Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110(101). Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is designed to give students a general view of the western tradition as it developed in Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire down to the seventeenth century. I assume that many of you will have had no exposure to the evolution of some of our most important traditions like the Christian Church (both as an institution and as a body of doctrines); the capitalist economy; the renaissance and reformation; and the growth of the modern state. I shall examine these various problems in lectures, always giving consideration where appropriate to cultural developments such as art, architecture, and music, and then break the class down into small study groups for discussion. In these sections you will have the opportunity to follow up on the lectures and to work in depth on problems of your own interest. Readings will be in primary sources such as the Bible and in historical analyses such as H. Miskimin The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe. The requirements for the course will be a midterm examination and a final examination. In addition, you will have an opportunity to write three short papers that will be analyzed for content, organization, and style; so that you develop your writing skills as well as your analytic capabilities. (Lindner)

111(102). Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course will deal with Europe since 1700 in broad outline, focusing on large-scale changes in the economy, society and politics. The lectures will not provide basic narrative accounts of each country's history, but will be organized around general themes, making reference to individual countries for illustration. For this reason it is important to follow the course through the assigned text-book and associated readings, as the lectures have to leave a lot of background. The aim of the course is not just to communicate facts, but to deal with general ideas, and to introduce the problems of interpreting historical change or its absence. Assignments: critical review, midterm and final. (Eley)

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 122. (Young)

152(102)/Asian Studies 112. Modern South and Southeast Asia. (4). (SS).

See Asian Studies 112. (Gessick/Murphey)

160(331). United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The history of the American people from their beginnings to the Civil War. Emphasis on the basic principles and problems of this culture. Text and some lectures give the main line of political events; other lectures, readings, and the discussions go into special topics. No background assumed. Continues into History 161, U.S. to 1980. Paper, lesser paper or quiz, final examination. Two lectures, two discussions weekly. Main Text: Blum et. al, The National Experience. Other readings include Gore Vidal's novel Burr, and Thoreau, Walden. (Lockridge)

161(332). United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the U.S. since the end of the Civil War. It aims to familiarize students with what most historians now believe about such episodes as Reconstruction, Immigration, the Darwinian Controversy, Populism, Imperialism, Progressivism, the New Deal, World War Two, the Origins of the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the Vietnam War. Format: Lecture with sections taught by T.A.'s. Evaluation based on: midterm (20%), exercises in section (40%), final exam (40%). Assigned readings likely to include: Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; Hodgson, America in Our Times; Sherwin, A World Destroyed; Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby; Speer, Black Chicago; Livesay, Andrew Carnegie; Steinbeck, In Dubious Battle; and Lippman, Drift and Mastery. (Hollinger)

180, 181(103, 104). Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures. No credit granted for 180 to those who have completed 350; no credit granted for 181 to those who have completed 351. (4 each). (SS).

History 181 is offered Winter Term, 1983.

Section 001 Progress or Decay? Conflicting Ideas on the Development of the Modern World. This course differs from the usual introductory course in two fundamental ways. First, it will not limit itself to a single historical culture but will stress the value of comparison in understanding the experience of many cultures, including our own. Secondly, the course will not follow the "one damned thing after another" approach to history. Rather, it will emphasize the relevance of history as a tool for analyzing pressing contemporary issues. At the outset the course will examine the development of the widespread belief in Western Civilization that humans have progressed during the past three centuries. We will then assess the impact of this belief, and of other basic assumptions, in a variety of critical areas: science and technology; health care; food production; energy use; and population growth. For each of these topics, the course will consider the alternatives posed by non-Western cultures, whose perceptions of these issues can differ fundamentally from our own. Can Western approaches to these issues be appropriate to non-Western societies? What is appropriate to our own? Students will be asked to consider that there is not one history, but many histories; that uncontested fact is of relatively little significance with conflicting interpretations and varying perceptions of the past. There will be three lectures and one discussion section a week. Writing requirements for the term will be three short papers and a final exam. This course is recommended for freshmen and sophomores. (Broomfield)

196, 197. Freshman Seminar. (4 each). (SS).

History 197 is offered Winter, 1983.

This seminar will be concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be placed upon examining the living conditions, way of life and problems of working people and families during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered, however, in part for comparative purposes. The seminar will provide an opportunity to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual historical primary source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people as well as other groups. Secondary studies will also be employed. Instruction will be conducted primarily through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

201(312). Rome. (4). (HU).

A general introduction to Roman history, Republic and Empire, through examination of specific problems and topics. Among the topics scheduled for discussion are the development of Roman self-identity, the Roman Revolution, the significance of the Roman frontier, and pagan-Christian relations. To place these topics in an historical context a general survey text of Roman history should be consulted. In addition, a number of "classics" in translation will be assigned for each problem or topic. Accounting procedures are always negotiable, but it is probable that students will be expected to write a midterm or a term paper and to complete the final exam. (Eadie)

202(112)/RC Soc. Sci. 202. The Twentieth Century: A Global View. (4). (SS).

This course develops themes in the history of the 20th Century designed to provide freshman and sophomores with a solid background to current events. Its perspective is global and its focus is on broad economic and political developments. The purpose is not to offer a cluster of familiar themes, but to develop a systemic historical approach to the dynamic forces that create and transform the modern world system. We will organize the course around three interrelated themes: the mutations of the domestic and international division of labor as expressed in internal social conflict, imperialism, and anti-colonial resistance movements; competing strategies and ideologies for achieving national and international stabilization; and the manifestation of these large interactions in everyday economic and political decisions. And we will pursue these themes through three interrelated arenas of investigation: the international order, seen as a world system; the politics and economic problems of advanced industrial nations; and the third world in its struggle with dependency. This may sound fairly difficult, but we hope to clarify matters by a combination of general historical analysis and good stories. The course requires no previous knowledge. We hope only for your interest and curiosity. Readings will include a number of monographs and a course pack. Two papers, a midterm, and a final will be required. There is a special section in the RC on Fridays for students enrolled in RC/SS 202. (Bright and Geyer)

211(314). Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (4). (SS).

This course will survey Western European society from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries. It is planned as a broad introduction to the period, bringing together evidence from a variety of disciplines. We will turn first to the flowering of medieval culture and society in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, moving from social and economic growth and the new urban centers to the formation of institutions and the growth of royal administrative power. We also will explore artistic and intellectual culture: Gothic art and architecture and currents of thought from school of Chartres to Thomas Aquinas. The second half of the course will treat the waning of medieval society in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. We will look at demographic decline and the plague, and then at their impact on economic and political institutions. The late medieval Church and popular religious movements will be discussed. Again, we will also look at art and at ideas, including the Nominalists, late Gothic and the Renaissance. There will be a short research paper and two exams; the readings include two medieval literary works. (Lansing)

213/MARC 213. The Reformation. (4). (HU).

The Reformation: An introductory history of European society, religion, politics, and intellectual life from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. A textbook will provide the necessary background and provide continuity, but our major emphasis will be on primary sources documents and great literature of the period, including such authors as Erasmus, More, Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, and Montaigne. There are no prerequisites and every effort will be made to explain basic concepts clearly. On the other hand, any background in literature, political theory, religion, or institutional and political history of the medieval or early modern periods should prove helpful. This is a lecture course, but we will devote a considerable amount of time to class discussion of the readings. (Tentler)

217(250). War and Society in the 20th Century: World War II. History 216 recommended. (4). (SS).

Why and how did the Northern Hemisphere spend eight years in enthusiastic slaughter? Does it matter today? What is a "war," how do nations fight them, and what effects do wars have on the people in them? The course covers both war as a process and war as a personal experience. It examines military as well as social and political aspects of the major nations in the several wars between 1937 and 1945 that we now call "WWII." Tuesday's class includes a lecture and films; Thursday's is a lecture followed by an optional discussion period. Quizzes, book reviews, and a final examination are graded. There are no prerequisites. Texts include A.J.P. Taylor, The Second World War, James Jones, WWII; and Gordon Wright, Ordeal of Total War. (Collier)

221. Survey of British History from 1688. (4). (SS).

The development of British politics from oligarchy to liberal democracy to the welfare state; the rise and decline of Britain as a great power and "workshop of the world." (Price)

251(344). Modern China. (4). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. (Feuerwerker)

275(202)/CAAS 231. Survey of Afroamerican History II. (4). (SS).

This course covers the history of Afro-Americans from the Civil War through the civil rights era. It is the second half of a sequence, but courses may be taken separately. The major emphasis of this course is on the successive political, social, economic and ideological transformations of Afro-Americans: from slaves to freedmen, from peasants to proletariat, from down South to "up South," from Booker T. Washington to Marcus Garvey to Malcolm X and Martin Luther King. This is a lecture course with a weekly discussion section. Course requirements will include a midterm, a 10-15 page term paper and a final exam. (Wilson)

280, 281(203, 204). Comparative Study in History and Culture. (4 each). (SS).

History 281 is offered Winter Term, 1983.

Economics and Culture. One of the underlying models of the human sciences is the conception of society as an aggregate of self-seeking individuals. Mandeville scandalized Europe in his provocative formulation of this idea, The Fable of the Bees (1714). But it soon became respectable through the writings of the classical economists, and has since spread its influence throughout the social sciences, well beyond the bounds of economics as such. This economic or "economistic" model of society, however, has not gone unchallenged. Opposed to it is the idea of culture: a set of thought-categories, values and norms existing independently of the individual, and imposed upon him or her by the environing society. This course will examine the growth of the human sciences in the 18th and 19th centuries, including economics, demography, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the light of the two conceptions of society, conceptions which are very much with us today. Our ultimate purpose will be to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each. This is a lecture course, primarily intended for sophomores. There is no prerequisite. (Trautmann)

284(261). Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (4). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. This course will study a variety of historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision-making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Indians, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. The readings will focus on the English-speaking world since 1492, although comparisons with other societies will be introduced.

This course is a basic introduction. No background in medicine or history is assumed or required. Classes will be taught in lecture format, using a variety of audio and visual source materials. Reading assignments will emphasize primary source documents, such as old newspapers, magazines, and vintage medical journals. Modern historical articles will also be assigned. There will be a midterm and final exam, and periodic short quizzes. (Pernick)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

333(392)/Econ. 396/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Simkus)

351. Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures II. Permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 181. (4). (SS).
Progress or Decay? Conflicting Ideas on the Development of the Modern World.
This course, taught in conjunction with History 181, differs from the usual history course in two fundamental ways. First, it will not limit itself to a single historical culture but will stress the value of comparison in understanding the experience of many cultures, including our own. Secondly, the course will not follow the "one damned thing after another" approach to history. Rather, it will emphasize the relevance of history as a tool for analyzing pressing contemporary issues. At the outset the course will examine the development of the widespread belief in Western Civilization that humans have progressed during the past three centuries. We will then assess the impact of this belief, and of other basic assumptions, in a variety of critical areas: science and technology; health care; food production; energy use; and population growth. For each of these topics, the course will consider the alternatives posed by non-Western cultures, whose perceptions of these issues can differ fundamentally from our own. Can Western approaches to these issues be appropriate to non-Western societies? What is appropriate to our own? Students will be asked to consider that there is not one history, but many histories; that uncontested fact is of relatively little significance compared with conflicting interpretations and varying perceptions of the past. There will be three lectures a week. Writing requirements will consist of three short term papers and a final exam. This course is recommended for juniors and seniors. (Broomfield).

371(288)/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History. (4). (SS).

History 371 is a survey of women's varied experience in America from the 18th century to the present. We will explore changes in women's legal, political, and social status; changes in family life; the development of women's education; the changing nature of women's work; the meaning of religion in the lives of American women; and the impact of feminism on American culture. Insofar as humanly possible, we will deal with a variety of female experience: the lives of Black women as well as white women, of frontier women as well as women in cities, of immigrant and working-class women as well as women in the middle class. There will be two lectures per week and one discussion section. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two papers (on the course reading), a midterm examination and a final examination, as well as participation in class discussion. There is no single text, but a variety of readings designed to introduce students to various topics in and approaches to women's history (for example, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Frontier Women; Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left), to stimulate thoughtful discussion of the historical roots of current feminist issues (for example, James Mohr, Abortion in America: The Evolution of a Social Policy), and to allow women to speak for themselves (for example, Maxine Hong Kingston, The Woman Warrior, the autobiography of a Chinese-American). There are no prerequisites. (Tentler)

384(470). Modern Jewish History 1880-1948. (4). (SS).

The course centers on a number of themes: Jewish responses to developments in late nineteenth-century Europe and Russia including socialism, migration, and Zionism; the impact of twentieth-century European culture on Jewish thought; the rise of modern anti-Semitism and its culmination in the Holocaust; the decline of Jewish settlement in Europe, Russia, and North Africa and the creation of new Jewish centers in the United States and Israel. The readings will be drawn from books and articles. There will be two exams and a comprehensive take-home final. (Weinberg)

388. Socialism and Nationalism. (4). (HU).

Lectures, readings and discussions on Socialism and Nationalism as competing conceptions of history, society and politics, and on their interaction and impact from the early 19th century to the present. Socialist and nationalist ideologies and movements will be examined against the background of general history of Europe and the changes in its economy and culture. Readings (in whole or in part) will include Talmon, Romanticism and Revolt, 1815-1848; Cohen, Communism, Fascism and Democracy; Wilson, To the Finland Station; McLellan, Marxism after Marx; Seton-Watson, Nations and States; Smith, Nationalism in the 20th Century; Berlin, Against the Current; and Carrere d'Encausse, Decline of an Empire. For general historical background and context, consult Rich, The Age of Nationalism and Reform, 1850-1890, and Gilbert, The End of the European Era, 1890 to the Present. All these books will be on reserve but some of them are important enough to be purchased. There will be a midterm examination in class. For the final there will be a choice: either one short paper (8-10 pages) and a take-home exam or one long paper (15-29 pages). (Szporluk)

391. Topics in European History. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

Lectures, discussions and readings on the diplomatic history of modern Europe, with special reference to Eastern Europe during and after World War II. (Dedijer)

396, 397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
History 396.

Section 001 Japan in World War II. This course will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the Missouri in 1945. We will examine different aspects of the war through two texts offering strikingly different interpretations: John Toland's The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945 (Random House, 1974) and Ienaga Saburo's The Pacific War: World War II and the Japanese, 1931-1945 (Pantheon, 1978). Classes will be devoted to specific themes based on assigned readings and the presentation of oral reports on designated topics. Students will be evaluated on their contributions to discussions and their oral reports, but special weight will be given to four progressively longer written reports (the longest being ten to fifteen typewritten pages). (Hackett)

Section 002 The People of the Old South. In this course students will be invited to use first-person accounts - letters, journals, autobiographies, narratives, travel accounts - in order to draw a picture of life in the Old South as experienced by some of its people: masters, slaves, free Blacks, and non-slaveholding whites. Some college-level background in American history would be useful, though not essential. The course will be taught largely through discussion. Students will be asked to write two short (5-page) papers and a somewhat longer final paper. Readings will include: R.M. Myers, Children of Pride; F.L. Olmsted, A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States; F. Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom; J. Blassingame, Slave Testimony; M.B. Chesnut, A Diary from Dixie. (Fields)

Section 003 Early Modern Intellectual Topics. As a modest commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the birth of Martin Luther (1483-1546), this section of History 396 will be devoted to Luther and the Lutheran reformation of the 16th century. The reading will be divided into three sections of roughly equal length: biographies of Luther; the writings of the reformer; and interpretations of his work and significance. There are no prerequisites and no special background is expected. There will be several short papers, all of which will be based on weekly assigned readings. These essays will be the principal basis for grading, although participation in weekly discussions will also affect the final grade. (Tentler)

Section 004 The Medieval City. One of the classic problems in European history is the nature of the medieval city. What stimulated the revival of towns in the eleventh century? How did the relationship between city and countryside develop: were the cities a refuge from exploitation, non-feudal islands in a feudal sea, or was urban growth pushed by landed interests? Recent scholarship also has looked closely at the forces structuring social and political relations within the cities, and the impact of urban life on medieval culture and religious experience. Readings will combine theorists on the nature of the medieval city with local studies. We will move from studies of the changing physical design of the cities to works on urban social and economic growth and the formation of the guilds. Current research on the relationship between city politics and social structures, particularly networks of neighborhood, kinship and patronage ties, and recent quantitative studies of fourteenth century urban violence, will be explored. Finally, we will look at contemporary expressions of the nature of civic life in literary works and the visual arts. Students will write three papers of approximately ten pages. (Lansing)

History 397.

Section 001 Perspectives on the Indochina War. It is still difficult to think about the Vietnam war without deep feeling of one sort or another. Nevertheless, in this course we shall try to step back and look at that conflict as a problem in the historiography, to try to trace its roots and to assess its meaning in the context of Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Lao history as well as of American history. Our reading will include memoirs by Lao, Cambodians, Vietnamese, French, and Americans, as well as scholarly background material, journalistic accounts, and collections of documents. Poems, novels, and films may also be included in the material considered. As a starting point for thinking about the Indochina war(s) as a historiographical problem, prospective students might wish to read E.H. Carr, What is History? (Penguin paperback). Course requirements will include written commentaries (not necessarily typed) on all the reading as well as one longer paper, which may be either an interpretive essay or a research paper. (Gesick)

Section 002 American Religion Since the Late Nineteenth Century. History 397 (section 002) is a colloquium dealing with the rise of a distinctively liberal variant of mainline Protestantism in the late 19th century and in the fundamentalist response to liberalism (we will read in William Hutchison's The Modernist Impulse in American Protestantism and read George Marsden's Fundamentalism in American Culture, with neo-orthodox theologians like the Niebuhrs (we will read Reinhold Neibuhr's Beyond Tragedy), and with Protestantism as it is variously expressed as non-denominational popular religion (we will read two religious 'best-sellers', one from the 1890's, and one from the 1920's). We will examine immigrant Catholicism and the experience of the 'Catholic ghetto' before the Second World War, the changing nature of the American Catholic population in the 20th century and the many changes taking place in the American Catholic Church since the Second Vatican Council (among other things we will read Thomas Merton's The Seven-Story Mountain and Garry Wills' Bare Ruined Choirs. We will read and discuss Abraham Cahan's The Rise of David Levinsky as a basis for exploring the impact of Eastern European immigration on American Judaism. Students will be evaluated on the basis of three papers (on the course reading) and on participation in class discussion. There are no prerequisites. (Tentler)

Section 003 Beginning of Industrialization. This course will focus on the period 1890-1925, the time when the industrial base of the state of Michigan was formed. Students in the course will work with original documents of the period housed in the Bentley Historical Library on North Campus. The purpose of the course is to explore the role of institutions and individuals in the shaping of the new industrial base and to assess the economic, political and social consequences of this change. This course is an undergraduate research seminar. Class meets once a week for discussion. Some reading required during the first five weeks. Major focus will be a paper based on research in historical documents, no exams. Grade based on paper and participation in discussion. (Blouin)

Section 004 American Institutions and the Development of the Family. This course will investigate the relationship between changes within institutions such as schools, churches, and factories and their impact on the lives of individuals and their families. Everyone will read and discuss Carl Degler, At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present, Stephen Thernstrom, Poverty and Progress, Glenda Riley, Frontierswomen, and Janet Wilson James, Women in American Religion. The emphasis in the course will be on writing an original research paper on some topic exploring the interaction of American institutions and the family using both primary and secondary sources. The course will meet on Thursdays from 4-6 p.m. and enrollment will be limited to 15 students. (Vinovskis)

Section 005 The Eagle and the Cross: Christianity in the Roman Empire. This colloquium will examine pagan and Christian beliefs/practices that shaped and defined the conflict between Christianity and the Roman state. The students will be expected to participate in the regular discussion sections and to prepare two small-scale research papers (roughly 10 pages in length). Some familiarity with Roman history is desirable but not required. (Eadie)

Section 006 "Modernization" and Westernization: Western Pressures and Asian Responses in the Making of Modern Asia, 1800-1980. This is primarily a reading and discussion course; we will read a series of basic books (and some more specialized pieces) dealing with the topic and discuss them in weekly 2-hour class sessions. Four shortish (5 pp.) essays are required (longer papers may be arranged in special cases if preferred) in place of an examination. We will deal both sequentially and, as the term progresses, comparatively, with the "modernization"-Westernization theme in India, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan (plus Korea if time and interest permit). We will try to define and to distinguish between "modernization" and Westernization, in the context of the development of each major Asian area under the impact of imperialist and other pressures, as outsiders confronted the separate indigenous Asian systems, each with its own circumstance and momentum. Finally we will try to assess the relative roles of these various elements in the emergence of modern Asia from the perspective of the present. Some use, as further perspective, may be made also of short pieces of modern Asian fiction. (Murphey)

Section 007 American Revolution War, 1775-1783. This colloquium will concentrate on the idea that the American Revolution was, to a considerable extent, the result of a long, difficult military struggle. The focus is on the impact of the war. Introductory reading during the first few weeks will include not only standard military histories (Howard Peckham, Don Higginbotham, and Piers Mackesy) but also broader, deeper studies of the effects of the war on American society (Robert Gross, The Minutemen and Their World; Charles Royster, A Revolutionary People at War; Adrian Lieby, The Hackensack Valley in the Revolution; William Nelson, The American Tory; Richard Buel, Dear Liberty). The main work of the colloquium will be individual, independent research papers based on some of the vast amount of published, microfilm, and manuscript source material available in the Graduate Library and William L. Clements Library. (Shy)

398(393). Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. (4). (SS).

This course is required of juniors who are members of the History Department's Honors Program. It is not available for general enrollment. (Herrup and McDonald)

401(412). Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest. (4). (HU).

During the Hellenistic period the Greeks dominated the Near East. Culturally the interaction between the two cultures produced an urbane, cosmopolitan civilization which the Romans inherited and passed on to the modern world; this was also the seedbed of Christianity. Politically the era may be called one of colonial imperialism, in which the natives eventually reacted against external domination. No prior preparation is required; grades depend equally on an hour exam, research paper, and an examination. There is a textbook, and also reading in Plutarch's lives; lectures and discussions are the method of instruction. (Starr)

406(403)/GNE 465. History of Ancient Israel. Junior or senior standing, or Honors students. (3). (HU).

See Near Eastern Studies: GNE 465. (Mendenhall)

433(502). Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

This course will cover the history of Tsarist Russia from Peter the Great to the Revolution of 1917, with emphasis on the formation of the imperial autocracy and bureaucracy, the evolution of the service nobility, the formation of the intelligentsia, and the situation of the peasantry. The lectures will deal with the oppositional and revolutionary movements, the development of capitalist industry, and the final crisis of 1905-1917. Readings will include works by Marc Raeff, Leopold Haimson, and contemporary Russian writers and thinkers (Turgenev, Lenin, etc.). One or two examinations and a final paper are required for completion of the course. (Suny)

443(534)/GNE 474. Modern Near East History. (4). (SS).

The course deals with the impact of the West on the Islamic Near East in the 19th and 20th centuries. Concentration is on the "modernization" of the Ottoman Empire and Republican Turkey and Egypt; the rise of Arab and Zionist nationalisms and the subsequent Arab-Israeli dispute; inter-Arab politics and rivalries as expressed in regional ideological diversity and conflict; and regional and international strategies of the local actors and the Great Powers as regard "security," defense and energy. The course requires one final exam, usually "take-home," and a comparative book review. Readings related to the lectures hopefully will lead to periodic class discussions. (Mitchell)

444. Inner Asia, Russia, and China. (4). (SS).

The course will focus on two topics: the great nomadic enterprises of the Eurasian past and the contest for Inner Asia waged among religions and great powers in modern times. Topics for discussion will include: the successes and failures of nomadism, Buddhism and demography in Asia, the frontier expansion of Russia and China, Muslim reform and rebellions, western attempts to gain a foothold in Asia, border tensions between Russia and China, and the minority problem in modern Asia. Readings will include translated sources, ethnographic accounts, travelers' commentaries, and modern studies. There are no prerequisites for this course; requirements consist of two hour examinations as well as the final. (Lindner)

451(548). Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Texts for the course are Edwin O. Reischauer and Albert M. Craig, Japan: Tradition and Transformation, (Houghton Mifflin, 1978), and David J. Lu's Sources of Japanese History, vol. 2 (McGraw-Hill, 1974). (Hackett)

453(550). Modern Southeast Asian History. (4). (SS).

It is rarely remembered that when Columbus discovered America he was looking for Southeast Asia. Although he failed to find it, other adventurers from the Iberian kingdoms were more successful. With their advent began, at first almost imperceptibly, a new age in Southeast Asian history, an age in which traditional Southeast Asian rulers increasingly had to consider the "European factor" in their plans. By the late 19th century most of the traditional Southeast Asian kingdoms would lose their independence to the European colonial powers, while their societies and economies would undergo profound dislocations as a result of colonial policies and practices, leading eventually to the growth of nationalism and the birth of new states in the twentieth century. This course will trace these developments from the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, and students will be encouraged to consider their meaning both in the particular context of Southeast Asian history and in the more general comparative context of modern world history. Requirements will include a 10-12 page research paper, one or more short book reviews, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites for this course. (Gesick)

455(589). Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (4). (HU).

The aim of this course is to examine the nature of Indian civilization in its classical form. We will study its social and political institutions, its value systems and religions, trying to see their interconnectedness, so far as the evidence allows. Toward the end of the course we will study the first major encounter between Indian and Islamic civilization, brought about by the Turkish conquest of North India. This is an introductory lecture course, which presumes no prior background in Indian history. Short papers, a midterm, and a final exam will be required. (Trautmann)

458(590). Twentieth-Century India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. (4). (SS).

The history of 20th-century India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh covers British rule and the subsequent struggle to end colonialism. By using a cross-disciplinary method, the course emphasizes such topics as the philosophy of British rule and the Indian challenge to it; British attempts to stabilize the system and the effects of World War I. The emergence of counter-elites, nationalist re-organization, and the development of agitational techniques forced the British into constitutional concessions. Communal politics, and impact of the economic depression of the early 1930's, and of World War II receive careful attention. The partition of India, building of the constitutions, economic planning, and the politics of independent India and Pakistan, their conflicts, and the revolution and independence movement in Bangladesh round out the topics. There will be a combination of lectures and seminar discussions. The method of testing to be used (e.g., term paper or final exam) will be decided in discussion with students. (Broomfield)

464(559). The Ordeal of the Union, 1840-1877. (4). (SS).

This course deals primarily with the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of antebellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It explores the sense in which social and economic conflicts in America come to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. The last three weeks of the course deal with the reconstruction episode, in an effort to show how the failure of this experiment was dictated by the assumptions which had produced the War. There will be a midterm examination, a paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. (Thornton)

467(563). The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

The course provides a comprehensive view of American history and of life in America from the Great Depression to the present day. Among the subjects treated are the New Deal; World War II; the Cold War; McCarthy and McCarthyism; the Fair Deal; the New Frontier; the Great Society; the turbulence of the 1960's (the Black revolt and Black power, the counterculture and youth revolt, new feminism and women's liberation); and Nixon and the Watergate affair. Several paperbacks are assigned for the course, but no textbook is used. There is a midterm and a final examination in the course, and a paper is required. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

487(484)/Engl. 416. Women in Victorian England. (4). (HU).

See English 416. (Vicinus)

489(468). Catholic Church in Modern European History. (4). (SS).

From the French Revolution to the present, Catholicism has had a central part in many of the major ideologies, cultural movements, and political conflicts in European society. At the same time the Church has become more centralized, won new and lost old supporters, fought strong attacks on every front, and altered in its connection to society and contemporary issues. This course uses France as its starting point for studying the role of Catholicism in each of the major European countries from 1815 to the present and emphasizing its relation to social change, nationalism and revolution, imperialism, anticlericalism, fascism, political parties, and the European Community. Attention will also be given to popular devotions, changes in Church organization, the recruitment of priests and bishops, and the place of religious orders. The class meetings will consist primarily of lectures and discussion; there will also be student reports and debates, one term paper, and a final examination. (Grew)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491. (Whatley)

511(514). England Under the Stuarts. (4). (SS).

The Stuart Age (1603-1714) has been considered an "age of revolution" for England not only in political, but also in social, religious and economic life. This course will investigate the validity of that characterization through a critical analysis of the events that transformed the England of Shakespeare into the Britain of Defoe. Among the topics to be studied: the nature of the three English revolutions (1640-60, 1688, the scientific revolution); the rise and decline of puritanism and religious radicalism; the birth of the political press and political parties; the growth of England into Britain; Britain into an empire and the integration of Britain into Europe. The course combines lectures and discussions. Readings include both contemporary (Hobbes, Locke, Defoe, Clarendon) and more modern works. There will be a midterm, several short historiographic essays, and a final examination. (Herrup)

516(425). History of Ireland to 1603. (4). (HU).

This course will trace the history of Ireland from the earliest historical point (establishment in Ireland of the Gaelic Celts around the beginning of the Christian Era) to the final defeat of Gaelic lords rebelling against the Tudor rule, in 1603. (McNamara)

520(487). Germany, 1740-1870. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on Germany, 1700 through 1871. It is organized in four parts: (1) the Enlightenment, (2) the Napoleonic Wars, (3) Restoration and Reaction, and (4) the Founding of Empire. There is no prerequisite as such but a basic familiarity with German culture is assumed. Students from disciplines other than history (especially literature, art history, economics, and political science) are welcome. In each bloc, particular attention will be given to artistic and cultural developments as well as to social, economic, and political changes. A term paper, midterm examination, and final examination are required in the course. (Vann)

523(482). France, 1661-1789. (4). (SS).

A study of the French Old Regime and the causes of the great revolution of the modern era. The course undertakes a selective examination through lectures of certain problems and themes - the feudal background, state-building and its social consequences, the corporatist society, the aristocratic resurgence or reaction, the Enlightenment, and the meaning and limits of reform. In these lectures several questions are posed: what did the revolution change? why did large-scale revolution take place in France rather than elsewhere in Europe? why did revolution come when it did? in what senses was revolution inevitable? accidental? Comprehensive coverage and narrative treatment of the period are obtained through the readings. These include Tocqueville, Old Regime and Revolution; Pierre Goubert, Louis XIV and the Twenty Million Frenchmen; Alfred Cobban, A History of Modern France; Georges Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution; R.R. Palmer, The Bourgeoisie in Eighteenth-Century France; and various other brief selections and articles. Parts of Descartes, Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau are read. There is an hour exam, a final exam, and one essay of 8 or 10 pages on a topic and problem to be arranged consistent with the student's particular interest. (Bien)

550(546). Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (4). (HU).

This is a systematic analysis of state, society, men, and ideas in Imperial China from 221 B.C. to the end of the 18th century. Each dynasty or period is examined by its characteristic development and unique features. The following topics are to be covered: 1) the concept and structure of empire; 2) soldiers, diplomacy, and war; 3) society, cities, and literature; 4) barbarian challenge, economic development, and social change; 5) state, society, and culture in early modern China. The course is open to all undergraduates and graduates. (Chang)

560(575). Social History of the United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course is a survey of major developments in American social history up to 1860 based on lectures, class discussions, and secondary readings. Topics such as patterns of settlement, family life, economic development, education, religion, women, and old age will be covered. Among the readings will be Fischer, Growing Old in America, Stannard, The Puritan Way of Death, Boyer and Nissenbaum, Salem Possessed, Katz, The Irony of Early School Reform, Thernstrom, Poverty and Progress, Rubenstein and Ziewcz, Michigan, and Berkin and Norton, Women of America. The emphasis in this course is on a careful reading of the assigned material and participation in class discussions. There will be a midterm and a final examination. This course is open to CEW students. (Vinovskis)

562(571). History of Ideas in America: Puritanism to Romanticism, 1620-1865. (4). (HU).

The course will examine structures of social, political, and, most importantly, religious thought in America from the English settlement to the "American Renaissance." We will begin with a study of Puritanism, the often maligned word that historians use to designate the "mind" of seventeenth-century America. We will seek understandings of this mind, and we will ask whether Puritanism (a set of beliefs? a way of acting?) influenced the behavior of ordinary men and women. We will then look at the transformations of Puritanism, that is, at the ways in which an idea of religious experience changed when it reached the hands of men and women in eighteenth and early nineteenth-century America, "intellectuals" who revolted against the religious beliefs of their ancestors and yet who used those beliefs to understand the new social and economic environments in which they believed they were living. The course will begin with Puritan authors such as John Winthrop, Ann Hutchinson, and Cotton Mather, and it will end with Emerson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, and Fuller. The course will look at the intellectual surroundings of events such as the antinomian controversy, Salem witchcraft, the Great Awakening, the Revolution, and then finally, the American Renaissance. The course will bring American thought to the point of its becoming, by the middle of the nineteenth-century, a secular way of thinking, and yet a way not so secular after all. (King)

572(577)/Amer. Cult. 533/CAAS 533. Black Civil Rights from 1900. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican Studies 533. (Cruse)

580. Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England. (4). (SS).

This course is a constitutional history of the formative period of the English state and of Anglo-American common law; primarily from 1066 to 1399. It deals selectively with all aspects of that society to explain its cohesion and the way in which it developed, to analyze the distribution of power and the definition and enforcement of rights. The main themes are the nature of kingship and of royal authority, the contribution of "feudalism," the role of the common law in the growth of the English state, the relationship between legal and social change, parliament (internally to examine its structure; externally, to analyze its relationship to society), and the establishment of the borders between royal authority. Particular attention will be given to the Norman Conquest, Henry II and Thomas Beckett, Henry II and the common law, Magna Carta, Edward I, and the deposition of Richard II. Grades will be based on one paper and a final examination. Classes will be lectures; participation is absolutely required, although not a factor in grading. No prerequisites. (Palmer)

591. Topics in European History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

Studies in the writing of history and in philosophy of history focusing on the classical issues of the role of "great individuals" in relation to society. (Dedijer)

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