Biological Sciences

Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

Additional descriptions for many 400 and 500 level Biological Sciences courses may be found in Room 2083 Natural Sciences Building.

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to concentrators in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is designed to introduce students both to the current intellectual content of biology and to the human implications of biological knowledge. The course is intended for students who are not planning to concentrate in biology; thus, course content is selected on the basis of its general intellectual significance or its practical relevance, and not on the basis of its importance as preparation for more advanced courses. Nevertheless, a firm scientific background is established in each area studied before the human implications are discussed. Topics scheduled for coverage include the evolution of life; human nutrition and the world food problem; the biological effects of alcohol, drugs, and environmental pollutants; genetic diseases, birth defects, and genetic engineering; infectious disease; organ transplants and allergies; cancer; basic ecological principles and their implications for current environmental problems. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week and a two to three hour discussion section (twenty students). Lectures assume no background in science; high school biology and chemistry are helpful but not required. Discussion sections observe demonstrations, perform experiments, view films, and discuss social and ethical issues raised by course material. Memorization is not emphasized, but students are expected to apply the conceptual knowledge gained to solve various biological problems. Readings are from the text (G. Hardin and C. Bajema, Biology: Its Principles and Implications), Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, and several short articles from Scientific American and similar publications. Grading is based in part (about 2/3) on performance on examinations based on lecture material and readings, and in part (about 1/3) upon performance in discussion section (quizzes, a short paper, and quality of discussion participation). (Pringle)

105. Introduction to Biology. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). Students who elect Biol. 105 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (5). (NS).

This is a one-term, fast-paced alternative to the Biology 112/114 sequence, covering essentially the same material. It is open to students who have completed at least one term of introductory college chemistry and have a strong background in high school biology. Biology 105 may be substituted wherever Biology 112/114 are prerequisites, but it is closed to students who have completed Biology 112 or 114. Note: Reading, writing, and verbal skills play important roles in this course; students weak in these skills or not motivated to rapid, self-disciplined study habits are advised against taking this course. Biology 105 differs from Biology 112/114 sequence in the format of course offering. It is run on a self-instructional format with a strong emphasis on student initiative to study material from assigned readings and to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, of Organisms, and of Populations). Assigned readings, laboratory material, and a study guide are given for each unit. The entire class meets once a week for 2 hours, for a lecture/movie or examinations. The laboratory (3032 Natural Resources Building) is open about 24 hours weekly during which each student spends a 3-hour block of time on laboratory work. Students meet in small sections twice a week with instructors, before the laboratory for one hour, and after the laboratory for two hours, to discuss questions arising from the assigned readings and laboratory work. Examinations on each unit of the course are given in several levels, with each level graded separately. In addition, each student is required to submit two written laboratory reports. These examinations and laboratory reports plus staff evaluations decide the final course grade. The course textbook will be listed at bookstores. A laboratory kit must be purchased in the Chemistry Store. For further information see Ms. Pesce at 3060 Natural Resources Building. (G. Nace)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 112 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable prerequisites are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be two course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Winter Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The textbook required for Winter 1982 is Biological Science by W.T. Keeton. The laboratory manual required for Winter 1982 is From Cell to Organism, edited by M.L. Smith and D.G. Shappirio. The text and the laboratory manual are both available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course. Lecture notes and diagrams will be available when classes start.

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is required, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course must be completed prior to enrollment in Biology 112. (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). High school chemistry is not suitable as a prerequisite unless a student has obtained Advanced Placement credit for Chemistry 123, or has obtained other certification of college-level equivalency in general chemistry. Concurrent election of Chemistry 123 and Biology 112 is not advisable. Students who have completed Chemistry 123 with a grade below C- would be well-advised to repeat the course before electing Biology 112. Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. Students who elect Biology 112 after completion of Biology 100 will lose credit for the earlier course. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1570 C.C. Little Building. (Shappirio, Gay, Steiner)

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 114 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function, diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/ discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. For information concerning the textbook and laboratory manual, contact bookstores. Further information about this course can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office in Room 1570 C.C. Little Building.

123. Human Sexuality. Not open to students concentrating in the biological sciences. (3). (NS).

Human Sexuality is designed to introduce students to the biological and social factors which determine and regulate their sexuality. Approximately two-thirds of the course content deals with the anatomical, physiological and genetic determinants of sexuality. In this section the sexual anatomy of men and women, hormonal regulation of sexual function, fertilization, pregnancy, birth, lactation, conception control, and venereal diseases are examined. In the latter third of the course emphasis shifts to behavioral and social factors. Here, human sexual behavior, sexual response, orgasm, psychosexual development, homosexuality, rape, and the genesis of sex roles are examined. Biology 123 is designed for students with a minimal background in biological science. Even so you will profit more from this course if you have had some exposure to high school biology. Biology 123 is a logical counterpart to Biology 100, Biology 101, and Physiology 101. The text to be used in the course will be Katchadourian and Lunde, Fundamentals of Human Sexuality, 3rd Ed., 1980. (J. Allen)

202. Biology of Aging. Biol. 100, Physiol. 101, Psych. 170, or Anthro. 161, or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS).

This introductory course considers problems of aging from biological points of view. Among topics covered are evolution of species longevity, population and age structure and growth, maturation and senescence in the nervous, immune, reproductive and endocrine systems, age dependent changes in cell cycle, molecular correlates of aging in nucleus and cytoplasm, and biochemical and genetic models of aging. Course organization: two lectures and one discussion per week. Readings will be assigned in an appropiate text and also in original research or review papers available on library reserve. Grades are based on two hour exams and a final exam. (Brown, Doneen, Jones)

222. Energy and Ecology. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (2). (NS).

This study of the use of energy and its impact on the world ecosystems and climate treats the basic question of how to supply the energy needs of mankind while maintaining ecological integrity. The following sources of energy are considered: solar, biomass, wind, tidal, ocean thermal, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear, including their mining and manufacture, transport, utilization, and ecological principles and conservation practices that are essential for a healthful and stable world (Gates).

282. Introduction to Organic Evolution. Biol. 100, 105, 114, or equivalent. (4). (NS).

Biology 282 is an introductory course intended for both majors and non-majors in biology. The course introduces evolution as the principal unifying concept in biology, with an emphasis on ecological aspects of natural selection. Natural selection theory, the fossil record, population genetics and evolutionary ecology will be the primary topics discussed. A substantial amount of reading is required, and several problem sets and a term paper will be assigned. A recitation section will provide time for discussion of lecture and reading topics as well as several laboratory projects. Grades will be based on three exams, problem sets, and the term paper. Offered every other year only. (Heaney)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for admission to medical or dental school. Students who have an interest in genetics but who do not intend to concentrate in a science area may find this course unsuitable for their needs. Another course, Human Genetics 324, emphasizes the societal aspects of genetics and is more appropriate for these students. Enrollment in Biology 305 requires some prior knowledge of basic genetics. The course is oriented toward molecular genetics and is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. In each of these segments, the emphasis is on the current state of knowledge in the field. Every year the lectures are changed to keep pace with the rapidly changing aspects of the field of genetics. There are three lectures a week plus one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used primarily to expand on the lecture material, but new material is also presented. (Stein, Blumer)

392. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (3). (NS).

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of developmental biology. Emphasis is placed on new discoveries in molecular and cellular biology and how they relate to classical observations on developing systems. Morphological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects of both vertebrate and invertebrate development are considered although the approach is selective rather than exhaustive. Particular stress is on the integration of cellular and morphological observation with the underlying molecular mechanisms. Lecture material includes: genome organization, chromatin structure, RNA synthesis and processing, models of genetic control mechanisms, gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, induction, organogenesis, and regeneration. This course is intended for juniors and seniors although it is open to sophomores. There are three one hour lectures per week. Three one hour exams are given. Readings are from Developmental Biology by Leon Browder. (Moore, Kemp)

393. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 392. (2). (NS).

This course provides students with the opportunity to study firsthand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, nuclear function, cytoplasmic determinants, induction, and enzyme regulation. In addition to one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three additional hours in the laboratory each week. Short lectures are presented to introduce aspects of basic morphological areas of investigation. Formal reports on a number of exercises are required. There are several laboratory examinations. (Tomlinson)

401/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305 or 407. (5). (NS).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Eukaryotic microorganisms and cells in culture are discussed, but emphasis is placed on prokaryotes and viruses. Laboratory exercises are designed to allow students to acquire proficiency in basic techniques, and to supplement lectures. (Bender, Douthit)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exam. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Five hours per week are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, proctors each provide one mastery level, multi-choice question for each course unit (15 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

415. Lectures in Cell and Molecular Biology. Eight credits of biology, Biol. 411 or the equivalent, and organic chemistry; or permission of instructor. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The lectures in this course provide an in-depth analysis of the structure of cellular organelles and the molecular basis of their functions. Major topics covered include the nucleus, chromatin and chromosomes, ribosomes, membranes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, microtubules and microfilaments, cilia and flagella, and biochemical regulation of cell function. Heavy emphasis is placed on the analysis of experimental data. (Kleinsmith, Yocum)

416. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 415 and permission of instructor. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (NS).

To familiarize the student with modern laboratory technique involved in the analysis of cell structure and function is the course objective. The course deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of subcellular analysis. Specific experiments have been selected to coordinate with the lectures of Biology 415. The course illustrates certain techniques: cell fractionation, enzyme assay, identification of subcellular functional units, RNA and protein synthesis, mitochondrial and chloroplast function. There will be short lab quizzes and problem sets given. Course grades will be determined based on three major lab reports (written in a format typical of manuscripts submitted for publication in scientific journals), five short reports and two quizzes. (Jones)

418. Introduction to Population Genetics. Biol. 305 and Stat. 402; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course will introduce the field of population genetics and its relationship to population ecology, emphasizing the experimental aspects of population genetics. About 25% of the course will be devoted to population genetic theory necessary for understanding the experimental approaches used in the field. Experiments and data on plant, animal, and human populations will be used to illustrate the various principles of population genetics. Course outline: (a) the factors of evolution, mutation, migration, selection, in-breeding, small population size; (b) the concept of fitness, concepts of genetic load, estimation of the rate of evolutionary change; (c) population variation and adaptation; (d) resolution of theory and experiment, explanation of population variability by various models of selection and non-selection (neutral mutations); (e) organization of the population genotype, two locus models, coadaptation, intergenotypic interactions; (f) demography and population genetics. Evaluation of student progress in the course will be based on: (1) a midterm which will be scheduled if the majority of students desire it; (2) a term paper which should be a concise, critical exposition of one aspect of the course of particular interest to the student, the title to be chosen by the student after consultation with the instructor; (3) one final exam; and (4) three or four problem sets which will be given out through the term. (Adams)

470. Patterns in Evolutionary Ecology. Two laboratory courses in biology. (3). (NS).

This course will present modern theories of the evolution of ecological characteristics of animals and plants, chiefly at the population level. We will study the influence of natural selection upon birth rates, brood size, parental care, feeding strategies, competitive relations, polymorphism, mimicry, dispersal, habitat selection, etc. The evidence for these theories from laboratory and field studies will be critically examined. There will be two hours of lectures and one hour of discussion each week. A previous ecology course is strongly recommended. Evaluation will be based on two term papers, discussions and a short final exam. (Grant)

493. Biochemical Ecology. Organic chemistry; prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (NS).

Biology 493 explores the relationships between the various components of an organism's overall life history strategy and design of certain major biochemical systems (such as the organization of its energy metabolism, the character of its digestive machinery, or the nature of its detoxification systems). Stated more succinctly, the course analyzes the biochemical bases for the adaptations of organisms to their environments. Specific topics likely to be considered include (1) the metabolic organization of vertebrate red and white muscle fibers, insect flight muscle, and squid mantle muscle, (2) anaerobiosis in invertebrates, (4) the enzymatic basis for the tolerance of extreme or fluctuating temperatures, (5) digestive biochemistry and detoxification mechanisms, (6) adaptations to nutritionally unbalanced diets, and (7) the biochemistry of symbiotic associations. The course is of potential interest to students in biochemistry, physiology, ecology, and natural resources. Prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry is required. The class meetings are lecture-discussion sessions and the readings are mainly from the primary and review literature. Student evaluation involves an oral presentation, one hour exam, several written critiques of journal articles, and a final examination. (Martin)

502. Regulation of Cellular Metabolism. Biol. 411 and 415, or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students who wish to pursue the study of biochemical regulation beyond the levels of introductory biochemistry and cell biology. The course is aimed at gaining insight into underlying biochemical mechanisms for highly orderly activities of the cell. Heavy emphasis is given to mammalian cellular metabolism. The course starts with general discussion of basic regulatory mechanisms of cellular metabolism, and progresses to specific discussion of various modes of regulation of several representative metabolic pathways. The last 4-5 weeks will be used for discussion of special topics by guest lecturers. There is no assigned textbook for this course. A list of references is given for each topic. Students are asked to read major references in the library The course grade is based on two take-home examinations and one term paper. (Ikuma)

505/Micro. 505. Pathogenic Microorganisms. A course in general microbiology and biological chemistry. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. (3). (NS).

See Microbiology 505.

506/Micro. 506. Laboratory in Pathogenic Microorganisms. A laboratory course in microbiology; biological chemistry; and permission of instructor. (1). (NS).

See Microbiology 506.

514. Biophysical Chemistry. Biol. 411 and Math. 114; or the equivalent. (3).

This course is designed to give students in the life sciences a background in physical chemistry as applied to biological systems and biological instrumentation. Particular aspects of thermodynamics and kinetics are reviewed with examples drawn from enzyme folding and catalysis. Other topics include the principles of electrochemistry, quantum mechanics, chemical bonding, spectroscopy, statistical mechanics and transport. The applications of physical chemistry which are discussed include the role of non-covalent bonds in the stability and folding of proteins and nucleic acids, the role of entropy in the polymerization of proteins, the nature of specific and non-specific interactions, the energetics of cellular transport, DNA supercoiling, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, the use of fluorescence in cell biology, the principles of light and electron microscopy, the use of magnetic resonance techniques, and the principles of the detection of radiation by photographic and scintillation techniques. The textbook is Physical Chemistry and Applications to the Life Sciences by Eisenberg and Crothers. Problem sets and examinations will be given. (Langmore)

575. Biological Electron Microscopy. Sixteen credits of biology or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (4).

The objective of this course is to teach basic techniques applied in biological electron microscopy. The following topics are taught: tissue exposure, fixation and fixatives, embedding and embedding media, sectioning, staining methods, the use of the transmission electron microscope, taking photographs with the electron microscope, and printing and dark-room techniques. The theoretical aspects of these topics are covered in lectures. The practical part is taught in the laboratory and there are discussions of electron micrographs taken by students. The students are required to do some additional practicing in the laboratory (about 14 hours a week). There is a midterm laboratory practical exam and a lecture exam on the use of the electron microscope and its theory. At the end of the term students submit a report of the project they were working on and a 10x14" high quality electron micrograph of their own material. These assignments form the basis for student evaluation. There is no special background necessary, although some knowledge of electronics and histology is helpful. Two textbooks are used in the course: Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists; and Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Volume I. (Baic)

592/Anatomy 660. Cellular Aspects of Development. An introductory course in development: Biol. 392, Zool. 481, or equivalent. (4).

The approach of the course will be to discuss cellular mechanisms of organogenesis with emphasis on the mammalian system. The course is designed for students who have already taken at least one course in development or embryology. It will have a lecture-discussion format. The course will be taught on an advanced level; current literature will be assigned, reviewed, and discussed. No text will be used although several will be listed as references. Students will be expected to write two short papers on experimental approaches to current developmental problems in lieu of examinations. (Barald, Brinkley)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. I and II. (4). I: Kaufman; II: Steiner. (NS).

This course aims to teach the techniques for successfully growing and propagating plants and the principles of botanical science upon which they are based. The environmental factors important in plant growth, particularly light, temperature, water, and soil will be studied. Students will gain practical experience in such applied botanical techniques as the following: preparation of soils and artificial growth media; use of fertilizers; propagation of plants by cuttings, layering, division, bulbs, grafting, and seed; methods of pruning, plant breeding, pest and disease control; preparation of terraria, hanging baskets, and bonsai; the use of plants in landscaping, and the ecology and management of natural areas; the care and development of living plant collections. Students will be expected to learn to recognize a selected group of indoor and outdoor garden plants, edible wild plants, and common poisonous species. Field trips will include a visit to a commercial greenhouse and an estate garden. One lecture, two discussion periods, and six hours of laboratory per week. Discussions and laboratories are held at the Botanical Gardens, with bus service provided. (Steiner)

190. Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Botany 190 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3), solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible foods, the pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, drug and medicinal plants, alternative means of pest control, alternative energy sources, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, and wild and endangered species of plants. We have a natural foods dinner prepared by the students and a field trip to a solar-heated greenhouse. Throughout the course students present environmental alerts on specific environmental problems and solutions to them and have a class debate on a current, controversial environmental issue. Grade evaluation is based on four short midterms (30 minutes each, one a take-home exam) and one environmental alert. (Kaufman)

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 105 or 112; or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. (Nooden)

281. Introductory Plant Physiology. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (4). (NS).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in botany or related sciences. The objectives of the course are to provide a selection of biological facts and basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out normal vital functions and to introduce students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant function. The lectures and laboratory work in particular are expected to afford an experience with some of the variety of approaches used in contemporary plant physiological research. The content of the lectures and laboratory experiments falls into three main categories: (1) Plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, plant water relations, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant processes, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. Two mid-term examinations and a final examination will be given in the course. The final grade is based on the performance of students in both examinations and lab work. Grading of lab work is based on the quality of lab work, including discussions of data obtained. (C. S. Yocum)

422. Systematic Botany. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), or Bot. 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The diversity of higher plants is taught with lectures, color projection slides, specimens, living plants, and laboratory discussions. Emphasis is on the level of orders, families and genera, temperate as well as tropical, so that students can make themselves familiar with plants in any part of the world. The course focuses mainly on the flowering plants because of their dominant role on the earth, but gymnosperms and pteridophytes are studied too. The phylogeny of vascular plants provides the framework. In angiosperms hypothetical ancestral types are discussed and various lines are analysed, e.g., the pinks (Caryophillidae), roses (Rosidae), wind-pollinated trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae), and so on. Related subjects, such as habitats of plants, geography, biosystematics, cladistics and floral biology are presented in special lectures. A major component of the science of botany, systematics is considered essential to training plant scientists and botany majors. However, the course is also elected by biology majors, zoologists, foresters, ecologists and ethnobotanists. Some individuals take the course merely because they enjoy plants and wish to learn about them, including students with backgrounds as diverse as engineering and city planning. The methods of instruction include lecture and laboratory, the latter including demonstrations and discussions. There are two midterms, a final, and numerous small lab quizzes. Various texts are recommended for students with special interests, but only two are required. They are Davis, P.H. and J. Cullen, The Identification of Flowering Plant Families (Cambridge University Press) and Wood, C.E., Jr. A Student's Atlas of Flowering Plants (Harper and Row). (Wagner)

456/Geol. 456. Paleobotany. An introductory course in botany or biology; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The course covers the morphology, classification, and evolution of the major groups of fossil plants, and the stratigraphic and paleoecological significance of fossil plant assemblages. Beginning with fossils nearly three billion years old from the Precambrian - the earliest evidence of living cells we shall proceed to study forms of plant life, and the evolutionary changes reflected in the fossil record, through geological time to the present. There are no prerequisites beyond general botany or general biology, but an introductory course in physical geology and Botany 207, or the equivalent, would be beneficial. Instruction will be by lecture and laboratory, and will include a midterm and a final examination. Lecture and laboratory topics will be coordinated and in laboratory we shall study beautiful fossil specimens from the extensive paleobotanical collections of the Museum of Paleontology. Required text: Paleobotany: An Introduction to Fossil Plant Biology by T.N. Taylor (McGraw Hill). (Beck)

468. Introduction to Mycology. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or (preferably) Bot. 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The principal themes of Botany 468 are the comparative and functional morphology and the taxonomic-evolutionary relationships of the major groups of fungi. These include the slime molds (Myxomycetes), chytrids (Chytridiomycetes), water molds and downy mildews (Oomycetes), and bread molds (Zygomycetes) as well as the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The two latter groups contain such organisms as the yeasts, many important animal and plant parasites, and the mushrooms. The lectures also include topics in fungal physiology, genetics, and ecology, and on the relation of fungi to man (plant pathology, edible and poisonous mushrooms). The course does not deal with medical aspects of mycology or with any specific fungi pathogenic to humans; however, the groups to which many such organisms belong are studied. Laboratory work involves the macroscopic and microscopic study of representatives of the various fungal groups and is based on living material as far as possible. It also provides experience in mycological techniques such as the preparation of nutrient media and of fungal material for microscopic examination. Each student does a project involving the isolation of a variety of fungi from their natural substrates, growing them in pure culture, and identifying them to genus. A kit containing minor items of equipment and supplies for laboratory is available from the Chemistry Service Unit. No laboratory notebook is required. Because Botany 468 is given during the winter months, field work is not an integral part of it. However, weather permitting, an optional trip is scheduled near the end of the course in order to observe early spring mushrooms and other fungi in their natural habitats. Several quizzes and three examinations are held during the term. The examinations are two to two and one-half hours long and include both written and practical parts. Final grades for the course are based on the quiz and examination scores and on the results of the laboratory project. A textbook, Alexopoulos and Mims' Introductory Mycology, and a few other sources are utilized for assigned readings. (Shaffer)

472. General Plant Ecology. Bot. 422 or the equivalent; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

A general survey of modern and traditional plant ecology, intended for beginning graduate students and upper-level undergraduates with a background in ecology. A quarter of the course is devoted to each of the following areas: physiological plant ecology; population ecology and demography; community ecology; and ecosystems ecology. Topics covered include: plant-soil water relations; photosynthetic pathways and carbon gain; plant architecture and leaf dynamics; growth and interaction in monocultures; breeding systems, sexual and vegetative reproduction; dispersal, germination and establishment; competition and symbioses; life histories, mortality and projections; patch dynamics, regeneration and succession; plant-animal interactions: herbivory and pollination; biomes, climate and community classification; biogeography and islandic compositions; production and carbon dynamics, local and global; mineral cycles, biogeochemistry; and decomposition and soil dynamics. Grades will be based on short essays (which may be resubmitted) and an essay final. Texts will be three or four short monographic books and original literature from current journals. (Rabinowitz)

482. Experimental Plant Morphogenesis. Biol. 105 or 112; Bot. 281 or 481 or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

Regulation of plant growth and development by the genome, hormones, and environmental factors such as light and temperature is the basic subject of this course. Developmental processes such as embryogenesis, pathogenesis, and photomorphogenesis are considered at different levels of organization. The laboratory emphasizes higher plants, but also includes algae and fungi in particular experiments. Laboratory techniques include tissue culture, somatic cell hybridization, scanning electron microscopy of plant surfaces, electron microprobe analysis, and mathematical analysis of developmental processes. Individual projects are required. (Kaufman)

491/Geol. 491. Quaternary Paleoecology. A course in ecology or in Pleistocene geology. (2). (NS).

Main themes are recognition of evidence and its uses in reconstructions of biotic communities and environments of the Pleistocene and Holocene (the Quaternary Period, or the past one or two million years). The course introduces students from biology, geology, and archaeology to the data and principles of the other two disciplines applicable to Quaternary problems. Topics include (1) Principles of paleoecology and special aspects for Quaternary studies; (2) Varieties of evidence: macrofossils and microfossils of plant and animal origins; sedimentologic and geomorphologic features; evidence from archaeology; (3) Paleoecological approaches to Quaternary chronology: biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, deep sea sediment studies, and studies of cores from glacial ice; and (4) Verification of interpretations by consistency of evidence and agreement with postulated climate. Prerequisite will be satisfied by a college course in one of these areas: general ecology; Pleistocene or Quaternary geology; or principles of archaeology. Lectures, discussions of readings, one term paper, midterm hour examination, and final examination. (Benninghoff)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

252. Comparative Evolutionary Biology of Vertebrates. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

Zoology 252 teaches the comparative method of science, and it is applied to a wide variety of structural and functional characteristics of vertebrate animals. The course begins with a detailed description of the comparative method and several lectures on evolutionary, speciation, and phylogenetic theories. The remaining two-thirds of the course are devoted to examples. This format has prepared pre-professional students in the medical sciences for many years. There are three lectures and one laboratory per week. The laboratory is a practical experience in either the theory developed in lecture or a real life example. A good introductory biology course is the only requirement. There are three lecture examinations and at least one final laboratory examination. Required texts: The Vertebrate Body, Shorter Version, by A.S. Rower and T.S. Parsons, and Comparative Evolutionary Biology of the Vertebrates by Kluge et al. (Kluge)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (NS).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Zoology 421, 422, or 428 - these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. Zoology concentrators must take Zoology 326 concurrently. Non-Zoology concentrators may take Zoology 325 alone. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Doneen, Guthe)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Zool. 325. (1). (NS).

The exercises in laboratory deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. A report on every exercise is required. Most reports are short (two to three pages) and attempt to answer specific questions. Two full-length reports are also required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Zoology 326 must be taken concurrently with Zoology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Zoology 325 will not be admitted to Zoology 326. (Guthe)

422. Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), one year of chemistry, and one year of physics. (3). (NS).

An introduction to neural function, including such topics as comparative neuroanatomy, action potentials, synaptic phenomena, sensory systems, motor output, neurohormonal integration, development, memory, etc. (Oakley)

423. Laboratory in Neurobiology. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 422 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

Development, anatomy and physiology in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems, including examination of various sensory and motor systems. Electrophysiological techniques are routinely employed. (Oakley)

435. Functional Morphology. Zool. 351 and permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This is a course intended to teach students how one performs experiments in functional morphology. The lectures consist of brief reviews of the theory of various technical components to be used in the laboratory. Following this, there is a sequence (1) reviewing research results obtained with the use of these techniques in diverse areas and (2) posing questions that may be answerable in the future. The laboratory is "hands on" and uses professional equipment. It allows students to become familiar with various methods for recording movements, pressures, and electromyograms. Students are then expected to carry out and report on one small project combining various techniques. (Gans)

448. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Introductory biology, upperclass or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

A lecture course initially supplemented by sets of readings on each topic as well as extensive up-to-date bibliographies. The following are the topics which we propose to cover: (1) Overview of amphibians and reptile diversity and adaptive radiation. (2) Classifications, including major controversies. (3) Phylogeny: Molecular clocks and rates of evolution. (4) Speciation, reproductive character displacement and species recognition. (5) Zoogeography of reptiles and amphibians: continental drift and variance zoogeography. (6) Population biology and reproductive strategies, including oviparity, viviparity and unisexuality. (7) Breeding systems and social behavior. (8) Predation and predator avoidance: mimicry and aposematic color and behavior (9) Amphibian metamorphosis and larval adaptation: cannibalism, neoteny and paedomorphosis. (10) Life history evolution. (11) Community ecology: character displacement, character release and competition. (12) Energy flow, thermal biology and dinosaurian physiology. And, (13) Classical examples of structural adaptations. (Kluge)

452. Natural History of Vertebrates. Two laboratory courses in biology. (4). (NS).

The life history, behavior, ecology, morphology, and adaptive radiation of the vertebrates with emphasis on the local fauna. Lectures will cover general characteristics, biology, and distribution of each major group, and in greater depth different topics particularly well illustrated by special groups. Laboratories will cover identification of 200 Michigan species, adaptive radiation in the major groups, behavioral observations, and some experiments. Field trips will emphasize ecological distribution, behavior, and life history. Grades will be based on lecture and laboratory examinations and field notebooks and laboratory reports. Readings from books on reserve. The text will be Orr, R.T., Vertebrate Biology. (Storer)

464. Histology. Zool. 351 or the equivalent. (5). (NS).

In this course students examine the relationship between structure and function on the microscopic level. Tissues, organs and organ systems from selected vertebrates are studied microscopically. The student is introduced to histological techniques and gains practical experience in slide preparation. The course teaches histology and microscopic anatomy of selected animals and is related to courses in comparative anatomy, embryology, and physiology. There are three lectures each week and six hours of laboratory each week divided into two three-hour sessions. Enrollment in lab sections is limited to twelve students per section. A histology textbook and a laboratory manual are used. Each student prepares a modest research project during the term. This involves supplementary readings, preparation of tissues for histological study, a brief written report, and occasionally an oral presentation of observations and results. Two lecture examinations plus the final exam are given. Students must also take two or three practical lab exams and must submit histological drawings for grading. Short quizzes are given at the discretion of the lab instructor. (Loewenthal)

477. Laboratory in Animal Behavior. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 475 or 476; and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

The objective of this laboratory course is to give students first-hand experience with observing animal behavior and in measuring the behavioral effects of experimental treatment of animals. In addition, considerable attention is given to the design of experiments by the students. A variety of animals are used as subjects vertebrate, invertebrate, terrestrial, and fresh-water. A variety of behavior patterns are studied in the experiments, ranging from simple orientation movements to complex social behaviors. About one quarter of the course is devoted to individual research projects which the students design themselves. (Hazlett)

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