Afroamerican and African Studies

100. Introduction to Afro-American Studies. (4). (SS).

In this thematic approach to an understanding of Black folks in the United States, we will take a multidisciplinary look at African America. Although I have selected a pair of exemplary novels as the twin anchors for this course, we will learn about a variety of non-literary "stuff" rural gardens, archaeological digs, soul food, or the blues that will refer to, augment, and heighten our readings of those two twentieth century classics. Be prepared to use your eyes and ears: along with the lectures and readings, documentary and feature film productions will be screened during regular class meetings; we ll also be listening to music from time to time. In addition to Toni Morrison's Beloved and Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, assigned texts may include such works as Mules and Men, By the Work of Their Hands, and Blues People, and/or other books representative of this cultural approach to African American studies. Cost:2 WL:4 (Zafar)
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348/Dance 358. Dance in Culture: Origins of Jazz Dance. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Dances of Latinas/Latinos.
For Fall Term, 1997, this course is offered jointly with American Culture 311.001. (Velez Aguayo)
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358. Topics in Black World Studies. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Section 002 Gender in Caribbean Society.
In this course, we will look at how gender has operated across history, across the social field (in different social institutions and practices), and across race and class groups in the Caribbean, focusing on women in the English-speaking sub-region. Throughout the course we will try to bring women to life by understanding how they both suffer and resist indignities, and attempt to invent their own lives and livelihoods. Particular attention will be paid to how race, ethnicity, class and gender interact in the formation of male and female identities. Students will write two take-home exams, and do a final paper and related presentation. Open to but not restricted to CEW evening program students. (Green)
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458. Issues in Black World Studies.
(3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Slavery and Abolition in Brazil: Current Themes in Comparative Perspective.
For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with History 478. (Machado)
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521/Soc. 521. African American Intellectual Thought. Senior standing. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Paradigms of Social Progress.
The purpose of this course is to explore some debates and arguments constructed by African American scholars on the "Negro Problem." The objective will be to ascertain how African American scholarly debate and commentary has framed definitions of, and has posed solutions for, the social condition of the African-American community throughout the twentieth century. More specifically, we will consider how these scholars framed their arguments within larger intellectual and disciplinary frameworks. In doing so, we will attend to the historical contexts that circumscribe these arguments. This course will involve seminar-style discussion. Students will be evaluated on a research paper that explores some dimension of African American scholarly inquiry on a social issue of pertinence to Black Americans. There also will be brief written assignments that will facilitate the development of the term paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Young)
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American Culture

103. First Year Seminar in American Studies. Limited to Freshpersons and Sophomores. (3). (HU).
Section 001 History and Legacy of the Salem Witchcraft Trials.
For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with History 197.006. (DuPuis)
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496. Social Science Approaches to American Culture. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 005 Ethnic Entrepreneurship as Urban History.
This course surveys the history of Ethnic entrepreneurship in urban America. African American entrepreneurship is the primary, although not exclusive, focus. The intent of the course is to (1) strengthen the students knowledge of minority entrepreneurship, (2) to examine the history and tradition of African American entrepreneurship in the face of systematic discrimination, prejudice and oppression, (3) examine myths and stereotypes that exist relevant to African American entrepreneurship, (4) explore internal issues and debates within the African American community regarding Black Capitalism and Black economic development, (5) compare and contrast African American entrepreneurial experiences and issues with other immigrant entrepreneurs such as Latinos and Asians, and (6) contribute to the development and understanding of African American and other ethnic entrepreneurs. The course pack is available from Michigan Documents. This course has an optional oral history component by permission of instructor for an additional 2 credit hours. (Brown)
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458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 002 Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology.
This course is designed to serve as a useful, practical introduction to the variety of research methods both qualitative and quantitative - that are employed in anthropological research, with special emphasis accorded to foreign community-level fieldwork and to the problems and pitfalls of actually employing these various methods under fieldwork conditions. In readings and class discussions, we will focus on such issues as defining a research problem and formulating an ensemble of research strategies with which to attack it; the strengths and limitations of various research methods; the triumphs and tragedies of others' fieldwork experiences and what we might learn from them; and research ethics. Students will acquire hands-on experience in applying these methods in class research projects, and students who are either planning or already engaged in anthropological research projects will be offered the opportunity to discuss their projects with the class. (Fleisher)
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Asian Languages and Cultures

Buddhist Studies 401. Beginning Classical Tibetan. (3). (LR).

This course is designed to train students of Buddhist Studies in the basic skills necessary for reading Tibetan literature; it is not a class in spoken (colloquial) Tibetan. The plan of the course assumes that the students' primary interest is in the study of Buddhist literature. Accordingly, much time will be spent in reading Buddhist literature (autochthonous as well as in translation from Indic languages). The course offers explanations and exercises in the phonology of literary Tibetan ("Lhasa Dialect"), nominal derivation, syntax of the nominal particles, verbal conjugation and suffixes, and the standard script (dbu-can ). Exercises and readings in the first semester will be from Hahn, Ikeda, and Jaschke. In the second semester all reading exercises will be taken directly from classical sources (primarily from the works of Bu-ston, Taranatha, and Kamalasila). (Lopez)
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Jananese 413. Accelerated Readings in Japanese. Japanese 102 or 361. (5). (Excl).

This course will be devoted to reading articles by Japanese scholars. In order to do so, students will first be introduced to most of the grammatical structures. The instructor will check your understanding of the grammar and reading samples. Finally, we will, if possible, go over Chinese materials. Cost:2 WL:3 (Unedaya)
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Japanese 450. Undergraduate Seminar in Japanese Literature.
Japanese 401 or 402, or permission of instructor. Knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits with permission of the instructor.

This course will examine a decade that was turbulent and contradictory in Japan as in many other parts of the world, and in many similar ways. this was a period characterized by student and labor protests, the rise of the ecology and anti-nuclear movements, and the beginnings of the women's movement, all paralleled by increasing emphasis on social stability as symbolized by the nuclear family, private ownership of homes and cars, and high economic growth. Through our readings of fiction and other narrative forms (film, drama) we will explore the relationship between these cultural products and 1960s social currents. Primary readings will include the work of Oe Kenzaburo, Abe Kobo, Oba Minako, Ibuse Masuji and Kono Taeko. Secondary readings will include literary and film criticism, and readings addressing the social and political history of the 1960s in Japan, and in the United States and Europe as well. All readings will be in English, however students with reading ability in Japanese may have the opportunity to read some items in their original form. Regular attendance and active participation, in-class presentations, several short papers and a long final essay are required. (Orbaugh)
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Japanese 475. Japanese Cinema. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (Excl). Special fee (not to exceed $20) required.
Section 001 Out of Asia: Asian Cinema.
Come explore the rich variety and exciting films of Asia, from India to Korea, from anime to the Chinese 5th generation. (Nornes)
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120. Frontiers of Astronomy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Astro. 125. (3). (NS).

We will study astronomy against the backdrop of astrophysics, with a special emphasis on current topics such as black holes, dark matter, expansion of the universe and formation of structures in the universe. We will highlight observations from NASA's Great Observatory program, which features the Hubble Space Telescope, and from the new generation of large telescopes on Earth. (Bregman)
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122. The Origin of the Elements and the History of Matter. (3). (NS).

Our study will take us from the beginning of time to the end of the Universe, and from the smallest elementary particles to distant quasars. This seminar will focus on the creation of the elements, which were made in the Big Bang (the light elements) and in the centers of stars (the heavier elements). We will learn how clues to the history of matter were found in abundance patterns in a variety of astronomical objects. (Cowley)
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125. Observational Astronomy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Astro. 120. (4). (NS).

Astronomy is an observational science that requires obtaining, reducing, and analyzing data. Topics to be featured include measuring the distances to the Moon, measuring the size and expansion rate of the Universe, the moons of Jupiter, the evolution of stars, the creation of the elements and the cosmic background radiation of the Big Bang. Supplemented by evening laboratories, students will work with telescopes and data as well as read on topics of major interest to the field.
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402. Stellar Astrophysics. Math. 216, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Phys. 340. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is a survey of stellar astronomy and astrophysics, building upon an elementary background of basic physics: mechanics, and interaction of radiation and matter (atomic spectra). No astronomy course is a prerequisite, although students who have not had any astronomy may find it helpful to read an introductory text book for overviews. Course topics: basic stellar data; celestial mechanics and binary stars; stellar atmospheres and abundances of the chemical elements; stellar interiors, evolution, and nucleosynthesis; space distributions and motions of stars in the Galaxy. Course work includes homework exercises, hour exams, and a final exam. Text: Fundamental Astronomy, 3rd ed., by Karttunen et al. (eds.) For additional information, visit http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu:80/users/cowley/ Cost:2 WL:3 (Cowley)
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489/NR&E 430. Soil Properties and Processes. Introductory biology and chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Soil as a central component of terrestrial ecosystems, with a particular emphasis on physical, chemical, microbiological processes as they are related to plant growth. Quantitative analysis and interpretation of field and laboratory data are stressed throughout the course. Temperate forest ecosystems are the primary focus of the course; however, numerous examples are drawn from boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems. Knowledge of plant ecology is beneficial and prerequisites include introductory biology and chemistry. Cost:4 WL:2 (Zak)
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510(610)/Chem. 510. Biophysical Chemistry I. Chem. 463, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 420; permission of course director. (3). (Excl).

See Chemistry 510. (Zuiderweg)
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510(Biophysics 610)/Biophysics 510. Biophysical Chemistry I. Chem. 463, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 420; permission of course director. (3). (Excl).

This course is the first or a two-term Biophysical Chemistry series 510/511, but it can be taken as stand-alone course as well. The course offers an overview of protein, nucleic acid, lip and carbohydrate structures. Intra- and inter-molecular forces, helix-coil transitions and protein folding will be treated in a thermodynamical context. Thermodynamics of solutions, configurational statistics, ligand interactions, multi-site interactions and cooperativity are treated in depth. Kinetics of protein-ligand binding, including electron transfer and ligand diffusion are discussed. Chemistry 510 will introduce and explain the physico-chemical properties of biological macromolecules and their complexes, mostly in solution. Currently, biophyical, biochemical and pharmaco-chemical research literature is full with papers interpreting the properties of biological macromolecules on the the basis of their three-dimensional structure. This course will expand on that concept by offering a rigorous background in energetics, folding, interactions, and dynamics. As such the course is important to any student who has to deal with the concepts of biomolecular function and structure such as biochemists, biophysicists, mathematical biologists, and molecular pharmacologists. This course will also serve as a basis for the graduate student who will be specializing in any of these topics for thesis research.Molecular dynamics will be introduced. Instructional material: Cantor and Shimmel, Biophysical Chemistry, Part I and III and Creighton, Proteins, Structures and Molecular Properties. Evaluation: homework (50%), midterm exam (20%) and final exam (30%). (Zuiderweg)
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538/Macromolecular Science 538. Organic Chemistry of Macromolecules. Chem. 215/216 and Chem. 230 or 340. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Chemistry of monomer and polymer synthesis; Mechanistristic analysis of reactions. Stereochemistry of polymer structures both natural and synthetic. Scope of subject matter: free radical and ionic polymerization, condensation polymerization, ring opening and nonclassical polymerization. Special topics from the recent literature. (Pugh)
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Classical Studies

Classical Civilization 121. First-year Seminar in Classical Civilization (Composition). (4). (Introductory Composition).
Section 001 Ancient Greek Historical Writing: Herodotus and Thucydides.
This course will focus on two major ancient Greek historians, Herodotus and Thucydides. By comparing these historians in terms of the themes of their histories, their narrative style, and their political, philosophical and religious views, we shall gain insight not only into the ancients' perception of themselves and their past, but also into how each of these historians conceived of historical change and the task of historical writing. We shall also explore the idea of cultural difference both between the Greeks and other cultures and between Greeks within the Greek world in the works of these historians. Readings from the historians will be supplemented with readings from other contemporary writers including the tragic and comic poets. Sample Reading List (approximately 100-200 pages of reading per meeting): Herodotus, Histories; Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War; Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus; Aristophanes, Knights; J.Gould, Herodotus; S.Hornblower, Thucydides. Requirements: three short papers and one class report. (Forsdyke)
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Latin 421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)
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Latin 426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)
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Latin 591. History of Roman Literature, Beginnings to Cicero. Approximately eight credits in advanced Latin reading courses. (3). (Excl).

A survey of the development of Roman literature from the beginnings of the Augustan age, including epic, drama, lyric, oratory, and the beginnings of philosophy. Lectures, assigned readings, and reports. (D.O. Ross)
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439. Seminar in Journalistic Performance. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of eight credits.

This course will evaluate media coverage of the U.S. Supreme Court, in the context of long-range factors affecting the ability of news media to function in a democracy. This seminar will examine the scope and content of news reporting on major cases before the court. How accurately, fairly and adequately do news organizations cover the cases as they proceed through the legal system? Do the media help the American public gain a broad public impact of each case? In addition to an overview of media coverage of the major current and recent cases, each student will select one new case under consideration by the court this term and study in detail how well it is being covered by the different media. Cost:2 WL:1 (Collings)
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459. Seminar in Media Systems. Comm. Studies 351 or 371 strongly recommended. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This course will investigate coverage of foreign news as a reflection of the structure and function of media systems. What factors influence decisions as to how much coverage to give to developments overseas, at the UN, and at the State Department? What criteria do the media use for deciding which events to cover and at what length, and how valid are these criteria? What value systems do they reflect? How successfully do the media make foreign news relevant to American readers and viewers? What special problems do foreign correspondents face? Cost:2 WL:1 (Craig)
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489. Seminar in Media Effects. Comm. Studies 361 or 381 strongly recommended. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

This seminar seeks to explore phenomena related to the impact of Mass Communication exposure on the individualsí affective states. Toward this end, several topics will be discussed including the definition of mood, affect, and emotion and the impact of media presentations on each; an examination of how affect can influence the encoding and decoding of information, selection of content, priming and other cognitive information processing; and an overview of some recent studies conducted in the mass communication discipline and others which link affect and media exposure. Cost:2 WL:1 (Salomonson)
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Comparative Literature

430. Comparative Studies in Fiction. Upperclass standing. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.
Section 001 Narratives: From Gilgamesh to Mahfouz.
This course is a literary reflection on the history of the Middle East through its narratives, from Gilgamesh to Mahfouz. Against the backdrop of orality and literacy, memory and imagination, storytelling and fiction, we will follow the different phases of the art of storytelling as the prevalent narrative, and examine the impact of the introduction of the novel's genre into that region. Three basic topics will be discussed comparatively (in a seminar format): stories from the Bible and Koran on the background of the ancient Near Eastern literatures; Medieval Arab and Jewish tales; points of convergence and departure in the modern literatures of the Middle East. Texts will include a selection (in English translation) from: The Epic of Gilgamesh, ancient Egyptian tales, The Bible, The Koran, Arab and Jewish Medieval texts, tales from The Thousand and One Nights, and Modern Arab and Hebrew writers. Different theoretical writings, on the art of narrative and the issues of orality and literacy, will also be consulted. Students will be evaluated through an oral presentation and a term paper. (Shammas)
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Computer Science

478/EECS 478. Logic Circuit Synthesis and Optimization. CS 270 and CS 303, and senior or graduate standing. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Advanced design of logic circuits. Technology constraints. Theoretical foundations. Computer-aided design algorithms. Two-level and multilevel optimization of combinational circuits. Optimization of finite-state machines. High-level synthesis techniques: modeling, scheduling, and binding. Verification of testing.

492/EECS 492. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. CS 380. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Fundamental concepts of AI, organized around the task of building computational agents. Core topics include search, logic, representation and reasoning, automated planning, decision making under uncertainty, and machine learning.

589/EECS 589. Advanced Computer Networks. CS 489. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Advanced topics and research issues in computer networks. Topics include routing protocols, multicast delivery, congestion control, quality of service support, network security, pricing and accounting, and wireless access and mobile networking. Emphasis is placed on performance trade-offs in protocol and architecture designs. Readings assigned from research publications. A course project allows in-depth exploration of topics of interest.


435. Financial Economics. Econ. 401 and 405. (3). (Excl).

This class introduces the economic analysis of financial markets and financial decision making. Topics covered include asset pricing theory (the valuation of stocks, bonds, and options), net present value analysis, portfolio management, and financial market organization and behavior. The course develops the capacity to analyze investment strategies and policy issues from the standpoint of economic theory (as opposed to conventional wisdom). Our main objectives are to understand WHY the financial markets work the way they do, to develop useful tools for the analysis of investment opportunities, and to use economic methods to think critically about policy issues such as government regulation of financial markets and the taxation of investment returns. Students will gain experience with actual financial markets through guest lectures from market professionals, tracking their own "model portfolios," and regular reading of The Wall Street Journal. (Hussman)
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491/Hist. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 101 and 102. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the economic history of the United States from colonial settlement to World War II. We will focus on the sources of the country's economic growth, trends in income distribution, regional integration, and changes in political-economic institutions. We will pay particular attention to the role of government policy in influencing economic outcomes. Students will be evaluated on the basis of weekly essays, midterm and final exams, and class discussion. Cost:3 WL:1 (Levenstein)
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227. Introductory Playwriting. (3). (CE).

In this course, we will write a one act play. We will start with the first whisperings of an idea, then nuture it, develop it, workshop it, and by the end of the term we will share our work in a public reading. Class time will be divided in three ways: (1) Writing games to stir imagination, touch passion, inspire ideas, explore voice. (2) Lectures on story telling priciples and dramatic structure common to plays, screenplays and teleplays. (3) Discussions of student writing. Other assignments will include reading plays, keeping a journal and meeting regularly with the instructor. Ambitious students are encouraged to write more than a one act play, e.g., a series of 10 minute plays or a first draft of a full length play. (Hammond)
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239. What is Literature? Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 004.
If literature is always historical, in that it arises from and speaks to a particular culture in time and space, how do we respond to works of literature that weren't written with us in mind? What does it mean to study an ancient text? To read it for pleasure? Can we appreciate an ancient work on its own terms, without judging it from a contemporary perspective? In this section of English 239 we will be reading works from the past (selections from The Iliad, Le Morte D'Arthur, and King Lear beside contemporary novels that either recreate past worlds (Christa Wolf's Cassandra, Bradley's Mists of Avalon) or enable us to interpret present conditions in terms of the literary past (Smiley's A Thousand Acres). There will be a reader containing various essays in literary theory. Plan on two short papers and one longer term paper. (Tanke)

Section 006. We will approach the potentially overwhelming question "what is literature?" by (1) exploring a selection of novels, short stories and plays that offer frequently groundbreaking visions of what a piece of imaginative writing can accomplish; (2) examining the methods and approaches by which contemporary critics have addressed this question; and (3) discussing, practicing, and refining the ways in which we, as students of literature, can offer our own compelling responses. We will focus on texts by such authors as William Shakespeare, Charlotte Brontë, William Faulkner, and Toni Morrison. Cost:2 (Egger)

Section 013. The purpose of this section is to introduce you to a wide range of the critical concepts and issues you are likely to encounter in other English courses. To that end, we will read some very different works a couple of "classics" and some contemporary works along with various critical responses. The course will also have a practical research component, including a field trip to the library. Texts (at Shamman Drum): Hamlet, Endgame, Cloud 9, Wuthering Heights, Beloved, and a course pack (at Accucopy). Requirements: faithful and enthusiastic attendance, participation, 3 short exercises, an 8 page paper, an oral report, a mid-term, and a final. (Herold)
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240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 013.
This course will introduce you to the pleasures and challenges of reading poems, poets, and poetry. You will learn how to analyze poems written in English over the past four centuries, how to interpret poets within their historical and literary context, and how to write critical essays about poetry. Special attention will be paid to the analysis of poetic forms, beginning with the sonnet and a study of various meters, and you will be asked to memorize a poem as well. The course will proceed by class discussion, student presentations, and a series of informal writing assignments. You will also write three short papers, with an emphasis on revision; there will be occasional quizzes, but no final exam. (Prins)
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305. Introduction to Modern English. Recommended for students preparing to teach English. (3). (HU).

How do we structure and use the language we speak and write from day to day? What are its major levels of formal organization? How is this formal organization related to human nature, psychology, social context, aesthetic intention, personal expression, etc.? How do we adapt the language that we speak and write to various purposes? How does the language we speak reflect and define our identities geographical, social, and personal. This course is a survey of the structure and use of Modern English with applications to literature and other genres, both spoken and written. During the course, we will survey the major levels of formal organization in our language (phonetics, phonology, prosody, morphology, syntax, and discourse) and their use in a range of contexts poetry, prose fiction, conversation, personal narrative, advertising, unscripted commentary, etc. The requirements for the course will be a final exam and two medium-length papers of close stylistic analysis, one on a written genre and one on an oral genre. Cost:4 (Cureton)
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317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 003 Bigotry and Maturity in the Literature of Several Cultures.
This course examines some assumptions of American culture by comparing them to related ideas in America after World War II and in renaissance England. We will read one of Shakespeare's plays at the beginning of units on bigotries of religion, race, and sexuality, and one in the unit on maturity. In these four parts of the course we will read plays by Hockhuth, Jones, and Albee, novels by Ellison, Kogawa, Baldwin, Walker, Maclean, Morrison, and Kennedy, and a remembrance by Levi. Each class except the first and last will begin with fifteen minutes of writing in response to a question intended as preparation for discussion that follows. In addition to these in-class papers, two 2-3 page papers will be required as preliminary versions of two 5-6 page papers that are the out-of-class written work of the course. No midterm or final examination. This course satisfies the New Traditions and American Literature requirements for English concentrators. Cost:4 (Sell)
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325. Essay Writing: The Art of Exposition. (4). (Excl).
Section 007 True Confessions: Writing and Crime
This writing-intensive seminar explores the essay as a confessional genre, paying special attention to truth claims, representations of self, sensationalism, and the permeable borders between fiction and non-fiction. Writing about crime, broadly conceived, we will draw inspiration from a variety of sources: classic essays, historical works (Carlo Ginsburg), the Medler Crime Collection at the Clements Library (donated by an ex-FBI agent), detective fiction (Poe, Hammet), contemporary crime writing (James Ellroy), film (Noir), and electronic media (X-Files, World Wide Web). Questions of evidence, intellectual property issues, and disciplinary aspects of writing will be interwoven in class discussion. Frequent writing workshops will support experimentation, revision, and a collaborative working environment. (Gernes)
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370. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 005.
Texts are neither simply the products of writers nor reflections ofhistorical events. Rather texts inform and are informed by the world in which they are produced and circulate. This course addresses works of medieval and early modern literature intimately connected to their "textual environments" of politics, religion, and socio-economic developments. We will read and discuss a wide range of texts to explore the various kinds of social work they perform in their environments. For example, we will investigate questions such as what texts by female mystics have to do with political conflicts and how love poetry works to shape gender roles. Readings will include medieval mystery plays and Shakespearean drama, saints' lives, devotional texts, collections of tales (including the Lais of Marie de France and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales), and works by Langland, Christine de Pisan, Skelton and Spenser. Requirements include active class participation, three papers of moderate length, several one-page response papers, oral presentations, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Warren)
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406/Urban Planning 406. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. (3). (Excl). Laboratory fee ($20) required.

This course provides an introduction to Geographic Information Systems and related technologies. The course will cover basic principles and concepts of GIS, theory and tools of spatial analysis, and a broad exposure to GIS applications. The objectives of the course are to provide spatial information and analysis capabilities for urban planners and those in related disciplines. Content includes map analysis, hardware/software, nature of spatial data, data sources and acquisition, spatial analysis and models, presentation of output and reports, GIS trends and evaluation. The course will consist of two one-hour lectures per week and a three-hour lab using computer software, access to computer software for individual projects. There will be a course pack of readings. (Levine)
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472/Urban Planning 572. Transportation and Land Use Planning. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the interrelated systems of urban transportation and urban land use to discover principles and ideas that can be useful in designing or evaluating plans that affect the two. The course covers four broad areas: 1. Transportation Planning History: What assumptions and approaches have guided domestic transportation planning in this century? How have these evolved? How good is the fit between current approaches and current conditions? 2. Transportation and Land Use Theory: What frameworks have been developed to understand the interrelationships between transportation and land use, and how might these affect how we view potential transportation planning alternatives? 3. Transportation Planning Technique: Formal approaches to modeling the urban transportation system have evolved in the past few decades. We will explore these approaches as well as their limitations. 4. Urban Transportation Policy: Alternative definitions of "the transportation problem" can lead to different directions for policy. We will explore various transportation planning concerns and approaches to dealing with them. The course will have a weekly lecture/discussion section. A weekly laboratory session of one and a half hours will also be scheduled at the first class meeting, to be matched with students' availability. Labs will be devoted to using specialized transportation software (TransCad) to analyze transportation problems, particularly within the framework of the transportation planning techniques developed in number 3, above. The last two lab sessions (somewhat expanded) will be devoted to oral presentation of course projects. TEXTBOOKS : Whiner, Edward. (1992) Urban Transportation Planning in the United States: An Historical Overview. Washington, DC: United States Department of Transportation, Technology Sharing Program. Distributed at the first class meeting. Downs, Anthony. (1992) Stuck in Traffic: Coping with Peak-Hour Traffic Congestion. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Available for purchase at the North Campus Commons Bookstore. A course pack will be available at Michigan Document Service, Inc. upstairs at 603 Church Street, just south of South University Avenue. Permission of Instructor is required. Though the course carries no formal course prerequisites, it is highly recommended that the following courses be completed prior to taking UP572: UP504 and either UP406 or UP507. Grading will be on the basis of a midterm (30%), a course project (40%), laboratory exercises (20%), and active class time participation (10%). (Levine) Check Times, Location, and Availability


207. How the Earth Works: A Hands-On Experience. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 117, 118, or 120. (2). (NS). (BS).

This course involves a one-hour lecture followed by a two-hour hands-on 'practicum.' It is intended for students interested in environmental issues, in particular the relationship between earth sciences and short-term (on the order of years) human concerns. We will examine a wide range of environmental issues, such as earthquake risks, volcanic hazards, slope stability and mass movement, minerals, fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal), surface and groundwater pollution, solid toxic and radioactive waste disposal. The class is aimed at all who are interested in everyday environmental concerns and want to have an introductory, hands-on approach to understanding and solving these problems. It is intended for non-science students and there are no prerequisites, except for an interest in the near future of our planet. Because you will get a solid understanding of major environmental issues, the class can serve as a pre-concentration requirement in environmental geology. Reading: "Laboratory Exercises in Environmental Geology" by H. Blatt (1994). (Walter)
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Germanic Languages and Literatures

German 531/Education D431. Teaching Methods. Senior standing; and candidate for a teaching certificate. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to provide the student with both the theoretical foundations of the teaching of German as a foreign language on the college and school levels and practical suggestions for how to best present material in the classroom. The major approaches to foreign language teaching will be discussed along with their practical implications in everyday teaching. Course requirements include regular reading assignments and preparation for class discussions, several short in-class presentations, short in-class tests, and a final written paper. Teaching assistants enrolled for this course must also participate in the departmental orientation workshop prior to the start of the Fall Term. Cost:1 WL:1 (Dressler)
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German 540. Introduction to German Studies. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Theoretical Approaches to Goethe's
Wilhelm Meister. Instead of covering a number of texts from a single interpretive perspective, this seminar will attempt to read and re-read one work of fundamental importance under several different theoretical optics in succession. We will begin by rehearsing the history of German literary criticism by studying representative interpretations of the Lehrjahre (Goethe's contemporaries, Jungdeutschen, Nationalliberalen, Positivismus, Geistesgeschichte, Präfaschismus, Nationalsozialismus, Werkimmanent/New Criticism, Morphological/Archetypal), and then undertake both to study interpretations typical of various contemporary "schools" (Marxist, Sociological/New-Historical, Reader Response/Hermeneutic, Psychoanalytic, Formalist/Structuralist, Port-Structuralist, and Feminist) and to generate our own, original interpretations in the spirit of each. Cost:2 WL:none (Amrine)
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195. The Writing of History. (4). (Introductory Composition). This course may not be included in a history concentration.
Section 001 Women Travelers in the Balkans, 18th Century to the Present.
In this course, students will read and discuss travel narratives of Southeastern Europe from the eighteenth century to the present. These works, mostly by British and American women, include memoirs, letters, photographic essays, newspaper correspondence, drawings, film, and fiction. Through a series of short interpretive papers with revisions, students will be introduced to the techniques of historical analysis and the process of writing. A longer paper will permit students to investigate further some of the larger questions of politics, gender, and ethnicity raised in the course. We will explore how foreign travelers have presented the political, social, and international events in the Balkans to Western audiences for the past two hundred years, and how these travelers' observations have influenced Western European and American perceptions of the region. We will conclude the course by examining the ways contemporary travelers and correspondents have shaped Western interpretations of the recent war in Bosnia. (Hays)

Section 002 America's Cold War at Home and Abroad, 1945 to the Present. The significance of America's Cold War with the Soviet Union extends far beyond international affairs. In addition to providing an organizing principle for U.S. foreign policy, it influenced domestic politics, popular culture, and even family relations. In this course, we will explore the fifty-year relationship between U.S. Cold War foreign policy and American national life. Students will examine memoirs, documents, fiction, works of history, and popular media (e.g., films, television) in order to consider the history of America's Cold War and how cultural representations and historical interpretations of the Cold War have changed over time. Assignments: Students will write three short papers evaluating in-class readings. The final assignment, a somewhat longer paper, will ask students to discuss a historical question of their choosing. Texts will include: Whitfield, Culture of the Cold War; May, Homeward Bound; Cohen, America in the Age of Soviet Power. (Gonzalez)

Section 003 Freemasonry: Enlightenment Secret Societies and Conspiratorial Politics. From the capital cities of Europe to the smallest Midwestern American towns, and in places as far apart as Mexico and China, freemasonry aimed to "build" a better society, taking its inspiration from masonry, the craft of bricklaying. Freemasons have been charged with conspiring to undermine religion and plot revolution. They have also been credited with helping to spread the progressive ideals of the Enlightenment. They formed private clubs, met in lodges, used arcane symbols, and conducted secret rituals behind closed doors. Yet their members made an enormous impact outside, in public life: Wolfgang Mozart, George Washington, Ben Franklin, Isaac Newton, and the inventor of the guillotine were all freemasons. This course will use freemasonry as a vehicle to study several large themes in European and American history, ca. 1700-1820, including: the connections between Enlightenment thought and political life, the importance of voluntary association and "civil society," the conflicts between science and religion, issues of gender and masculinity, and the European impact on the rest of the world. Students will learn how to read and analyze primary sources and historians' own writings. Workshops will prepare them for college-level writing and critique. As a final project, students will research a primary document on freemasonry (whether an actual text, a visual image such as a sundial, an interview with a living Freemason, or a Web site on freemasonry) and prepare a 12-15 page research paper. (McNeely)

Section 004 The Chinese Communist Revolution in History and Memory. The course will explore the history of American reactions to the Chinese communist revolution, including the journalistic accounts of the 1930s, heavily politicized accounts of the 1950s, and more recent, synthetic accounts from anthropologists, historians, and film-makers. Independent student projects will explore subsequent events such as the cultural revolution and the Tiananmen massacre. Reading assignments will be short but demand careful analysis and response. Class time will emphasize the analysis and critique of readings and student papers. (Chittick)

Section 005 Women, War, and Revolution in Modern Europe. This course explores the relationship between women, war, and revolution in Europe between 1789 and 1945. During these periods of immense social upheaval, gender roles were dramatically reinterpreted and redefined as women actively participated on the revolutionary, home, or war fronts. Students will look at the ways that war and revolution were experienced differently by men and women, as well as by national culture, class, race, or other identities, through assigned readings. This class will also examine differing representations of women during periods of war and revolution in novels, poems, artwork, posters, and films. The class begins with the French Revolution and continues through the revolutions of 1848, the Paris Commune, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, and the two World Wars. Women in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany will also be considered. This course is designed as a writing course and a series of writing assignments, including an historical research paper, will be required. (Comisky)

Section 006 Defining Society: Heresy, Deviance, and Difference in the Middle Ages. How do some people get labeled "losers" by the societies they live in? This course will explore the heresies of the Middle Ages to understand how societies can form perceptions of "otherness" and come to define deviant behavior within their ranks. From the earliest controversies within Christianity concerning issues of bravery, honesty and martyrdom, to some of the most famous later-medieval movements of violence against heretics, Jews, "witches," homosexuals and lepers, we will trace how tradition, economics, theology, and politics combine in complex processes to define certain groups as unacceptable, undesirable, or dangerous to the normal "order" of society. (Brophy)
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196. Freshman Seminar. (3). (SS).
Section 001 U.S. Foreign Policy and International Politics Since World War II.
In this seminar students will explore contemporary international history by reading the works of some leading scholars and discussing why they differ. Classes will focus on the conflict and cooperation of the U.S. with other states in the Cold War, decolonization, and regional crises. But the seminar will also analyze how non-state actors, cross-border migration, new means of communication, and global markets are transforming the international system as a whole. The readings will reflect the contested nature and continuing relevance of these issues by including differing accounts and original documents from America and abroad. Students will be expected to participate actively in discussions and present oral and written arguments for their own interpretations. (Connelly)
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197. Freshman Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 006 The History and Legacy of the Salem Witchcraft Trials.
This multi-disciplinary and cross-cultural seminar will be open to incoming first-year students only. During the first third of the course, we will consider various historical analyses of the events at and around Salem, Massachusetts in 1692, during which "witchcraft" accusations were lodged against hundreds of people, many of whom were put on trial for "witchcraft" and over twenty of whom were eventually executed for the crime of being a "witch." The middle third of the course will explore the history of European "witchcraft" accusations and trials between the 15th and 18th centuries, focusing on the relationships between that history and the events in the New England colonies. During the final third of the course, we will examine modern American popular culture representations of "witches" and related images of powerful and/or dangerous women, focusing on the multiple uses of these images from the late 19th century to current times. This exploration will consider sources as varied as advertising, film, fiction, cartoons, music, political campaigns, and feminist neo-pagan (Wicca) materials. Issues of gender, sexuality, race, class, and age will guide our inquiries throughout the term. This will be a reading-intensive class. Students will be expected to write three 3-5 page analyses of the class materials and a 5-8 page end-of-term research paper. While there may be quizzes, there will be no final exam. (DuPuis)
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Section 007 Law, Insanity, and the Criminal Self in Early Modern England. When is someone responsible for a crime? Should the offender's age make a difference in the assessment of guilt? What if he or she was drunk when the offense was committed? This course will examine the English legal system and the definitions of legal responsibility that evolved in English courtrooms during the early modern period (1500- 1800). In addition to a study of criminal legal process, the course will focus on the insanity defense as well as various other informal excuses used by defendants to explain their crimes. In turn we will discuss the ways in which the legal system responded to these informal and unofficial pleas. The final portion of the class will examine criminals and represnetations of the self in early modern England. For this course we will read both primary and secondary sources including legal documents (about 100 pages a week). Students will be required to write three papers, compile a portfolio, and lead discussions. (Rabin)
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397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (3). (HU). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 007 Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe.
Attitudes toward witchcraft are extremely revealing as a way to understand early modern society, community structure, gender relations, intellectual and religious attitudes, and legal culture. The phenomenon of witchcraft has produced an enormous array of modern reactions, ranging from historical and anthropological analyses, to satanic and feminist revivals of witchcraft practice, to popular, senationalized novels and movies. This course is designed to expose students to the wide variety of mystical, political, literary, cinematic, historical and anthropological approaches taken toward the subject of witchcraft. Students will read and interpret trial records, diaries, sermons, and modern popular and scholarly works. Geographically, material ranges from England to Russia. Course designed as a junior/ senior seminar for history majors. Requirements: participation in weekly discussion sections, oral presentations, two short papers, and a longer research paper, which will be reviewed in draft form. (Kivelson)

Section 008 Autobiographies and Biographies as Sources in Jewish History. The aim of this course is to discover early modern Jewish history through the autobiographies and biographies of significant individuals. Students will read memoirs, biographies, and autobiographies with the aim of exploring how these very personal sources reveal the workings of larger communities and societies. Particular attention will be paid to whether patterns of continuity and/or change emerge. Some readings may include works by or about Joseph Karo, Uriel Acosta, Gluckel of Hameln, Solomon Maimon and the Baal Shem Tov, among others. There will be up to four papers of varying lengths. (Rosman)
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435. History of the Jews in Eastern Europe. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys the history of the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe from their origins in the eleventh and twelfth centuries to their destruction during World War II. These communities were the largest and most culturally dynamic in the Jewish diaspora from the seventeenth century until World War I and the emphasis will be placed on developments during these centuries. (Rosman)
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478. Topics in Latin American History. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Slavery and Abolition in Brazil: Current Themes in Comparative Perspective.
Abolished a little over a century ago, slavery has left deep marks on contemporary Brazilian society and culture. Along with the issues of race, miscegenation and national character, the burden of a slave past has remained a central theme for successive generations of historians and social thinkers. This course will examine recent trends and tendencies in the historical and anthropological literature dealing with slavery and abolition in Brazil. Covering a wide range of questions over a broad time span, the seminar brings into focus the difficult task of projecting slaves as significant historical agents. This involves a critical re-evaluation of concepts such as resistance, accommodation, acculturation, and autonomy, among others. Selected readings on runaway slave communities, slave provision grounds, local exchange networks, family and kinship structures, Afro-Brazilian religion and culture, and the slaves role in the destruction of slavery provide a rich base for discussion. (Machado)
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491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy.
Econ. 101 or 102. (3). (Excl).

See Economics 491. (Levenstein)
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History of Art

194(210). First Year Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 002 The Crusades.
This seminar has as its focus the Crusades to the Holy Land which took place in the 11th and 12th centuries and Muslim and Byzantine responses to them. We will concentrate on interrelationships between the several cultures of the European and Mediterranean worlds in the Middle Ages, examining art and architecture which seems to express these interrelationships and/or seems to be illuminated by an understanding of them: pictorial publicity for the Crusades in art of the Latin West; the military and religious architecture of the Crusaders in the Near East; expressions of jihad and Holy War in the art of both Christians and Muslims; Christian and Islamic representations of the "infidel". (Gillerman)
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341. The Gothic Age. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Great Cathedrals.
The subject of this course is the architecture, sculpture and stained-glass painting of the Gothic Cathedral. Emphasis will be placed on the French cathedrals of Chartres, Reims, Amiens and Beauvais, but English and Italian examples will also be treated. We will try to integrate a variety of points of view, considering such issues as urban site, function, audience, patronage, finance, structure, design, and symbolism. Two papers, midterm, final exam. (Gillerman)
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103. First Year Seminar (Social Science). (4). (SS).
Section 001 Dialects in Language: The Question of Identity.
Why do people who speak the same language sound so different and have such different ways of talking to each other? Why do we change the way we speak based on who we are speaking to and where we are? How does the way we speak reveal whom we identify with, consciously and/or unconsciously? How do we express and convey our social identity(ies)? In this class, we will explore these questions with the goal of understanding what these differences mean to individuals and to groups of people, and how they are created. The reflection of identity, power, and solidarity in language is a central part of everyday life in every society and culture in the world. The general aim of this class, therefore, is to provide you with not only a greater appreciation for, and understanding of, linguistic and cultural differences, but also with a glimpse into how one goes about empirically exploring and analyzing these fascinating phenomena. (Lane)
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492. Topics in Linguistics. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Sociolinguistics and Language Change.
All languages are constantly in the process of change, and this process is sometimes rapid and sometimes slow. The development of sociolinguistics (social dialectology) has added a new dimension to the study of language change by systematically seeking socially based explanations for change. This course is about social aspects of change. We will start by distinguishing internal (linguistic) explanations from external (socially-based) explanations. The main part of the course will review the sociolinguistic literature as it focuses on language change in progress, starting with the principles laid down by William Labov and colleagues in the 1960s and proceeding to work still in progress at the present day. We will look in detail at the methods used and the relation of method to the kind of interpretations put on the findings of research projects. Students will be encouraged to be constructively critical of methods, reported findings, and interpretations offered by researchers. In the latter part of the course we will consider: (1) the phenomenon of language contact as a trigger for language change and (2) projecting the principles of sociolinguistics on to past states of language ("the use of the present to explain the past"). The course will be conducted as a seminar with assigned readings for class presentation and discussion. A knowledge of the general principles of historical linguistics may be useful, but is not necessary. Some knowledge of phonetics/phonology is highly desirable. (Milroy) Section 002 Learnability Seminar. What is language acquisition, in principle? In order to answer the question, this course will explore a branch of theoretical linguistics coupled with computer and cognitive sciences, known as Learnability Theory. The course will examine language acquisition in the human species, discussing in detail the four principal components that define learning (the theory actually embraces all types of learning), and then using these definitions to analyze various language acquisition models. (Satterfield)
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519(419). Discourse Analysis. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Text has become a recurrent metaphor for the way we make sense of our world. This course explores how textuality has been interpreted in various disciplines and how the analysis of texts can be useful in answering different types of questions. Students can expect to gain a basic knowledge of various ways of analyzing both spoken and written texts. The course examines a variety of topics including why the concept of text is a useful and necessary way to think about human communication; how experience is encoded differently in speaking versus writing; different methods of analyzing texts; and how the analysis of texts enables us to understand such social problems as communication in families, doctor-patient interaction, and courtroom testimony. This course is seminar in format. A high level of student participation is expected. The course requirements include regular writing in response to course readings, homework assignments, and a final paper. Some background knowledge of linguistic concepts is important. (Keller-Cohen)
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Macromolecular Science

412/ChemE 412/MSE 412. Polymeric Materials. Material Sci. 350. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The synthesis, characterization, morphology, structure, and rheology of polymers. Polymers in solution and in the bulk liquid and glassy states. Engineering and design properties including viscoelasticity, creep, stress relaxation, yielding, crazing, and fracture. Forming and processing methods.
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512/ChemE 512/MSE 512. Polymer Physics. Senior or graduate standing in engineering or physical science. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Structure and properties of polymers as related to their composition, annealing and mechanical treatments. topics include creep, stress relaxation, dynamic mechanical properties, viscoelasticity, transitions, fracture, impact response, dielectric properties, permeation, and morphology.
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538/Chem. 538. Organic Chemistry of Macromolecules. Chem. 215/216 and Chem. 230 or 340. (3). (Excl). (BS).

See Chemistry 538. (Pugh)
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105. Data, Functions, and Graphs. Students with credit for Math. 103 can elect Math. 105 for only 2 credits. (4). (MSA). (QR/1).

Math 105 serves both as a preparatory class to the calculus sequences and as a terminal course for students who need only this level of mathematics. Students who complete 105 are fully prepared for Math 115. This is a course on analyzing data by means of functions and graphs. The emphasis is on mathematical modeling of real-world applications. The functions used are linear, quadratic, polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, and trigonometric. Algebra skills are assessed during the term by periodic testing. Math 110 is a condensed half-term version of the same material offered as a self-study course through the Math Lab. The course prepares students for Math 115
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110. Pre-Calculus (Self-Study). See Elementary Courses above. Enrollment in Math 110 is by recommendation of Math 115 instructor and override only. No credit granted to those who already have 4 credits for pre-calculus mathematics courses. (2). (Excl).

Math 110 serves both as a preparatory class to the calculus sequences and as a terminal course for students who need only this level of mathematics. Students who complete 110 are fully prepared for Math 115. The course is a condensed, half-term version of Math 105 designed for students who appear to be prepared to handle calculus but are not able to successfully complete Math 115. Students may enroll in Math 110 only on the recommendation of a mathematics instructor after the third week of classes in the Fall and must visit the Math Lab to complete paperwork and receive course materials. The course covers data analysis by means of functions and graphs. Math 105 covers the same material in a traditional classroom setting. The course prepares students for Math 115.
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295(195). Honors Mathematics I. Prior knowledge of first year calculus and permission of the Honors advisor. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, 185, and 295. (4). (MSA). (BS). (QR/1).

Math 295-296-395-396 is the main Honors calculus sequence. It is aimed at talented students who intend to major in mathematics, science, or engineering. The emphasis is on concepts, problem solving, as well as the underlying theory and proofs of important results. Students interested in taking advanced mathematical courses later should definitely start with this sequence. The expected background is high school trigonometry and algebra (previous calculus not required). This sequence is not restricted to students enrolled in the LS&A Honors program. Real functions, limits, continuous functions, limits of sequences, complex numbers, derivatives, indefinite integrals and applications, some linear algebra. Math 175 and Math 185 are lower-level Honors courses. Math 296 is the intended sequel.
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422. Topics in Actuarial Mathematics I. Math. 216 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

We will explore how much insurance affects the lives of students (automobile insurance, social security, health insurance, theft insurance) as well as the lives of other family members (retirements, life insurance, group insurance). While the mathematical models are important, an ability to articulate why the insurance options exist and how they satisfy the customer's needs are equally important. In addition, there are different options available (e.g. in social insurance programs) that offer the opportunity of discussing alternative approaches.
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523. Risk Theory. Math. 425. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Risk management is of major concern to all financial institutions and is an active area of modern finance. This course is relevant for students with interests in finance, risk management, or insurance and provides background for the professional examinations in Risk Theory offered by the Society of Actuaries and the Casualty Actuary Society. Students should have a basic knowledge of common probability distributions (Poisson, exponential, gamma, binomial, etc.) and have at least Junior standing. Two major problems will be considered: (1) modeling of payouts of a financial intermediary when the amount and timing vary stochastically over time, and (2) modeling of the ongoing solvency of a financial intermediary subject to stochastically varying capital flow. These topics will be treated historically beginning with classical approaches and proceeding to more dynamic models. Connections with ordinary and partial differential equations will be emphasized. Classical approaches to risk including the insurance principle and the risk-reward tradeoff. Review of probability. Bachelier and Lundberg models of investment and loss aggregation. Fallacy of time diversification and its generalizations. Geometric Brownian motion and the compound Poisson process. Modeling of individual losses which arise in a loss aggregation process. Distributions for modeling size loss, statistical techniques for fitting data, and credibility. Economic rationale for insurance, problems of adverse selection and moral hazard, and utility theory. The three most significant results of modern finance: the Markowitz portfolio selection model, the capital asset pricing model of Sharpe, Lintner and Moissin, and (time permitting) the Black-Scholes option pricing model.
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526/Stat. 526. Discrete State Stochastic Processes. Math. 525 or EECS 501. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This is a course on the theory and applications of stochastic processes, mostly on discrete state spaces. It is a second course in probability which should be of interest to students of mathematics and statistics as well as students from other disciplines in which stochastic processes have found significant applications. The material is divided between discrete and continuous time processes. In both, a general theory is developed, and detailed study is made of some special classes of processes and their applications. Some specific topics include generating functions; recurrent events and the renewal theorem; random walks; Markov chains; branching processes; limit theorems; Markov chains in continuous time with emphasis on birth and death processes and queuing theory; an introduction to Brownian motion; stationary processes and martingales. This course is similar to EECS 502 and IOE 515, although the latter course tends to be somewhat more oriented to applications. The next courses in probability are Math 625 and 626, which presuppose substantial additional background (Math 597).
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556. Methods of Applied Mathematics I. Math. 555 or 554. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This is an introduction to methods of applied analysis with emphasis on Fourier analysis for differential equations. Initial and boundary value problems are covered. Students are expected to master both the proofs and applications of major results. The prerequisites include linear algebra, advanced calculus and complex variables. Topics may vary with the instructor but often include: Fourier series; separation of variables for partial differential equations; heat conduction, wave motion, electrostatic fields; Sturm-Liouville problems; Fourier transform; Green's functions; distributions; Hilbert space, complete orthonormal sets; integral operators; spectral theory for compact self-adjoint operators. Math 454 is an undergraduate course on the same topics.
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Near Eastern Studies

Arabic 431(Arabic 430). Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

Arabic 431 is designed to provide a clear understanding of the goals of linguistic theory and training in linguistic analysis at the phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic levels. Differences and similarities between traditional treatments of Arabic and recent analyses of Arabic within the generative paradigm will be highlighted. The diverse and dynamic linguistic situation in the Arabic World will be examined. Since the structure of Arabic presents a challenge to most contemporary linguistic formalisms, there will be frequent references and discussions of relevant theoretical questions and controversial issues. Students will gain insights into the structure of Arabic which will help those who wish to acquire the language for communicative purposes. Students who are more interested in applied or theoretical work in Arabic or linguistics will find the theoretical part particularly useful. Course requirements include class participation, readings, presentations, quizzes and writing a term paper on an aspect of the structure of Arabic. Cost:1 WL:3 (Farghaly)
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Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies 486(GNE 446). Modern Middle Eastern Literature. Taught in English. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Rise of the Arabic Novel.
The emergence of the novel as a literary genre in modern Arabic literature has always been a very controversial issue, in point of origin and possible influences, both intrinsic and foreign. This course will attempt to subvert some of the prevalent, mainly Egyptian-oriented notions about the emergence of the Arabic novel, and re-examine some of the counter-arguments that are mostly Northern-, Shami-oriented. The course will deal, among other questions, with some of the highly ignored events that were played down by the historians of the Arabic Nahda (Renaissance) in the nineteenth century (e.g., the 1865 Protestant translation of the Bible into Arabic), and examine the relationship between orality and literacy within the history of narrative art in Arabic literature. Readings will include a course-pack and a selection (in English translation) of modern Arabic novels. Students will be evaluated through an oral presentation and a term paper. WL:3 (Shammas)
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Arabic 581(Arabic 521). Medieval Arabic, I. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who wish to learn Arabic for academic purposes. We will begin with the sound and writing system of Arabic, paying attention to accurate pronunciation of sounds and writing Arabic words and phrases with a pleasing hand. Then, we will move to reading, translating and discussing short passages selected from the Qur'an, Hadith, and medieval Islamic literature. There will be daily reading and written assignments. Evaluation will be based on class participation and performance, monthly tests, and a final exam. (Aziz)
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Hebrew 202(Hebrew 302). Intermediate Modern Hebrew, II. HJCS 201. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In addition to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. Cost:1 WL:3
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Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies 291. Topics in Hebrew and Judaic Cultural Studies. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Women in Talmudic Law and Lore.
Selected sources dealing with the Ktuba document. Tannaitic and Amoraic sources from Tractate Ketubot shall be studied to ascertain its nature and trace its development. Attention shall be paid to the factors - legal, social, historical which prompted changes in its nature and formulation. Status of women in Talmudic society as reflected in selected Aggadic sources from Tractate Ketubot. Particular attention shall be given to the contrasts between the legal status of women to its social status. (Steinfeld)
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Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies 592. Seminar in Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Jewish Legal System-Structure and Functions Talmud: Tractate Sanhedrin.
Study of relevant sources in Tractate Sanhedrin as the structure and functions of the Jewish legal system aided by the classical commentators and modern critical methodology, e.g. variant reading, parallel sources, literary history and redactional problems of Talmudic courses. (Steinfeld)
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196. First Year Seminar. First year students; second year students with permission of instructor. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Philosophy and the Future of Work.
What will work be like in the next century? What jobs will have been automated away by then, and in what areas will the new ones be created? And what is happening to work overall? Is there an alternative to work becoming ever more frenetic and demanding? Is it conceivable that the brilliant inventions of Hi-technology could be used not to create ever greater pressures and more unemployment, but instead a culture in which work for a far greater number could become more nearly a vocation or a calling? What movements in various countries have already taken steps in this direction? This course will address these and similar questions quite directly, but it will also, and in large part, ask these questions in the light of major philosophic writings. These will include philosophers like Hegel, Nietzsche and Marx, but also Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism, Henry David Thoreau's Walden, and Paul Goodman's Growing Up Absurd. One paper, one oral presentation and final examination. WL:1 (Bergmann)
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Political Science

312. Freedom of Speech and Press. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the constitutional right of freedom of speech and press in the United States. Various areas of law are examined in depth, including extremist or seditious speech, obscenity, libel, fighting words, the public forum doctrine and public access to the mass media. Classes are conducted according to the law school model, with readings focused on actual judicial decisions and students expected to participate in discussions. (Bollinger)
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411. American Political Processes.
Any 100-level course in political science. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Public Opinion and National Elections.
This course views outcomes in American elections presidential, and congressional as expressions of public opinion. While frequent references will be made to recent elections, our central purpose wil be to understand American elections in general. For example, How well do citizens choose a president?, senator?, or member of congress? Readings will focus primarily around a course pack (not yet finished). Grades likely will depend on a mid-term, a final exam and a 10-page paper. (Hutchings)
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412. The Legal Process. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

Examines the role of the legal process in political systems. (Morang-Levine)
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453. Government and Politics of the Middle East. Two courses in political science. (3). (Excl).

The Middle East is characterised as a region of numerous conflicts which influence both regional as well as international politics. The purpose of this course is: (i) examine the origins and evolution of selected numbers of regional conflicts; (ii)to study the involvement of a wide range of national, regional and international political actors in these conflicts; (iii) to review efforts at managing and/or resolving these conflicts; (iv) to analyze the role that domestic politics play in the dynamics that surround international politics of the Middle East. Following a general historical overview of the origins of the modern Middle Eastern state system, the course will focus on such regional conflicts as the Arab-Israeli, the Israeli-Palestinian, intra-Arab, the Iran-Iraqi conflicts. The course will also focus on Middle Eastern conflicts to do with ethnicity, religion and scarcity of water in the region. Course requirements will include: (i) one midterm plus an optional make-up exam; (ii) a short paper based on a review (from the printed media and the Internet, a list of relevant web sites on the inter-net will be provided and students will be encouraged to discover additional ones) and brief analysis of events surrounding a selected issue or conflict; (iii) a final exam, however the students who have done previous work on Middle East politics may elect to substitute a research paper (15-20 pages) in place of the final exam; (iv) participation in class discussions and quizzes on assigned readings. (Kirisci)
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495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Senior standing, primarily for seniors concentrating in political science. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Power and Legitimacy.
This seminar intends to introduce to political theory by reading modern concepts on power and legitimacy. In addition, a strong focus on reading in class should give experience in understanding and interpreting demanding theoretical texts. Three different theoretical perspectives will mainly shape the course: theory of action, critical theory, and poststructuralism. Although this curriculum includes a historical perspective starting with the early twentieth century, the focus of the course will be more systematic than historical. Reading different concepts from, among others, Weber, Arendt, Habermas, and Foucault, should teach the main changes in the understanding of power and legitimacy as key terms of theoretical political thoughts, and should enable students to interpret the implicit assumptions on power and legitimacy in current discussions on political theory. Classes will be hold on Wednesday from 3 to 5 p.m. The main work for the course will be an oral mid-term and a written final exam. Students will also have several short written assignments. Regular attendance, reading of the texts and participation in the discussion are requested. Professor Ritter is a visiting faculty member from Germany. She received her doctorate from the University of Hamburg and is interested in social philosophy. (Ritter)
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498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Senior standing, primarily for seniors concentrating in political science. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Political Development.
This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture. Cost:4 WL:4 (Organski)
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Section 002 International Conflict. This course will involve a detailed investigation of leading arguments about the causes and consequences of conflict in world politics. We will evaluate contending arguments by analyzing whether they tell a logically consistent story about international conflict, and by whether they provide expectations which are supported by the history of international conflict. This is not a "current events" course, but we might consider how well specific instances of international conflict fit patterns contending arguments suggest exist around the world. Students considering graduate studies in political science will be especially interested in this course. The class will be a weekly seminar in which student participation will be a critical element of success. There will be two essay exams, and one longish term paper. Cost:2 WL:3 (Lemke)
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121. First-Year Seminar in Psychology as a Natural Science. Open only to first-year students. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (3). (NS). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 003 Decisions About Marriage.
Decisions about marriage (e.g., concerning whether, when, and whom to marry) are among the most important the typical person ever makes. But there is good evidence (e.g., high rates of divorce and domestic violence) that people often make these decisions badly, with serious, detrimental consequences for everyone involved, including children. This seminar will examine literature concerning the variety of ways marriage decisions are made in practice. It will also explore and critically evaluate proposals for how people could make such decisions more effectively. Cost:3 WL:1 (Yates)

305. Practicum in Psychology.
Introductory psychology. (1-4). (Excl). A total of 6 credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 005 Community Issues in Latino/Latina Schools. (3 credits).
The purpose of the proposed course is first, to expose students to Latino youth and their Southwest Detroit community (a poor multi-ethnic neighborhood); second, to educate students about cultural aspects of human development, mental health and contrasting theoretical approaches to social change; finally, to help the students analyze their practical experience using this theoretical framework. The overall goals of the course are to educate students to be able to envision themselves working in an urban community setting and to become motivated to work for social change in their academic and professional careers. This course will be a field course involving two visits per week to Southwest Detroit community. A neighborhood school, Earhart Middle School, will be used as the site for tutoring and working with the children. In this course, the instructors themselves will supervise the field experience. Neighborhood walks will be planned and led by the instructors to make students aware of the cultural diversity of the neighborhood, its economic base, and its interesting history. (Jose)

400. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory psychology. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Biopsychology of Eating and Eating Disorders. (3 credits).
The course is intended for sophomores, juniors, or seniors concentrating in psychology, anthropology, or the biomedical sciences (e.g., pre-med). To enroll a student must satisfy the following three prerequisites. 1) The student must have taken one of the following courses: Psychology 330 (Introduction to Biopsychology), or Psychology 335 (Comparative Animal Behavior), or Anthropology 161 (Introduction to Biological Anthropology); 2) The student should be a concentrator in Biopsychology and Cognitive Science; 3) The student should have a genuine interest in biological approaches to the study of normal and pathological behavior. Alternatively, the student can obtain an override from the instructor, following an interview. Two aspects of this course must be emphasized. First, eating behavior and its disorders are analyzed from a biopsychological (not clinical) perspective. Second, considerable emphasis is placed on evolutionary psychology approaches to the study of normal and pathological eating behavior. The course is organized into four series of lectures. The first series of lectures analyzes the role of food as a source of energy. These lectures cover fundamental topics in the physiology of nutrition, digestion, and metabolism. The second series of lectures focuses on the biopsychology of normal eating. Topics include: neural substrates of ingestive behavior; sensory-hedonic aspects of ingestive behavior, the biopsychology of satiation, the biopsychology of appetite, and the psychopharmacology of ingestive behavior. The third series of lectures is concerned with the role of food as a powerful organizing agent of individual and social behavior. Topics include: evolution of ingestive behavior; relationship between ingestive behavior, body weight regulation, and reproductive behavior; history and development of the concept of fitness. The fourth series of lectures covers major aspects of eating disorders (history, classification, and assessment; psychiatric and medical profile; epidemiology and etiology; psychopharmacology). (Badiani)
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551. Advanced Topics in Developmental Psychology. Psych. 350. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 002 Childhood poverty: Developmental and policy issues.
This course will examine current research on the effects of poverty on children's development, parenting, and family. It will also consider the ways in which child development research has influenced policy and practices that target the poor, the nature of the debate among scholars and policy analysts about how to reduce childhood poverty in America, and the viability of various policies, including the Welfare Reform Law of 1996. The content of the course is organized around three broad issues: (a) The Economics and Demographics of Childhood Poverty; (b) The Human Costs of Poverty; (c) Poverty, Public Policy, and Practice. Course readings are comprised of journal articles and book chapters. Course requirements include one paper, participation in a formal debate during a class session, leading a discussion of selected readings, and participation in class discussion. Grade will be based on performance on each of these requirements. (McLoyd)
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380. Selected Topics. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.
Section 001 Primitive Religion.
The Practice of religion is one of the most basic and universal of human activities. Like language, religious beliefs rank among the oldest of human inventions and they may be an integral part of our evolutionary heritage as a species. This course is an upper-level seminar that will examine so-called primitive religion, the rituals, beliefs, and world views of non-Western peoples, cultures, and societies. Our point of view will be both descriptive and critical. We will explore and critique through a series of lectures, films, selected readings, and focused discussions topics such as the construction of world-views and belief-systems, the performance of rites, rituals, and ceremonies, the role of shamans, witches, and religious practitioners, symbols, texts, and canon formation, the nature of pollution, profanity, and the process of sacralization, and the function of apocalypse and emergence of revitalization, charismatic, and millennial movements. Grades will be based on written and oral assignments: a 10-20 page critique of two ethnographics and a 20-30 minute class presentation. Cost:2 WL:4 (Pulis)
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Residential College

Interdivisional 430. Perspectives on High Technology Society. Upperclass standing. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 History of Computers.
Explore the story of computers from the ancient world to the present! Why were computers invented? Who wanted them, and why? How have computers changed the shape of society and culture and how did society and culture shape them? This course is relevant to anyone interested in the history, politics, and culture of technology. We'll explore how early computers cracked the Nazi Enigma cipher during World War II; how the Cold War changed computer research (and how computers changed the Cold War); why digital computing replaced well-developed analog methods in the 1940s and 1950s; computing in Europe, Japan, and the Soviet Union; how hackers helped shape minicomputers and the Internet; how amateur hobbyists invented the personal computer; and the story behind the World Wide Web. The course is open to students at all levels. No technical background required. (Edwards)
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Romance Languages and Literatures

Italian 205. Italian Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is designed for students who have had at least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading materials from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short stories, etc.) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Classes will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in the classroom activities.
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Italian 231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Text, workbook, and lab manual required. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions and oral report center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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Italian 232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (LR).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. Text, workbook, and lab manual required. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.
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Spanish 372. Survey of Spanish Literature, II. Spanish 275 and 276, and one additional 300-level course. (3). (HU).

The late eighteenth-century and the 1930s mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their cultural context ranging from the Enlightenment through Romanticism, Realism, Generation of '98 to Symbolism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Bécquer, Galdós, Unamuno and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lecture and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of periodic tests, midterm and final paper, and final exam. The course is conducted in Spanish. (Hafter)
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Spanish 490. Spanish Honors: Introduction to Literary Studies and Criticism. One 400-level Spanish literature course, and permission of Honors advisor. (3). (Excl).

The main goal of this course is to introduce the student to the fundamental principles of literary studies as a discipline. Literary studies, as any other discipline in the human services, can be seen as a series of knowledge-generating activities of theorizing or as a cluster of knowledge-problems and methods produced by these activities. Literary studies share, with other human sciences, a common goal: the explanation (theory) and interpretation (understanding) of our cultural world and our cultural experience. What distinguishes literary studies from other disciplines in the domain of the human sciences, is its focus on language, discourse and texts. Consequently, this course will emphasize critical thinking about texts by asking questions such as: What is literature? What is fiction? What are genres? What is explanation? What is explication? What is interpretation? Do we obtain knowledge or understanding in our transactions with literature and literary texts? A secondary goal of the course is to have a clear understanding of the meaning "Hispanic Language and Literature" within the context of general literary studies and of the current division of knowledge within colleges and universities in the USA. In this respect the course will focus on questions such as: What distinguishes the study of Hispanic from English language and literature? What are the relationships between foreign languages and literatures and cmparative literature? Reflecting on these issues will help the student to understand both the place of literature among other human symbolic expressions and the cultural significance of understanding the "other" from "our native" point of view.
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521/CAAS 521. African American Intellectual Thought. Senior standing. (3). (Excl).

See CAAS 521. (Young)
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526/Math. 526. Discrete State Stochastic Processes. Math. 525, or Stat. 525, or EECS 501. (3). (Excl). (BS).

See Mathematics 526.
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535. Reliability. Statistics 425 and 426. (3). (Excl).

This course will cover the important reliability concepts and methodology that arise in modeling, assessing, and improving product reliability and in analyzing field and warranty data. Topics will be selected from the following: Basic reliability concepts; Common parametric models for component reliability; Censoring schemes; Analysis of time-to-failure data; Accelerated testing for reliability assessment; Modeling and analyzing repairable systems reliability; Analysis of warranty and field-failure data; Maintenance policies and availability; Reliability improvement through experimentation. Cost:2 or 3 WL:3 (Nair)
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University Courses

102. The Student in the University. 21st Century Program participant. (1) (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course will provide students with an opportunity to critically review their role in the university. It will allow students to consider the expectations of their experience at the university within a framework of theoretical perspectives. It is hoped that students will develop a broad understanding of what their university experience can include and how they can shape it to realize their academic potential and intellectual development. The course will focus on the transition from high school to college, role of the liberal arts, critical thinking, intergroup relations and social change. The issues and challenges of living and working in a multicultural society will be examined. This discussion will include a focus on student perceptions, relevant research and university resources. The small discussion groups will focus on the readings and areas of practical concern. This course is open only to students in the 21st Century Program.
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104. Introduction to Research.
Participant in UROP-in-Residence Program. (1). (Excl).

This course will provide students with an overview of important topics related to research. This course is designed to help students: (1) understand the history of the research university; (2) explore different questions and modes of inquiry researchers use in different academic disciplines; (3) learn about ethical issues in research including the responsible conduct of research, the use of animals in research, data ownership and interpretation; (4) explore issues of creativity, risk-taking, and critical thinking in research, (5) discover the importance of multiculturalism in research across academic disciplines and some of the controversy of braking new ground; and (6) develop a student's research skills through workshops. Researchers will visit the class and share their perspectives on research, their educational and professional pathways, and research interests, and related topics. Librarians will conduct workshops for the class on advanced library searchers, Internet exploration, and research as a process. Students will be asked to: (1) keep a research journal to include both reflections on their own research projects and reactions to assigned readings; (2) read an article on one of the proposed topics and write a critical review; and (3) give a 15 minute presentation on their own research project. Evaluation will be based on class attendance and participation in and completion of all tasks including a research journal, article review, and presentation about their research. A course pack of reading related to the topics listed above will serve as the required text for the course. Lecture and discussion. (Gregerman)
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151. First-Year Social Science Seminar.
First-year students. (3). (SS). May be repeated for credit with permission of department.
Section 007 Medicine, Culture, and Creativity.
Is the current health care system culturally competent? Are strengths taken into account as well as needs? Can exposure to a culture's creativity heighten awareness of its unique medical attributes and challenges? Students are invited to actively use their own experiences and legacies to address these questions, as well as readings and group discussion. Currently, efforts are being made to improve medical care by increasing its sensitivity to different cultures' experience of health and illness. Students will review material designed to improve health providers' awareness of the African American, Asian American, Native American and Latino/a populations among others. In order to bridge medical problems into a broader cultural context that includes strengths, some parallel examples of each group's creativity will be explored. Finally, students will attempt to integrate medical needs with cultural strengths of each group examined. (Nerenberg)

Section 008 Where Law and Psychiatry Meet. This seminar will analyze cases illustrating significant issues in which criminal and civil law intersect forensic and clinical psychiatry, including topics such as: sexual harassment; discrimination on the basis of age, race or gender; an insanity defense or competency to stand trial; medical malpractice; the right to refuse treatment; informed consent; and the commitment of patients to mental hospitals. We will also discuss physician-assisted suicide and other issues surrounding death and dying. (Margolis)

Section 009 The Social Psychology of the University Experience. This seminar will help you better understand your experience at the University of Michigan by teaching you the skills of social psychological analysis. The seminar will consider how you may change psychologically as a consequence of attending the University and how you may change the University. Social psychology is the study of the relationship between individuals and their social environments. The university is an important and encompassing social environment for its students. It is a locus for friendships, a large organization, and a culture. This social environment has the potential for altering students' skills, beliefs, values, and goals. Some students, because of their special characteristics, have the potential for significantly changing the University. (Gold)

Section 010 the Literature of Colonialism in Asia. We will read novels and stories set in colonial or semi-colonial Asia, by both Western and Asian writers, which can give perspective from both sides. Readings will include Kipling's stories, A Passage to India, Rumer Godden's The River, R.K. Narayan, The Vendor of Sweets, Orwell's Burmese Days, Green's The Quiet American, Lu Hsun's Stories, John Hersey, A Single Pebble, Robert Van Gulick, The Chinese Bell Murders, and Oswald Wund, The Ginger Tree. Some use will also be made of films, including those based on some of the books or stories we will read. Total reading is modest, but fun. (Murphey)

Section 011 Medicine and the Media from Hippocrates through ER. We will study the development of medicine as a science and how its perception has changed through the media. Students will explore their own beliefs about medicine through literature such as The Citadel, Intern and The House of God, and movies and television series such as The Hospital, Marcus Welby MD, St. Elsewhere and ER. Much of the course will focus on the discussion of ethical issues and the crystallization of the students' own beliefs about medicne in the 20th century. (Hobbs)

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152. First-Year Natural Science Seminar. First-year students. (3). (NS). (BS). May be repeated for credit with permission of department.
Section 001 Human Genes and Gene Therapy.
The primary goal of this seminar is to expose students to important principles of human genetics and possible future applications in genetic testing and gene therapy. Issues such as the ramifications of cloning the human genome, applications of genetic technology, and new treatments for acquired and inherited genetic defects will be explored. Basic genetic principles such as incomplete penetrance, mosaicism, and gene inactivation will be reviewed. Genetic aspects of human diseases, including viral diseases and gene based antiviral strategies, will be discussed. The course will follow syllabus based structure, with students volunteering to participate. Evaluation of students will be based on attendance, participation, a single paper and a written final examination. (Askari)

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Women's Studies

150. Humanities Seminars on Women and Gender. (3). (HU).
Section 005 History and Legacy of the Salem Witchcraft Trials.
For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with History 197.006. (DuPuis)

253. Special Topics. (3). (Excl). A maximum of seven credits of WS 252 and 253 may be counted toward graduation.
Section 002 Women in Talmudic Law and Lore.
For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies 291.001. (Steinfeld)
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347. Feminist Perspective on Lesbian Studies. WS 240. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Crossing Erotic Boundaries: Representations of Lesbianism in Early Modern Western Europe.
We will examine the varieties of representations of women who desired other women in Western Europe from the 15th-17th centuries. Focusing on England and Italy, with forays into France, Germany, Spain and Holland, we will read early modern texts (poems, drama, opera, mythology, paintings, domestic artifacts, pornography, and medical writing), as well as contemporary theorizing about lesbianism. Charting continuities and discontinuities between early modern conceptions and twentieth century ones, we will investigate the extent to which a coherent history of lesbianism exists. (Meets the interdisciplinary requirement for the Women's Studies concentration). Genders, Bodies, Borders Theme Semester course. WL:1 Cost:2 (Simons)
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483. Special Topics.
WS 240. (3). (Excl). Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 7 credits elected through WS 480, 481, 482, 483, and 484.
Section 007 Literature, History, and Culture of Early Modern France. Taught in French. French 232, and 8 credits in courses numbered between French 250 and 299.
For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with French 367.001. (Stanton)
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483. Special Topics. WS 240. (3). (Excl). Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 7 credits elected through WS 480, 481, 482, 483, and 484.
Section 008 Gender in Caribbean Society.
For Fall Term, 1997, this section is offered jointly with CAAS 358.002. (Green)
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