in a seminar format. Considerable familiarity with the Japanese language is desirable. Class meetings are scheduled for 2-4 p.m. on: 9/19, 9/20, and 9/24 with additional hours for discussion in English. The final schedule is TBA upon consultation with registered students. Requirements include active participation and a ten-page paper in English. Before registering, please contact Hitomi Tonomura, 764-6307, (Amino)

Section 002 Racism and Ethnicity in Brazil: History and Historiography. (1 credit). For Fall Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with RC Interdivisional 350.002. (H. Castro)

Section 003 The Armenians in Diaspora 1600-1800: The Preservation of Plural Cultural Identities Through the Acquisition of Merchant Capital. This section meets September 9 through September 20. Mondays and Wednesdays 5:00 to 7:00 p.m.; 3419 Mason Hall. Most of the readings will be in a xeroxed packet. Preference has been given to works in English. A few articles are in French. Some books will be on reserve. Wen the books are not on reserve it will be mentioned in the preceding class session. Class discussions of the readings are an integral part of the course. After the day's lecture one appointed speaker will briefly present the reading of the day and open the floor to discussion by framing the main questions which the reading addresses. Those readings are marked by an asterisk. There will be an examination session at the end of the course. Grading is based on class work for one half and on the examination for the other half. A much vaster bibliography of optional readings will also be handed to you. It will include works in other languages. (McCabe)

Section 004 The Development of Western Armenian Consciousness, 1830-1876. This section meets September 23 through October 4. Mondays and Wednesdays 5:00 to 7:00 p.m..; 3419 Mason Hall. This class examines the development of Ottoman Armenians into a national community in the 19th century. As this course will stress, this transformation was largely due to institutional and intellectual changes within the Ottoman Armenian community, and the key engine in this transformation was the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople. Unlike western historiographies which emphasize the rot of the Ottoman state, foreign missionaries, and the great European powers in shaping the development of Ottoman Armenians, this course identifies the crucial role played by Ottoman Armenian intellectuals in developing their own common future in the Ottoman Empire. (Sarafian)

Section 005 A People on the Borderlands of Empires During Reform, Revolution, War, and Genocide: The Armenians of the Ottoman Empires, Russia, and Iran. This section meets October 7 through October 18. Mondays and Wednesdays 5:00 to 7:00 p.m.; 3419 Mason Hall. Historic Armenia and the Armenians in the nineteenth century lay divided between three empires, Russia, Iran, and the Ottoman Empire. Throughout this period, the three states attempted to Modernize" their administrative structures, societies, economies, and cultures to varying degrees in order to maintain control of their territories while faced with Western imperialism. Various governs ideologies were tried. All three states fought wars or exercised military force on a lesser scale again one another in Armenian populated regions. Eventually all three experienced revolutions in the beginning of the twentieth century, and two collapsed, at least temporarily, not much more than a decade later, during the first world war. This course will examine how Armenians living in these empires participated in and were affected by the above mentioned developments in the 187&1923 period, though proportionately more time will be spent on Armenians in the Ottoman Empire than in the other two states. The course will show the evolution of the level of Armenian national consciousness and political activity. A number of episodes of communal and state organized violence and massacres involving Armenians in each of the three countries, including the Hamidian massacre riots and abortive attacks in Iran, the 1905-07 Armeno-Tatar conflict, the 1909 Cilician massacres, the Armenian genocide, will be viewed from a comparative perspective in order to better understand the roots of such conflict and the effects of government involvement. (Arkun)

Section 006 Armenia: 1923 to 1996. This section meets October 21 through November 1. Mondays and Wednesdays 5:00 to 7:00 p.m..; 3419 Mason Hall. The course will cover the problems of national development and modernization during the Soviet period, the challenges faced by the post-genocide Armenian diaspora, the inter-relations between Armenia and diaspora during the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, and the Armenian national moves and connected Karabagh movement. The course will conclude with an examination of the adjustments and problems of the transition in the post-independence years in the context of ensuring difficulties conflicts in and among the newly-independent states, the competition for influence in the region, an l the legacy of Soviet economic policies and practices. (Adalian)

592. Topics in Asian History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Gender and Class in Japanese History, 700-1800.
The dramatic transformation in gender relations is a key feature of Japan's premodern history. This course will examine the patterns of change in the structure, social perception, and representation of female and male sexualities, family, property relations, and other cultural and economic aspects from the seventh through eighteenth centuries. Our goal is to understand the correlation between the changing structure of dominant institutions and the gendered experiences of women and men in various classes. Students' responsibilities include participation in discussion, three short "reaction (to readings)" papers, and a theme paper that is ten to fifteen pages long. There are no prerequisites but general familiarity with Japan's premodern history is helpful. Cost:3 WL:2 (Tonomura)

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