Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

An introduction to the study of politics through the close reading of selected great philosophical works. The theme of the course is democratic government, which will be studied through the arguments made for and against it by various political philosophers. The course will focus on a comparison between Athenian democracy (as analyzed by Aristotle) and American democracy (as analyzed by Tocqueville). Other readings will be drawn from Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, The Federalist, Rousseau, and Marx. There are two lectures and two hours of section meeting per week. Two papers will be assigned by the section leaders, and two course-wide examinations (one midterm and one final) will be administered. This course can serve as one of the prerequisites for taking upper division courses in Political Science. (Schwartz)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States which explores a wide range of topics including elections, interest groups, the presidency, Congress, and the courts. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? How do members of Congress decide how to vote? This is not a comprehensive list but suggests the kind of issues that are discussed in this course. There are two lectures and two discussion section meetings each week. There is generally a midterm, a final examination, and some other written work. (Kingdon)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several political systems outside the United States operate and to familiarize them with concepts that they can employ for analyzing still other political systems. The British, French, Russian, and Chinese political systems will be studied. Each country will be discussed individually in order to ensure that students understand how each operates as a separate entity, but the course will be cumulatively comparative. Analytic concepts providing systematic ways of looking at politics will be introduced as they apply and employed for comparative purposes as the course progresses. Particular attention will be given to such topics as the social and economic forces that affect political life; political competition and leadership succession; parties and party systems; political institutions; mass-elite relationships; and contemporary political problems. The course format includes lectures and discussion sections. There will be a midterm and a final examination, as well as two papers assigned in the sections. (Pierce and Oksenberg)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

The primary purpose of this beginning course is to expose the student to the core questions that should be asked at any beginning of the study of international politics. Who are the major actors in international affairs? What kind of order exists in relations among nations? What mechanisms exist for change? What regularities exist in the behavior of actors toward one another that give shape and direction to the system? We shall try to get at some of the questions raised by using three of the major approaches students in the field utilize to select the behaviors they wish to study. One approach is to study the process of decision-making in foreign policy. Another approach is to study the effects that differences in national growth have on the politics among nations. A third way is to study the way the international system constrains the actions of individuals and groups. The major elements of the course are contained in four sets of lectures. (1) The decision-making approach; (2) effects of national growth on international politics; (3) problems and consequences of different types of international systems; (4) global trends in contemporary world politics including such topics as imperialism, neocolonialism, international economics and interdependence, developed-developing world relations, international organizations, and the limits to growth. There will be one, possibly two, exams during the term, plus a final. Other requirements may include a 12-15 page essay and such additional assignments as may be made by individual section leaders. (Organski)

185. Introduction to Modeling Political Processes. (4). (SS).

An introduction to modeling social science phenomena: the course emphasizes the development of modeling skills, including the ability to abstract from reality in the construction of models, the manipulation of models, and the evaluation of models. A general introduction to modeling is followed by a discussion of five mathematical models frequently used by social scientists. These are rational choice models, game theory models, exchange models, adaptation models, and transition models. The course emphasizes working with models rather than reading about them. It is hoped that students will develop analytical skills which will improve the quality of their subsequent work in political science. The primary readings will be: Charles Lave and James March, An Introduction to Models in the Social Sciences and H. Hamburger, Games as Models of Social Phenomena. There will be two lecture-discussion meetings of one and one half hours each week. A weekly problem set worked on in groups of three students is required. There will also be a midterm and final. (Cohen)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.
Black Liberation.
This course focuses on events and situations in the Afro-American's quest for freedom and self-determination within the confines of the United States. Emphasis will be placed on empirical and theoretical studies of Black movements and leadership both within and outside the purview of the electoral system. Major themes include: the socio-economic conditions of Afro-America, leadership, organizations and movements, the electoral response, the violent response, the conditions for liberation and the psychology of liberation. Midterm, final and paper. (Williams)

359/CAAS 351. The Struggle for Southern Africa. Lectures: 2 credits; lectures and discussion: 4 credits. (SS).

This course has been designed with two major goals: to enable students to develop an understanding of conflict in southern Africa (the setting for conflict, the structure of inequality, the pressure for change), and to help students develop skills of analysis and criticism useful generally in the study of social issues. The course will be concerned with inequality and the struggle for power in southern Africa; the geographic frame of reference will include Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), as well as the Republic of South Africa. (Wilson)

361. Current Issues in World Politics. (2). (SS).

This course is an overview of contemporary leading issues in world politics. Each week a different faculty member will lecture on his area of study. Some of the lectures will be on particular geographical areas of the world or countries, and others will be on such substantive areas as population, political development, and arms control.

396/Econ. 396/REES 396/Slavic 396/Hist. 333/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Simkus)

400. Introduction to Political Analysis. Upperclass standing; for concentrators who do not have two courses in political science at the 100-level or their equivalent. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to introduce students to the dominant tendencies within the field of Political Science. Our specific focus will be with the normative and empirical approaches to political inquiry. Extensive consideration will be given to the major tenets, assumptions and working tools of each of these approaches in order to elucidate their strengths and limitations with respect to analysing political phenomena; thus we will deal both with epistemological and methodological issues concerning the route to political knowledge. By undertaking such an in-depth study of these two modes of political analysis, hopefully students will gain a critical awareness of the problems involved in attempting to make sense of the disparate phenomena which constitute political reality, and the major controversies within the discipline concerning the way in which the political world should be viewed and studied. (Terrelonge)

403. Development of Political Thought: Modern and Recent. Political Science 402 or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

We will focus on the major works of political philosophy from the seventeenth century to the end of the nineteenth century. In the process we will be concerned with the theoretical foundations of liberalism (the political philosophy which focuses on individual rights and equality within the political structure), its transformation over three centuries, and the critiques which have been offered of it by such authors as Marx and Nietzsche. We will read only the primary texts. Among the authors who will be discussed are Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Tocqueville, Mill, Marx and Nietzsche. This course is a continuation of Political Science 402; although this and/or other courses in political theory would be helpful, they are not required. There will be two brief papers, a midterm and a final examination. (Saxonhouse)

408. Communist Political Thought: From Marx to the Present. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to Marxism and its development from Hegel to contemporary schools. Emphasis is placed on a thorough exploration of the basic ideas and concepts presented in the writings of Engels and Marx as well as on unresolved questions and contradictions in the Marxist heritage. Readings include extensive assignments from the writings of Marx, Engels, and Bolshevism. Each student is expected to write a major paper on a pertinent topic of the student's choice. The class format is a lecture/discussion combination. (Meyer)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the roles of the President, Congress, the federal bureaucracy, and interest groups in formulating and implementing governmental policy. Though some attention will be devoted to case studies focusing on particular policy areas, emphasis will be given to examining policy processes in general. By way of example, we will look at the great variation in management styles among modern Presidents with the aim of assessing the impact that these different styles have had in shaping policy. Similarly, we will attempt to determine how changes in the political and institutional environment of Congress have affected its role in policy making. Other topics that we will explore include: legislative and executive control of the bureaucracy; the development of the Civil Service system and its impact on policy processes; the roles and characteristics of career and non-career federal executives; executive branch organization and the impact that institutional components such as the National Security Council and the Office of Management and Budget have in shaping policy, etc. Illustrations and concepts will be drawn from a fairly broad spectrum of literature and will include examples from both foreign and domestic policy. (Henderson)

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

The primary purpose of this course is to provide an understanding of the processes by which citizen demands are translated into decision making at the elite political level. The course objectives are to: (1) develop an understanding of how the electoral system actually works with particular emphasis on the behavior of the individual voter; (2) examine the electoral behavior theory and current disputes concerning this theory; (3) explore the causes and consequences of recent increases in political alienation; (4) consider the political impact of contemporary social group conflicts; (5) analyze the implications of electoral behavior research on normative political theory; (6) explore the roles of elections and nonsystematic behavior in affecting governmental policy; and (7) present the methods used for social science research, particularly survey research, table reading, and simple data analysis. Course requirements include a midterm examination (in class), a term paper, and an optional final examination. The term paper involves an analysis of national survey data from the 1982 congressional election. These data permit students to explain and understand the outcome of elections. (A. Miller)

414. The Politics of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the law of civil rights and liberties as it is derived from American constitutional interpretation. Attention will be devoted to (a) theories of civil liberty appropriate to a liberal democracy, with (b) application of such theories to specific areas of civil rights law drawn from the following: freedom of expression, political participation, and religion; equal protection and rights of minorities; rights of the accused; privacy, "life-style" issues, and control of personal information; as well as issues like access to the news media and private abridgment of freedoms. Students will find it helpful to have taken Political Science 413: American Constitutional Politics. Requirements : one short paper, a paper of medium length (as part of a moot court), and a final examination. Grading is tough. Texts : one casebook and two or three paperbacks. Instructional method : mixture of lecture and discussion. (Harris)

415. The American Chief Executive. Pol. Sci. 111, 410, or 411; or junior standing. (4). (SS).

This junior-senior level course is a broad survey of the presidency as an institution and as a basic component in the American political system. Lectures, discussions, assigned readings, and independent research are parts of the course plan. There are two one-hour examinations and a final examination, with a term paper as an option for one of the hourly tests. Course topics include constitutional development and interpretation; selecting, installing and motivating the presidency; the functions of the Executive Office of the President; the administration/bureaucracy and the presidency; the formulation of economic policy; and external affairs and the presidency. To encourage individual research and contribution in this four credit course, each student will be asked to select a twentieth century president for special study and discussion. (Grassmuck)

416/Univ. Course 462. Governing the Bureaucracy in the United States. Poli. Sci. 111, junior standing, and permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See University Course 462. (Aberbach)

418. Women and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is about the political participation of women and its effect on American political life. Besides examining the structural and social barriers to women's political participation, we will also focus on the role of feminist ideology and its effect on the structure of the women's movement. What is "feminist ideology?" How has that ideology reflected itself in the structure of women's political organizations, their political strategies, and the issues that these organizations are concerned with? Besides looking at the effect of feminist ideology on the women's movement, we will also be looking at the effect of that ideology on American politics. The existence of this ideology has redefined issues previously thought of as "non-political" into political issues. What has brought this about? What kinds of policies have emerged in the face of this change? Class participants will be evaluated on the basis of two short papers, a major research paper, and class participation. (Kosaki)

420/Comm. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Pol. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to expose students to the way the news is made and the consequences for the operation of the political system. The central theme will be shifting roles of the media as objective reporter of events and as public agenda setter. Particular emphasis will be devoted to the importance of the media in electoral politics including the effects of the media on the electorate, the use of advertising in political campaigns and changing patterns of media use and exposure. In addition to readings and lectures, guest presentations will be made by leading journalists and political figures. There will be a midterm and a final examination, as well as a term paper involving independent research. (Traugott and Porter)

428/Phil. 428/Econ. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass or graduate standing. (4). (SS).
China's Evolution Under Communism
is the university's introductory interdisciplinary course on contemporary China. Although it gives credit toward majors in philosophy, economics, Asian studies, sociology, and political science, the course also is aimed at undergraduates in the sciences, engineering, business administration, education, and so on. The emergence of China as a major factor in world affairs increasingly affects our country. What are the implications of China's rise, both for the Chinese people and for us? That is the central question of this course. To answer it, we will explore China's historical background, its cultural traditions, the beliefs of its leaders, its economic and political systems, the social conditions of its people, and its foreign policy. Guest lecturers will come from UM's distinguished faculty of China specialists. Grades will be based on an hour exam, book report, final exam, and optional paper. Required books will include John Fairbank, The United States and China and James Townsend, The Politics of China. (Oksenberg)

431. Public Administration. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The intent of this course is to describe and explain the workings of public bureaucracies and the political environment in which they operate. The course will concentrate on the national government. Among the topics to be covered are: organizational goal formation; control and coordination; choosing an organizational structure; information gathering and organizational learning; strategies for maintaining reliable performance; the role of Congress and interest groups in the workings of the federal agencies; organizational decision-making; planning, evaluation, and analysis; the role of technology and expertise; and alternatives to bureaucracies. The weekly reading varies but averages about 200 pages. There will be several papers and a final examination. (Walker)

434. Government and Public Policy. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the relationship between the state and public policy. The first part of the course will consider various theories about the role of the state in American society, and the relationship between state processes and public policy. The second half of the course will look at four areas of public policy: welfare, immigration, racial, and family policy. We will focus on recent policies which have been enacted in these four areas through analysis of legal statutes and judicial decisions. Four questions will undergird our analysis: (1) Is there a conflict between the three branches of the national government with respect to the policy? (2) Is there a conflict between the national government and the states? (3) What are the consequences of the particular policy decision? Requirements : There will be five in-class, open book examinations covering the readings and lectures. Each will contribute 20% of the final grade. There will be no final examination. This is a good course for students who are interested in the legal analysis of public policy. (Terrelonge)

440. Comparative Politics. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with recent advances and still unanswered questions in comparative politics. Particular attention will be given to the political role of religious and ethnic movements, the political economy of budgetary trade-offs, the various functions of ideologies, and diversity in types of popular mobilization. Upper-division standing is a prerequisite, unless waived by the instructor. There are no midterm or final exams. Four papers of approximately 8-10 pages are required of all students. The course is exploratory in the sense that materials not covered in my fall course (PS 465) will be discussed. The reading load will be on the heavy side. We will draw extensively from the periodical literature as well as from books. (McDonough)

450. Political Modernization in the Developing World. Any 100-level course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is designed for students with little or no background in comparative politics, who want to develop basic analytical skills for understanding the political context of economic and social welfare policies in the Third World. The focus of the class is on the equity issues involved in governmental decisions and policy implementation. Our strategy is to look at elite politics from the point-of-view of ethnic and religious groups, peasants, the urban poor, and women in the developing countries. Among the topics discussed are the clash of Hindu and Islamic values with secular modernization plans, ethnic group and class conflicts over education and economic development policies, and access to power for non-elite groups. Case studies will emphasize South and Southeast Asian experiences while contrasting them with African and Latin American examples. The method of instruction is to combine lectures with a weekly discussion, film, or guest speaker. Course requirements are class participation, a midterm, a final exam, and a research paper (10-12 pages). Texts for the class include: Paul Harrison, Inside the Third World; Crawford Young, The Politics of Cultural Pluralism; Joan Nelson, Access to Power; and a course pack of readings. (Young)

452. Israeli Society and Politics. (4). (SS).

Israel is a social and political laboratory in which problems of political development, national and political integration, and the interaction between domestic and world politics are dealt with. A study of Israeli politics can therefore illustrate both unique and universal political and social issues. This will be a survey of the political culture and Zionist foundations of the Jewish state, its institutions, political parties, and elites. Electoral behavior and coalition politics will be analyzed. Political consequences of social issues, such as the integration of immigrants and ethnic-religious minorities, will be examined, along with problems of religion and politics. The requirements include a final, and midterm exam or paper. (Gitelman)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This course will be devoted to the study of the military dimension in international politics and to various problems of arms control and disarmament. We will deal, in some detail, with the topics of the strategic arms race, the trade in conventional arms and nuclear proliferation; we will place these topics in their political as well as economic contexts and discuss past attempts and future possibilities for dealing with them. Some time will also be devoted to matters of nuclear doctrine. (Nincic).

470. Comparative Foreign Policy. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This course analyzes the processes by which the foreign policies of states are formulated and implemented. It also analyzes the consequences of these processes for the content of the state's policies. Generalizations are developed on the basis of the empirical examination of the behavior of selected states. Particular attention will be given to the behavior of the Soviet Union, the United States, and other countries. Some of the lectures will be on particular geographical areas of the world or countries and others will be on such substantive areas as population, political development and arms control.

477. Southeast Asia: International Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is designed for students with an interest in contemporary international economic organizations and security issues in South and Southeast Asia. There are two main topics for discussion: security problems in the Indian Ocean, involving the superpower naval rivalry and the diplomatic efforts of Asian states to create a zone of peace in the region; and regional economic cooperation, focusing on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and comparing that group with others in South Asia, the South Pacific, the Persian Gulf, and the Pacific Basin. The analytical concepts covered are: regime formation and disintegration; triangular politics as viewed from the middle and small powers; and problems of policy making and implementation in international governmental and nongovernmental organizations. This is a seminar, with emphasis on student research and discussion. Course requirements are class participation and two papers (ten to twelve pages each). Texts for the class include Sudershan Chawla and D.R. Sardesai, eds., Changing Patterns of Security and Stability in Asia, and a course pack of readings. (Young)

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Plato's Political Thought.
We will read a variety of Platonic dialogues with attention to their presentation of the relationships between politics and philosophy, opinion and knowledge, nature and convention, the individual and the community. Among the dialogues will be: Laches, Protagoras, Gorgias, Republic, Symposium and perhaps the Statesman. We will be concerned with the importance of the dialogue form and its relation to Plato's critique of Athenian life and politics in general. Some secondary material will be included. This is a seminar intended primarily for students majoring in political science. A previous course in political theory and/or classics would be helpful. Students will write four brief papers during the term and be expected to hand in a ten page paper during finals week. The latter may be an expansion of an earlier paper. (Saxonhouse)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Comparing the Soviet/Chinese Revolutions.
This seminar will analyze the interaction of the Russian and Chinese communist movements with their social, economic, and political environments both before and after the victories of the two revolutions. This comparative analysis will sharpen our understanding of the factors that produced the different political histories and operational modes (e.g., decision making processes) of these two revolutions. Explanatory variables considered will include inter alia the power bases of the ancien regimes, the economic structures of these prerevolutionary societies, the social compositions of the two communist parties, and the evolving international environment. Substantial attention will be given to the methodological problems of comparative analysis, and students will acquire a good grasp of the political histories and operational differences of the two movements once they attained power. The seminar requires substantial reading. There will be at least one paper assignment, with oral presentation, plus an optional final examination. No prerequisites. (Lieberthal)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Development and International Relations.
Political Science 498 is an introduction to the study of the major connections between development and international politics. The seminar will deal with the major ideas in this subfield. For example, students will be asked to read about the connection between economic and political transformation, demographic and socioeconomic and political transformations, etc. There will be no one textbook, but readings will be on reserve in the Undergraduate Library. Students taking this course should have had as a minimum an introductory course in political science, comparative or international politics. A basic course in European history, preferably covering the 18th and 19th centuries, would be helpful. The evaluation of student performance will be based on a paper, a final exam, and class participation which will include an oral report on a major reading assignment. (Organski)

586/IPPS 586. Organizational Design. Pol. Sci. 585 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course consists of a mixture of lecture, discussion and exercises both group and individual. It attempts to develop students' abilities to understand and to design public sector decision making processes. (M. Cohen)

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