Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. Students with inadequate preparation for University studies should find this course to be helpful as a background for studying other courses. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, schema and semantic memory; cognitive skills; language generation; problem solving; creativity; learning styles; motivation, anxiety and attributions; learning in groups; and, behavioral control: self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and a weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

150. Patterns of Development. Enrollment in the Inteflex Program or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 457. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS).

An introductory and developmental psychology course for Inteflex students. (L. Hoffman)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend three hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This course presents material about areas of psychology which emphasize a study of the brain and behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Each section is taught individually by a graduate teaching fellow who has complete responsibility for his/her section. Because there are substantial variations among sections in content and teaching style, students are encouraged to sit in on several sections during the first week of classes before making their final choice. (Weintraub)

Sections 002-009. This course presents material about areas of psychology which emphasize a study of behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior and brain and behavior. The course meets four hours per week. Each section is taught individually by a graduate teaching fellow who has complete responsibility for his/her section. Because there are substantial variations among sections in content and teaching style, students are encouraged to sit in on several sections during the first week of classes before making their final choice.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend three hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a time slot ONLY (sections 001-010). Students should check the TIME SCHEDULE (final edition) for the day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-010). During this first meeting, the instructors present their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. Students, then, apply to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to the instructor at this first meeting. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych. 171. Wait list (section 099) students must attend the special meeting listed in the Time Schedule. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-010) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR to the meeting to retain their space in the course or on the Wait List.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend three hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. The major objectives of the course are to increase knowledge concerning causes of behavior and to develop an ability and desire to learn more about behavior, especially human behavior. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, creativity, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation and human sexuality, emotion, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy, interpersonal relations, aggression and violence, and environmental psychology. The discussion sections provide an opportunity to pursue particular topics in greater depth and detail, to share experiences with others, and to learn from this sharing. The text for the course is Smith, Sarason, and Sarason Psychology (Second Edition). The discussion sections require some additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects or film critiques. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. (Morris)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend three hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
|Section 002.
This course provides an even-handed treatment of the subject matter of psychology, from "soft" to "hard" (psychoanalytic personality theory, social interaction, child development, learning, thinking, perceiving, statistical reasoning, nervous system and behavior). The emphasis is on the scientific aspects of psychology: What do we know; what is the evidence for what we know. Format: lecture, discussion, some films. (Relatively hard-nosed text, no papers). Exams require knowledge of subject matter plus reasoning. (Weintraub)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. Students of all backgrounds are invited to apply. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Project Outreach includes approximately 30 different settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Two credit projects require six hours of work per week including four hours of fieldwork, log writing, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. OVERRIDES FOR REGISTRATION AND INFORMATION regarding day/times for the fieldwork, lecture and discussion per each setting will be AVAILABLE BEGINNING NOVEMBER 22,1982, at the Introductory Psychology Building, 554 Thompson St., 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two settings of Psych. 201 (4 credits ) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300-309. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309. A specific description for Psychology 308, which is offered Winter Term, 1983, appears below.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Community Psychology area. A maximum of four credit hours can be earned during any one term. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Community Psychology Area or the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course.

Psychology 308. Opportunities are available to work with young children at the Children's Center as an aide, and to learn observational techniques. The Center offers half-day AM or PM pre-school classes which meet two or three times per week. Students will be working as aides in the classroom, interacting with young children (18mos-5yrs) and participating as members of an interdisciplinary child development team. Aides must be able to meet a commitment of two or three sessions per week, MWF or TTH. Additionally, they will meet as a group with Lorraine Nadelman Thursdays 12:00 to 1:00 to learn and practice various observational techniques, perform observer reliability exercises, and critique selected readings. Contact the Children's Center 763-6784 before you CRISP. (Nadelman)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psych. 170. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis, and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It was designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include organizational design; motivation; socialization; work-related attitudes; leadership; decision-making; group behavior; organizational change; work and non-work; work and health; discrimination; the quality of working life; work and society; and the future of work in America. Each week there will be one general lecture and one small group discussion section. The discussion sections will employ case studies and experiential exercises to illustrate the application of some of the concepts introduced in the texts and lectures. (A. Tannenbaum)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes interpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be frequent small papers and one final long, integrative essay. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures, optional workshops and small discussion groups, and there will be opportunity to elect a coherent program of independent study for a portion of the course. (R. Mann)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

Psychology 382 introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering basic theoretical concepts such as knowledge and social inference; the self and the growth of identity; conformity and the effects of power; justice and helping; collective action and social change; and efficacy, coping, and happiness. In addition, material from each unit is applied to a variety of social and psychological problems, such as marriage and the family, crowding, aging, guilt and jealousy, poverty, masculinity and femininity, creativity, ethnicity, prejudice, shyness and loneliness, and television. The particular topics covered vary from term to term. The course employs a mixture of lectures, films, exercise and demonstrations, and small group discussions. All activities, however, require a high degree of student participation, and the course should be selected only by students who enjoy such participation. Grading is based on a combination of reading logs, a term paper, and a final examination. (P. Gurin)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course was designed primarily for persons interested in pursuing programs that would involve direct work with families. Its thrust is decidedly "clinical" as opposed to "social survey" or "cross-culturally comparative." These latter topics will be touched on only insofar as they enlighten what is happening (or not happening) to the family in contemporary American society. Thus, the course will deal with the history of socio-clinical concern with the "plight" of the American family in the last 20 years. The conceptual orientations in the course will be distinctively those of "general systems theory" and "symbolic interactionism." The sociology of deviance within the family system will receive major emphasis psychopathologies will be reconstrued within a family systems context. The organization of the course will, in fact, be developmental. That is it will trace the life cycle of families from mate-selection through developmental crises to dissolution, single parenthood, remarriage, family reconstitution, and do so with a continual awareness of social context. Contrasts and parallels with other "clinical" theories and therapies (e.g., psychoanalytic) will serve as constant counterpoint, and be used to highlight implicit and/or explicit assumptions about family dynamics, as well as ethical concerns about how, why and when one intervenes in family systems. Concomitantly, various modes of "researching" families in today's society will be considered on ethical, heuristic, political and presumptive grounds. Dilemmas for the "researcher" and the "researched," the "treated" and the "treater" will be considered. Required texts are Skolnick and Skolnick (eds.) Family Therapy: An Overview, Goldenberg and Goldenberg, Bermann, Scapegoat: The Impact of Death Fear on an American Family and a course pack. Grading in the course is based on class presentation and discussion (15%), a midterm exam (20%), a final exam (30%) and a term paper (35%) (Bermann)

390. Honors I: History of Ideas in Psychology. Honors concentrators. No credit granted to those who have completed 579. (3). (Excl).

The course serves two functions. (1) Production of a literature review in some area of psychology. (2) Exposure to a variety of research areas and styles. Evaluation is on the basis of the scholarly review and class participation. (Nisbett)

400-409. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

Psychology 402 and 403 are offered Winter Term, 1983.

Psychology 402: Psychology of Sexism and Ageism. (3).
The purposes of this course are: 1) to develop a psychological and social science perspective and analysis of sexism (the oppression of and discrimination against individuals and groups because of their sex, gender, or sexuality) and ageism (ditto because of their age); and 2) to carry out a real-world project to deal with sexism and/or ageism (outside the class). The instructor focuses on the situation of women and young people, because of his own interests and skills. Depending on the interest and knowledge of students, there is also substantial work on old people, gay people, and other groups that are victims of ageism and sexism. There are occasional lectures (by the instructor, students, and guests), movies, and other class projects; but the major portion of class time is spent on discussion and reports about individual or group real-world projects planning, critiquing, reporting results, etc. There are no examinations. Because there are few assigned readings, lectures, or papers, students need to be capable of working successfully with community groups on their own initiative, without close supervision and without deadlines. Evaluation is based on the project, class participation, and a "service project" of use to fellow class members. Completion of all the requirements will result in a "B" grade. Superior work will raise a student's grade, while failure to complete the requirements will lower it. (Hefner)

403/Relig. 424: Personality and Religious Development. (3).
This course is designed to help students explore the psychological and religious dimensions of personal change and growth. Lectures will focus first on understanding various conceptions of human development including Freud's personality development, Jung's process of individuation, Erikson's eight stages of man, and the Eastern mystical view of sadhana or the spiritual journey. Particular attention will be paid to stages of the life cycle such as birth, infancy, the adolescent identity crisis, the mid-life crisis, and the experience of aging and dying. Secondly, the lectures will take a topical approach to spiritual and psychological experiences of great significance; we'll consider William James on conversion and the twice-born soul, Maslow on peak experiences, Tillich on being, anxiety, and courage, and Jung and Perry on madness and mysticism. A third course focus will evolve in smaller weekly section meetings and more personalized reading and writing. Here the objective is to grow in understanding one's own life. First we'll read and present to the group a spiritual autobiography such as the life of Gandhi, Thomas Merton, Carl Jung, or John Lilly. Then we'll write our own spiritual autobiography in whole or in part. The final paper will be an opportunity to rework and personally integrate selected course readings. Midterm and final exams will be based on prepared questions, and each will cover half of the course. (J. Mann)

414. Advanced Laboratory in Behavior Modification. Prior enrollment in Psych. 474. (3). (NS).

Students in Psychology 414 will learn more about the techniques of behavior modification and will have the opportunity to apply these techniques in one of a wide variety of settings. Current placements include Ypsilanti Regional Psychiatric Hospital and the Milan Federal Correction Institute. Campus sections will focus on performance anxiety and type A behavior.

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Permission to enroll may be obtained from Doris Strite in the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle). Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward of the Neuropsychiatric Institute at University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

Section 002. The focus of this course will be on research strategies and methods which are brought to bear on understanding the nature and treatment of psychopathology. Special attention will be given to the integration of clinical and research data. As part of this course, students will serve as part-time research assistants (approximately two hours/week) to faculty members in order to gain "hands on" clinical research experience. This may include interviewing subjects, coding fantasy material or results of psychological tests, participating in the design of questionnaires etc. In no case will students be asked to do drone-like work. The aim is to become an active member of a functioning research team. In addition to this experiential component, the course will cover readings drawn from the areas of general epistemology, research methods, and theories of psychopathology. Two papers (each approximately 2-3 pages long) and a final paper (5-7 pages long) focused on evaluation of published clinical research round out the formal requirements. The course is intended for students planning graduate work in either the social sciences (e.g., clinical psychology, applied developmental psychology) or in areas in which such sophistication in understanding reports or clinical research is helpful (e.g., medicine, certain areas of law, education). (Kalter)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 170 and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology or Physiology. (3). (NS).

This lecture course surveys the field of physiological psychology, emphasizing the study of central nervous mechanisms of behavior, cognition and perception. Following background lectures on neurophysiology, neuropharmacology and neuroanatomy, the course will deal with neuromechanisms of sensory processes and of motor control (movement and posture). Other topics include brain mechanisms of sleep and waking states, motivation, emotion, learning and memory. Much of the material comes from studies employing animals. However, whenever possible, research dealing with human brain function and behavior will be discussed, as in topics dealing with the neuropharmacology of psychiatric disorders and specialization of function in each of the cerebral hemispheres. Prerequisites include Introductory Psychology and Zoology or Physiology. Several objective examinations will be given during the term, as well as a final examination. (Butter)

435. Sensory Functions. Psych. 170 or equivalent in addition to an introductory course in biology, physiology, or physiological psychology. (3). (NS).

All information about the world around us as well as within us is made known through our various senses (vision, hearing, smell, etc.). Our sensory acuity, as revealed by our behavior in the detection and discrimination of different environmental events (visual, auditory, olfactory, etc.), and the manner in which the senses receive and transmit information to the central nervous system and brain form the subject matter for this course. The anatomical, chemical, physical and physiological basis of sensation will be stressed. Sample topics include color vision, depth perception, sound localization, and sensory disabilities such as color blindness and hearing loss brought about by exposure to loud noise. Instruction is by lecture-discussion format. Discussion is encouraged. (Uttal)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course presents a systematic study of the nature of social incentives across the life span how they originate in human development, how they persist as generalized motives, and how they are aroused in everyday adult life. The course relies heavily on a 1980 book, Social Incentives by Veroff and Veroff, although a number of short theoretical or research papers on other points of view are also assigned. Two weekly lectures briefly present a survey of other theories of motivation as well as a context for the readings. Two hour discussions will cover not only the readings (students assigned discussion responsibilities) but also research methods. Research designs are required as term group projects. Both short-answer and essay in-class exams. (Veroff)

444. Perception. Psych. 170 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This is an advanced undergraduate lecture course that focuses on basic perceptual processes and theories. There is a strong natural-science orientation to the course material. Those who elect this course are usually junior or senior psychology concentrators. Class size is relatively large (eighty students or so). Topics covered include: psychophysics with an emphasis on signal-detection theory; pattern, size and distance perception; and information processing. There is minor emphasis on auditory perception. The course emphasizes the human information-processing approach to perception and considers theories in some detail. The course does not emphasize philosophy or esthetics. Facility with high-school algebra is assumed. An effort is made to show useful applications in real-world situations. (Jonides)

447. Psychology of Language. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

Required text for this course is H. Clark and E. Clark, Psychology and Language (Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1977). The course will cover a wide range of topics on the psychological processes underlying language. These include human and animal communication systems, memory for linguistic materials, comprehension and production, meaning and semantic memory, language and thought, and language acquisition. There will be three in-class exams, (no final) plus several short paper assignments.

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

The focus of this course is adult human memory. We shall examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and limited discussion where appropriate. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in their junior or senior years. (Jonides)

451. Development of Language and Higher Mental Processes. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course addresses questions about the relationship between language and thought. We examine the positions of theoreticians like Whorf, Piaget, and Chomsky on the issues of linguistic relativity, the cognitive prerequisites of language development, and the species-specificity of language. In evaluating these positions we then examine empirical work on the similarities of language acquisition in normal and deaf children, the role of environment in language development, the learning of language by nonhuman primates, the influence of language on higher-order cognitive tasks, and the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development. While no special background is presupposed, familiarity with linguistics and/or developmental psychology will be helpful. Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion. Student evaluations will be based on exams consisting of questions requiring concise but critical answers. Readings include: Chomsky, Language and Mind; Dale, Language Development; and Ginsburg and Opper, Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development. (Shatz)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The course is an introduction to several approaches to the field of personality: psychoanalytic, phenomenological, cognitive, trait, social learning, and cognitive-behavioral. There will be two lectures and one discussion section per week. Lectures will focus on theory, research, and assessment. Discussions will address a case study, an experiment, or an assessment technique. Students will be evaluated by a midterm exam, a term paper, and a final exam. Texts: Pervin, Personality: Theory, Assessment, Research and Goethals & Klos, Experiencing Youth: First-Person Accounts. (Klos)

Section 005. This course will cover basic theories in personality psychology psychodynamic, trait, social learning and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individuals' personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of heredity and environment in shaping individuals' behavior will be considered. Controversies as to the degree of stability and consistency in behavior and personality will be covered. Evaluations will be based on three exams covering the material in the lectures, textbook and case histories and research articles. (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The primary purpose of this course is to expose students to the theories and research findings relating to the processes by which an individual becomes a social being. An attempt is also made to make the course personally meaningful so that students gain some insights into their own social development so that they can develop practical applications of the material. For psychology concentrators, some time is spent critically examining research methods and suggesting problem areas needing further investigation.

Section 002. This course's focus will be socialization experiences which impact on children, including cultural and situational forces. In contrast to a more monolithic approach, this course will be characterized by its decided attempt to put children's behavior and their socialization experiences in a cultural context. Increasing contact and knowledge about children from various cultures and subcultures suggests the need to understand how culture affects its members' behavior. This approach not only sensitizes us to the fundamental role of culture in determining or tempering behavior, but also holds the possibility of identification or confirmation of universals in behavior. Special attention will be given to (1) theoretical perspectives in socialization, using moral development theory and research as an example, (2) social-structural influences on socialization, including the school and family as conduits, (3) affiliation and attachment, (4) early peer relations, (5) social play, (6) role-taking, empathy, and social cognition, (7) sex role development, and (8) television and socialization. (McLoyd)

454. Analysis of Interpersonal Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is for students to gain an understanding of interpersonal relations as they develop in an unstructured group setting. As members of the group, students observe and attempt to understand the processes of their own group. What caused the group to take the turn it did? Why is its mood different today? What norms are emerging? Who are its leaders formal and informal? What myths, fantasies, or assumptions seem to underlie group moods or behaviors? What role does each of us play in the group? These are some of the questions we try to answer. In brief planned sessions students analyze the previous session, and apply concepts and insights from the literature on groups in the effort to understand this group's history and development. In longer unstructured sessions students interact and reflect on the process. Three papers during the term each include: (1) an analysis of a third of the sessions' key events, meanings, myths, mood shifts, norms, leaders, etc.; (2) further analysis of these sessions in terms of theories and concepts from readings; (3) an analysis of one's own part in the group. Psych 454 provides in depth, experiential learning about groups through participation in a self-analytic group limited to twenty people. (J. Mann)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course considers the physical, cognitive, and emotional-social development of children from conception to adolescence. Methodologies and theories are evaluated. The emphasis is on the development of normal children in western cultures, although some cross-cultural data and factors making for difficult development are also considered. The format of this section will be two hours auditorium lectures and one hour small discussion groups. Three exams plus one or two short papers will be the basis of evaluation. Opportunity to work in a preschool setting will be provided as an option. (Nadelman)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. Credit for Psychology 459 is not granted to students who have earned credit for Course Mart 383 (Dimensions of Human Aging), Public Health 595, or both University Course 435 and Education H520. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes in adulthood and old age. Special emphasis is given to such topics as changes in biological functioning including sensation and perception, cautiousness, rigidity, and speed of response and changes in cognitive processes including intelligence, learning, memory, and problem-solving. In addition, psychosocial aspects of adulthood are discussed. These include family roles, work roles, use of leisure time, personality and adjustment, psychopathology and treatment, and dying, death, and grief. The course also considers environmental facilitation of psychological adjustments in old age. Students do assigned readings, projects, class exercises, and take examinations.

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on group behavior in organizational contexts and is the second class in a series that also includes Psychology 363 (The Individual in the Organization) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). Group dynamics, group process, and group structure will be addressed in terms of both their impact on individuals and their implications for the design of organizations. The class will emphasize group theory, experiential learning and practical application of group principles, and should offer a number of opportunities for relatively independent study and research experience. Cases illustrating group and organizational design principles will be drawn from contemporary organizations, and will be used to provide a balance between the theoretical and the practical. (Denison)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course deals with all aspects of deviant behavior and treatment: neuroses, psychoses, and forms of psychotherapy.

481. Psychology of International Relations. Introductory psychology, Soc. 100, or Pol. Sci. 460. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to increase understanding of peace and war, world development, and international relations, particularly emphasizing a psychological and social science perspective. The methods for doing this are unique. The course focuses on the world role of the People's Republic of China in order to break into the narrow and biased "American" point of view that we all start with. Group and individual student projects deal with domestic or international topics about China. There are occasional lectures (by the instructor, students, and guests), movies, and other class projects; but the major portion of class time is spent on discussions and reports about projects planning, critiquing, reporting results, etc. Students have options to work on topics of interest to them, and in the choice of type of project - library research, survey, action program, etc. There are no examinations. Evaluation is in terms of the project, class participation, and a "service project" of use to fellow class members. Because of the lack of assigned readings or papers, students need to be capable of initiating and completing projects on their own with minimal supervision. Satisfactory completion of all the requirements will result in a "B" grade. Superior work will raise a student's grade, while failure to complete requirements will lower it. (Hefner)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Racial Attitudes and Social Inequality.
This course on attitudes and social behavior will focus specifically on racial attitudes and their role in the creation, maintenance and change of social inequalities. Emphasis is placed on the operation of racism, and racial identity in the life of Black Americans although some attention is also given to the experience of Blacks in other national settings. Theoretical and empirical literature will cover the influence of attitudinal and institutional factors in racial oppression, the relationship between racial attitudes and behavior, as well as the formation and change of racial attitudes. Conceptual and measurement issues involved in research on the effects of attitudes and Black American cultural institutions in coping with economic, political and educational inequalities are also considered. Other course features include both lecture and discussion, a take home midterm and a special project, and readings from traditional and more informal sources. Throughout the term, current issues related to racial attitudes will be discussed. Audio-visual materials and guest speakers will also help highlight the social consequences of racial attitudes past, present and future. (Bowman)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology, Natural Science. Psychology 170 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (NS).
Section 001 Reproductive Behavior in Mammals.
This seminar on mechanisms in mammalian reproductive behavior is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in the biological basis of behavior. The course assumes that students have a basic background in Biology (e.g., Biol. 105, 112, or 114) and behavior (e.g., Psych 430, Zool. 130, or Anthro. 368), but there are no specific prerequisites. Humans will be discussed in the course, but only as one of many examples in mammalian reproduction. Course format will involve a combination of lectures and student discussions of research articles. Proximal mechanisms will be stressed in the treatment of various topics: the genetic determination of sex and sexual behavior, hormonal influences on sexual behavior, pregnancy and parental care, seasonal breeding and the timing of reproduction, and the influence of social and environmental factors on reproduction. Grades will be assigned on the basis of in-class essay exams, a short paper, and participation in discussions. (Holmes)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (SS).
Section 001.
This course will cover three basic areas: the existence of sex differences, the origin of sex role differences and the implications of sex roles. We will consider the evidence for sex differences in physical, social and intellectual functioning to assess which sex differences are supported by evidence and which are not. We will consider the nature of sex role stereotypes. We will discuss the origins of sex differences, with specific attention to biological determinants, environmental and socialization determinants, and their interaction. We will discuss the implications of sex differences and the sex role structure of our society, with particular emphasis on the psychological effects of sex roles on women. We will consider the consequences of the sex role structure on women's achievement motivation and self concept, mental health, sexuality, interpersonal relationships, marital and occupational status, and the attitudes of others towards women's advancement. Finally, we will discuss the possibilities for change on the societal as well as individual level. Students will benefit from some background in mammalian biology and psychology. A short paper, a journal, and two exams will be required. 150-200 pages of reading per week will be required. (Eccles)

Section 002 Life Historical Approaches to the Study of Personality. This seminar aims to promote students' ability to ground theoretical ideas about the psychodynamics of mental functioning and life historical development, upon the concrete examination of particular lives. It is both an exercise in the application of theorizing to biography, and an effort to reflect upon the manner in which thematic inquiry upon life histories generates certain ways of conceptualizing the continuities and transformations of inner experiences, interpersonal relations, and creativity. The course is focused and organized around the experience of studying first-person accounts, and discussing them in class. Students are required to write a term paper based on their own study of such materials. (Barratt)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).

In this course we will explore the application of psychoanalytic models to the understanding of social processes in dyads, small groups, and large organizations. Specifically, the course will be organized around the concept of unconscious fantasies and their role in social interaction. We will first investigate the nature of unconscious fantasies and how they are manifested in free associations, dreams, myths, etc., then we will investigate the thesis that unconscious fantasies can be shared in group situations and that these shared fantasies form the basis of social processes. We will utilize material from self analytic and therapy groups as well as from delinquent gangs and political organizations to illustrate these concepts. It is recommended that the student have a basic background in psychoanalytic theory. Psychology 454 might be useful background also. Evaluation will be based on a long integrative term paper and a final exam. The course will be a seminar involving some lecture and a good deal of discussion by the class. (Hartman)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 266: Social Adaptation in the Community Context.
This advanced laboratory is designed to teach undergraduates field research skills in the community context. A group research project provides the format for learning. Typically, the project focuses on the relationship between a particular population in the community (e.g., children with chronic illnesses, single parents, or the elderly) and a particular institution in the community (e.g., schools, hospitals, etc.). Research methods particularly designed to understand the needs and perceptions of the population being studied and the patterns of institutional adaptation to those needs will be taught. Thus, depending on the problem under study, methods will include environmental simulations, group problem solving, neighborhood ethnography, community surveys, interviewing, organizational assessment, or interpretation of social indicator data. (Barbarin)

510. Advanced Laboratory in Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 430 and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to train students in the observation and quantitative description of behavior in order to understand its adaptive significance. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection will provide the theoretical basis for the interpretation of observed behavior. Several animal groups will be studied (e.g., insects, fishes, birds, mammals, humans) during laboratory and occasional field (outdoor) exercises. Exercises will consist of a short introductory lecture and a longer "hands on" lab in which naturalistic behavior (e.g., aggression, courtship, feeding) will be observed and recorded. A journal article related to each lab will be read. Student evaluation will be based on weekly lab reports, and a research design paper on some topic in animal behavior. (Holmes)

512. Advanced Laboratory in Motivation and Behavior. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 442. (3). (SS).

This advanced lab is designed for students who have already taken Psychology 442. It will emphasize computer simulation of motivation and the role of the computer in planning empirical investigations and in spelling out the behavioral implications of the theory of motivation. Each student will have an opportunity to explore some unresolved problem at the frontier of the science. The work will culminate in a report including the design for an empirical study and plan for statistical analysis of expected results. Background in computer programming is helpful but not required. Students with unusually strong academic records may request permission to take this lab concurrently with Psychology 442. (Atkinson)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
In this section students work in small groups. Find a problem that they truly care about. Construct an original experiment in that area. Invent original ways to measure behavior. Do quantitative measurements. Are graded on their work throughout the term. Absolutely must attend all class sessions and must work about six hours a week with their group members outside of class. Statistics 402 meets the statistics prerequisite. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459, and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the cognitive, social and emotional development of persons. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops concerning the different research projects. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects). Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Wellman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to use and compare various research methods in personality. Weekly assignments permit students to use observational studies, personal interviews, and questionnaires to study behavior. The second part of the term is focused on a small group research project where students investigate their own hypothesis with whichever methods they consider most appropriate. This research project is written as a formal research paper, presenting the hypothesis, methods, results and conclusions. Grades are based on the series of class projects. (K. Miller)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This lecture course deals primarily with the cognitive and behavioral effects of dysfunction of the human central nervous system. The first part of the course will briefly review basic neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology and neurophysiology. This will be followed by an introduction to the neurological exam, methods of neurological diagnosis, neuropsychological testing and neurological disorders (including vascular, demyelinizing and infectious diseases, tumors, epilepsies and congenital anomalies). After this we will examine the concept of cerebral asymmetry and the disorders of language, learning and memory, perception, personality, visuo-spatial functions and motor control which result from human brain damage. A discussion of possible sex differences in brain organization and the use of psychosurgery in treating psychiatric disorders will also be included. Although we will concentrate on the effects of human brain damage we will attempt to integrate relevant data from the "animal" literature, as well as studies with normal human subjects. Grade based on objective type exams. (Robinson)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

Students in this course are assigned to various institutions where they work with a group of children, adolescents, or young adults for about three to four hours a week. There are also weekly class meetings to provide for the discussion of relevant material and for group supervision opportunities. Assignments include readings about development and the effects of institutionalization, weekly logs, and a final paper. Lab fee. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The physiological and psychological changes of puberty and their social and psychological implications will be analyzed. Theory, research findings, and case analyses will be used. (Douvan)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

This course is oriented toward description and theory of organization-level activities including: structuring, problem-solving, and implementation of technologies. From the perspective of organizations as systems, this course will cover issues such as: adaptation to environmental change, organizational change and innovation, and growth. The course will involve lectures and discussion. Grades will be determined by performance on a midterm, final exam, term paper, and class participation. (Caplan)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. The Clinical Perspective. Psych. 452 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2) to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. (Lohr)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The primary objectives of the course include: (1) acquainting the student with a historical perspective of the kinds of problems in conceptualization that the data of psychopathology present in conjunction with the modes of thinking in the traditions of philosophy, psychology, literature, medicine, sociology, theology, and the law; (2) presenting an intensive, in-depth portrait of some of the major forms of psychopathology as they appear in psychotherapeutic situations and everyday life with numerous clinical examples so the student can develop an experiential "sense" of the data to better enable him or her to judge the adequacy of descriptive and explanatory theoretical logic applied to the data; (3) sensitizing the student to the potential availability of qualitatively similar material in oneself and others in everyday life; (4) reflecting on the advantages and disadvantages of various methods (e.g., natural observation, experimentation, survey research introspection) in the study of psychopathology; (5) developing a sense of the interpersonal and intrapsychic determinants of pathogenesis; (6) becoming aware of the consequences of the psychopathic processes on the life cycle; (7) developing some sensitivity to possible cross-cultural applications of the characteristics of psychopathology as observed in our own society. These goals are developed primarily through lecture and extensive readings. The latter are presented in three categories: required, recommended and "of interest." The evaluations of students depend on essay exams based on clinical material, an objective final based on self selection of 75% of the questions about readings and lectures and an optional term paper. (Wolowitz)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).

This course will trace some of the major and better-known Western ideas concerning the mind and behavior from the ancient Greeks, through medieval thinkers, 18th and 19th century philosophical schools to the beginnings of modern psychology. Subsequently, 20th century trends in psychology and various schools of psychology will be discussed and evaluated in a framework of the social and scientific ideas of the time. Evaluation will be based on a single term paper and a final exam. (Butter)

583/Soc. 583. Introduction to Survey Research I. Introductory psychology and statistics; or permission of instructor. I: (3); III b: (4). (SS).

This course is intended to familiarize students with all major steps in the conduct of survey research broadly defined as research that relies upon questionnaires or personal interviews as a primary means of data collection. This course runs along two parallel tracks. The first involves conventional lectures and discussions covering the following topics: problem formation and study design, questionnaire and interview design, sampling, techniques of personal interviewing, code development, computerized data processing and data analysis. At the same time, class members, working as a group, conduct a survey in the Ann Arbor area, beginning with the formation of a hypothesis and ending with the preparation of reports. The class survey is intended to concretize the principles developed in the lectures and discussions and to familiarize students with the "nuts and bolts" of survey procedures. (Quinn)

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