Courses in Mathematics (Division 428)

All mathematics courses require a minimum of one year each of high school algebra and geometry. In order to accommodate diverse backgrounds and interests, several course options are open to beginning mathematics students. Courses preparatory to the calculus are offered in pairs: a lecture/recitation format and a self-paced version of the same material. The even-numbered course of each pair is self-paced. Department policy limits a student to a total of 4 credits for courses numbered 110 and below. See the table on page 141 of the 1983-1984 College Bulletin for placement guidance into the first mathematics course.

Math 103/104 is the first half of Math 105/106; Math 107/108 is the second half. Math 112 is designed for students of business and social sciences who require only one term of calculus. The sequence 113-114 is designed for students of the life sciences who require only one year of calculus. The sequence 115-116-215-216 is appropriate for most students who want a complete introduction to the calculus. Each of Math 112, 113, 115, 185, and 195 is a first course in calculus; credit can be received for only one course from this list. Math 109/110 is designed for students whose preparation includes all of the prerequisites for calculus but who are unable to complete one of the calculus courses successfully. Math 109/110 will be offered as a 7-week course during the second half of each term.

Admission to Math 185 or 195 requires permission of a mathematics Honors advisor (1210 Angell Hall). Students who have performed well on the College Board Advanced Placement exam may receive credit and advanced placement in the sequence beginning with Math 115. Other students who have studied calculus in high school may take a departmental placement examination during the first week of the fall term to receive advanced placement without credit in the Math 115 sequence. No advanced placement credit is granted to students who elect Math 185. Students electing Math 195 receive advanced placement credit after Math 296 is satisfactorily completed.

101. Elementary Algebra. (2). (Excl).

Material covered includes integers, rationals, and real numbers; linear, fractional, and quadratic expressions and equations, polynomials and factoring; exponents, powers and roots; functions.

103. Intermediate Algebra. Two or three years of high school mathematics; or Math. 101 or 102. 1 credit for students with credit for Math. 101 or 102. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 or 106. (2). (Excl).

Standard lecture version of Mathematics 104. Review of elementary algebra; rational and quadratic equations; properties of relations, functions, and their graphs; linear and quadratic functions, inequalities, logarithmic and exponential functions and equations. Equivalent to the first half of Mathematics 105/106.

104. Intermediate Algebra (Self-Paced) Two to three years high school mathematics; or Math. 101. One credit for students with credit for Math. 101. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 and 106. (2). (Excl)

Self-paced course. Material covered includes rational and quadratic equations; properties of relations, functions, and their graphs; linear and quadratic functions; inequalities; logarithmic and exponential functions and equations. Course content is equivalent to the first half of Mathematics 105/106.

105. Algebra and Analytic Trigonometry. See table. Students with credit for Math. 104 can only elect Math. 105 for 2 credits. (4). (Excl).

This course provides passage to Math 115 for students with weak or incomplete high school mathematics backgrounds. Students with good mathematics preparation but no trigonometry can elect Math 107 concurrently with Math 115. Topics covered include number systems, factoring, exponents and radicals, linear and quadratic equations, polynomials, exponential and trigonometric functions, graphs, triangle solutions, and curve sketching. The text has been Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (Fourth Edition) by Swokowski.

106. Algebra and Analytic Trigonometry. See table. Students with credit for Math. 104 can elect Math. 106 for 2 credits. (4). (Excl).

The prerequisites and content of Math. 106 are identical to those of Math. 105. There are no lectures or sections. Students are assigned to tutors in the Mathematics Laboratory and work at their own pace. Progress is measured by tests following each chapter which must be passed with at least 80% success for the student to move on to the next chapter. Up to five versions of each chapter test may be taken to reach this level. Midterms and finals are administered when a group of students is ready for them. More detailed information is available from the Mathematics Department office. The text has been Algebra and Trigonometry: A Functions Approach by Keedy and Bittenger.

107. Trigonometry. See table. No credit granted to those who have completed 105. (2). (Excl).

This course provides the trigonometry background needed for Math 115. Students with a history of poor performance in high school mathematics, with or without trigonometry, who plan to continue in mathematics usually need a more general training than is offered in Math 107, and should elect Math 105 or 106. The text for Math 107 has been Keedy and Bittinger, Trig, Triangles, and Functions, Third Edition.

108. Trigonometry (Self-Paced). Two or three years of high school mathematics; or Math. 101. One credit for students with credit for Math. 101. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 or 106. (2). (Excl).

Self-paced course. Material covered includes circular functions, graphs and properties; trigonometric identities; functions of angles; double and half-angle formulas; inverse functions; solving triangles; laws of sines and cosines.

109. Pre-Calculus. Two years of high school algebra. No credit for students who already have 4 credits for pre-calculus mathematics courses. (2). (N. Excl).

Material covered includes linear, quadratic, and absolute value equations and inequalities; algebra of functions; trigonometric identities; functions and graphs: trig and inverse trig, exponential and logarithmic, polynomial and rational; analytic geometry of lines and conic sections.

Note : Math 112 is a single term calculus course designed primarily for pre-business and social science students. The course neither presupposes nor covers any trigonometry. Math 113-114 is a special two-term calculus sequence for students in the biological sciences. Math 113 begins with a number of pre-calculus topics; the introduction to calculus is gradual. Neither 112 nor 113 nor 114 meshes with the standard sequence. Students who want to keep open the option of going beyond introductory calculus should elect the standard sequence. Credit is allowed for only one of the first term calculus courses: 112, 113, 115, 185, 195.

112. Brief Calculus. Three years of high school mathematics or Math. 105 or 106. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl).

This is a one-term survey course that provides the basics of elementary calculus. Emphasis is placed on intuitive understanding of concepts and not on rigor. Topics include differentiation with application to curve sketching and maximum-minimum problems, antiderivatives and definite integrals. Trigonometry is not used. The text has been Hofman, Calculus for the Social, Managerial, and Life Sciences, Second Edition. This course does not mesh with any of the courses in the regular mathematics sequences.

113. Mathematics for Life Sciences I. Three years of high school mathematics or Math. 105 or 106. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl).

Mathematics 113 and 114 constitute a two-term sequence designed for students anticipating study in fields such as biology, zoology, botany, natural resources, microbiology, medical technology and nursing. Students in the life sciences who may need a more thorough mathematics background should elect one of the regular mathematics sequences. The material covered includes logic, set theory, algebra, calculus, matrices and vectors, probability and differential equations. Examples are chosen from the life sciences. The text has been Arya and R. Lardner, Mathematics for Biological Sciences (Second Edition).

114. Mathematics for Life Sciences II. Math. 113. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4). (N.Excl).

See Mathematics 113.

115. Analytic Geometry and Calculus I. See table. (Math. 107 may be elected concurrently.) Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics covered in this course include functions and graphs, derivatives; differentiation of algebraic functions, applications; definite and indefinite integrals, applications; and transcendental functions. Daily assignments are given. There are generally two or three one-hour examinations plus a uniform midterm and final.

116. Analytic Geometry and Calculus II. Math. 115. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4). (N.Excl).

Review of transcendental functions, techniques of integration, vectors in R to the nth power and matrices, solutions of systems of linear equations by Gaussian elimination, determinants, conic sections, infinite sequences and series. The course generally requires three one-hour examinations and a uniform midterm and final exam.

117. Elementary Linear Algebra. One term of calculus or permission of instructor. No credit is granted to those who have completed Math. 216. (2). (N.Excl).

Topics covered in this course include vectors in R to the nth power and matrices, solutions of systems of linear equations by Gaussian elimination, determinants, vector spaces and linear transformations. There are generally classroom examinations in addition to a uniform midterm and final examination. This material is covered in the four-credit courses: Math. 116 (Fall, 1981) and 216 (Spring, 1982).

185, 186, 285. Analytic Geometry and Calculus. Permission of the Honors advisor. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185, and for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4 each). (N.Excl).

Mathematics 186 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

Topics covered in these three courses are the same as those for Math 115/116/117/215 (old sequence) or Math 115/116/215/216 (new sequence). Students who elect Math 185/186 cannot also receive Advanced Placement credit for Math 115/116.

Math. 285. A continuation of Math. 186. Multivariable calculus and some linear algebra. The text will be Calculus, Second Edition, by Loomis.

195, 196. Honors Mathematics. Permission of the Honors advisor. (4 each). (N.Excl).

Mathematics 196 is offered Winter Term, 1984.

Functions of one variable and their representation by graphs. Limits and continuity. Derivatives and integrals, with applications. Parametric representations. Polar coordinates. Applications of mathematical induction. Determinants and systems of linear equations. Text: L. Gillman and R.H. McDowell, Calculus, Second Edition. The course is part of the Honors sequence Mathematics 195, 196, 295, 296. Students must bring basic competence in high-school algebra and trigonometry. They need not be candidates for a mathematical career; but they should be willing to regard mathematics not only as a logical system and as a tool for science, but also as an art. Evaluation will be based on homework, examinations, and participation in discussions. The division of class-time between lectures and discussions will be determined informally according to the students' needs. Students will be encouraged to establish informal study groups.

215. Analytic Geometry and Calculus III. Math. 116. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics covered include vector algebra and calculus, solid analytic geometry, partial differentiation, multiple integrals and applications. There are generally daily assignments and class examinations in addition to uniform midterm and final examinations.

216. Introduction to Differential Equations. Math. 215. Students with credit for Math. 117 can only elect Math. 216 for 3 credits. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics covered include first order differential equations, linear differential equations with constant coefficients, vector spaces, differential operators, and linear transformations, systems of linear differential equations, power series solutions, and applications. There are generally several class examinations and regular assignments.

247/Ins. 474 (Business Administration). Mathematics of Finance. Math. 112 or 115. (3). (N.Excl).

This course is designed for students who seek an introduction to the mathematical concepts and techniques employed by financial institutions such as banks, insurance companies, and pension funds. Actuarial students, and other mathematics majors, should elect Math 424 which covers the same topics but on a more rigorous basis requiring considerable use of the calculus. Topics covered include: various rates of simple and compound interest, present and accumulated values based on these; annuity functions and their application to amortization, sinking funds and bond values; depreciation methods; introduction to life tables, life annuity, and life insurance values. The course is not part of a sequence. Students should possess financial calculators.

286. Differential Equations. Math. 285. (3). (N.Excl).

Sequel to Mathematics 285. Material covered is approximately that of Math 216, but in more depth.

289. Problem Seminar. Permission of instructor or the Honors advisor. (1). (N.Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission.

One of the best ways to develop mathematical abilities is by solving problems using a variety of methods. Familiarity with numerous methods is a great asset to the developing student of mathematics. Methods learned in attacking a specific problem frequently find application in many other areas of mathematics. In many instances, an interest in mathematics and an appreciation of mathematics is better developed by solving problems than by receiving formal lectures on specific topics. The student receives an opportunity to participate more actively in his education and development. This course is intended only for those superior students who have exhibited both ability and interest in doing mathematics. The course is not restricted to Honors students.

300/ECE 300. Mathematical Methods in System Analysis. Math. 216 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 448. (3). (N.Excl).

Mathematics 300/ECE 300 is primarily a lecture course designed to introduce electrical and computer engineering students to operational mathematics as embodied in Laplace Transforms, Fourier Series, Fourier Transforms and Complex Variables. The course is divided into 5 distinct topic areas, with the following amount of time coverage. Laplace Transforms (2 weeks), Inverse Laplace and Applications to Linear Differential Equations (2 weeks), System Theorem Concepts (1 week), Real Fourier Series (1 1/2 weeks), Functions of a Complex Variable (5 weeks), Inversion Integral (1 week), Complex Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms (2 weeks). Course grades determined from: weekly graded home problem assignments; three or four hourly quizzes and the final examination. Texts: (1) Course Notes-Mathematical Methods of System Analysis by Louis F. Kazda (available from Dollar Bill Copying, 611 Church). Reference: Engineering Library Reference Book List.

305/ECE 305. Mathematical Methods of Field Analysis. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Math 300/ECE 300. No credit granted to those who have completed 450. (3). (N.Excl).

The purpose of Mathematics 305/ECE 305 is to provide understanding of the mathematics involved in the analysis of vector and scalar fields and to give experience in its application. It is a lecture course which is required for the electrical engineering option in the ECE Department, and is typically taken in the junior year. The main segments of the course are (1) the algebra of vectors and scalars (1 week); (2) the differential calculus of fields in one, two and three dimensions: grad, div and curl (4 weeks); (3) the integral calculus of fields: line, surface and volume integrals; Green's, the divergence and Stokes' theorems (5 weeks); and (4) partial differential equations: their solution subject to prescribed initial values and boundary conditions (4 weeks). The required text has been Advanced Engineering Mathematics by E. Kreyszig (Wiley, 1979; 4th edition). Coverage is limited to Chapters 6, 8, 9, and 11, plus supplementary material involving the use of curvilinear coordinates. Weekly homeworks are assigned and marked. Grades are based on the results of the homeworks, 2 (or 3) quizzes and a final examination.

312. Applied Modern Algebra. Math. 116, or permission of mathematics advisor. (3). (N. Excl).

This course is an introduction to algebraic structures having applications in such areas as switching theory, automata theory and coding theory, and useful to students in mathematics, applied mathematics, electrical engineering and computer science. It introduces elementary aspects of sets, functions, relations, graphs, semigroups, groups, rings, finite fields, partially ordered sets, lattices, and Boolean algebras. Computer oriented applications are introduced throughout, covering some of: Finite State Machines, Minimal State Machines, Algebraic Description of Logic Circuits, Semigroup Machines, Binary Codes, Fast Adders, Polya Enumeration Theory, Series and Parallel Decompositions of Machines.

350/Aero. Eng. 350. Aerospace Engineering Analysis. Math. 216 or the equivalent. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a three-hour lecture course in engineering mathematics which continues the development and application of ideas introduced in Math. 215 and 216. The course is required in the Aerospace Engineering curriculum, and covers subjects needed for subsequent departmental courses. The major topics discussed include Fourier series, vector analysis, and an introduction to partial differential equations, with emphasis on separation of variables. Some review and extension of ideas relating to convergence, partial differentiation, and integration are also given. The methods developed are used in the formulation and solution of elementary initial- and boundary-value problems involving, e.g., forced oscillations, wave motion, diffusion, elasticity, and perfect-fluid theory. There are two or three one-hour exams and a two-hour final, plus about ten homework assignments, or approximately one per week, consisting largely of problems from the text. The text is Engineering Mathematics, Vol. 1, by A.J.M. Spencer et al.

385. Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers. One year each of high school algebra and geometry, and acceptable performance on a proficiency test administered in class; or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 485. (3). (Excl).

Mathematics 385 is an integrated treatment of arithmetic and geometric concepts important to elementary teachers. Principal emphasis is placed on the number systems of elementary mathematics: whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers. The School of Education requires successful completion of Math 385 before the student teaching experience. The text has been Professor Krause's Mathematics for Elementary Teachers, published by Prentice Hall. The course consists of two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Grades are principally determined by midterm and final examination scores, but the quality of homework performance, as evaluated in the discussion sections, has bearing on the final grade.

404. Differential Equations. Math. 216 or 286. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a second course in differential equations which reviews elementary techniques and delves into intermediate methods and equations. Emphasis varies slightly with individual instructor and student needs but usually includes power series expansions about ordinary points and regular singular points, series solutions of second-order differential equations, simultaneous linear equations (solutions by matrices), Laplace transform, numerical methods, nonlinear equations, and phase-plane methods. The format is lecture/discussion, and the course is often elected by engineering students and students of the natural, physical and social sciences.

412. First Course in Modern Algebra. Math. 215 or 285, or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 512. Students with credit for 312 should take 512 rather than 412. (3). (N.Excl).

This course assumes a level of mathematical maturity and sophistication consistent with advanced level courses. It is a course elected primarily by mathematics majors including teaching certificate candidates and by a small number of master's degree candidates. Normally it is the first "abstract" course encountered by students in mathematics. Most students continue with Mathematics 513 for which Mathematics 412 serves as a prerequisite. Course topics include basic material on sets with special emphasis on mappings, equivalence relations, quotients and homomorphisms; groups and subgroups; rings, integral domains and polynomial rings; and fields and simple extensions. Students seeking a more comprehensive presentation should consider Mathematics 512.

416. Theory of Algorithms. Math. 312 or 412 or ECE 367; and CCS 374. (3). (N. Excl).

This course will introduce the students to various algorithms used to solve mathematical problems. We will discuss the efficiency of these methods and areas of current research. The interaction between mathematics and computer science will be stressed. Topics will include: enumerative algorithms and their relation to sieve methods and sequence counting; generative algorithms designed to output all possible objects of a given type; algorithms for selecting an object at random; and graphical algorithms useful in circuit design and flow problems. Some elementary complexity analysis will be included with discussion of run and storage space restrictions, asymptotic methods, and NP completeness. The class format will be lecture/discussion. The grades will be based on homework and take-home exams.

417. Matrix Algebra I. Three terms of college mathematics. No credit granted to those who have completed 513. (3). (N.Excl).

The course covers basic linear algebra and touches on several of its applications to many different fields. Emphasis is on introducing a diversity of applications rather than treating a few in depth. Topics emphasized include a review of matrix operations, vector spaces, Gaussian and Gauss-Jordan algorithms for linear equations, subspaces of vector spaces, linear transformations, determinants, orthogonality, characteristic polynomials, eigenvalue problems, and similarity theory. Applications include linear networks, least squares method (regression), discrete Markov processes, linear programming, and differential equations. The class is elected by a cross section of students, and usually includes some graduate students. The class format is lecture/discussion. The text has been Linear Algebra and Its Applications by Strang.

419/CICE 401/ECE 401. Linear Spaces and Matrix Theory. Math. 216 or 286. No credit granted to those who have completed 417 or 513. (3). (N.Excl).

Finite dimensional linear spaces and matrix representations of linear transformations. Bases, subspaces, determinants, eigenvectors, and canonical forms. Structure of solutions of systems of linear equations. Applications to differential and difference equations. The course provides more depth and content than Math 417. Math 513 is the proper election for students contemplating research in mathematics. The objectives are to give a rigorous understanding of linear algebra and linear spaces. Abstract methods are used and some emphasis is given to proofs. The course is essential for the mathematics section of the CICE qualifying examination. Some mathematical maturity and ability to cope with abstraction is required; elementary understanding of matrices and differential equations. Three lectures per week, the grades are based on exams.

420. Matrix Algebra II. Math. 417 or 419. (3). (N.Excl).

Similarity theory. Euclidean and unitary geometry. Applications to linear and differential equations, least squares and principal components.

424/Ins. 524 (Business Administration). Compound Interest and Life Insurance. Math. 216 or permission of instructor. (3). (N.Excl).

Rates used in compound interest theory, annuities-certain and their application to amortization, sinking funds and bond values; introduction to life annuities and life insurance; both the discrete and the continuous approach are used.

425/Stat. 425. Introduction to Probability. Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl).

This course is a basic introduction to the mathematical theory of probability. Course topics include fundamental concepts, random variables, expectations, variance, covariance, correlation, independence, conditional probability, Bayes' Theorem, distributions, random walks, law of large numbers and central limit theorem. By itself the course provides a basic introduction to probability and, when followed by Statistics 426 or Statistics 575, the sequence provides a basic introduction to probability and statistics.

433. Introduction to Differential Geometry. Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl).

Curves and surfaces in three-space, using calculus. Curvature and torsion of curves. Curvature, covariant differentiation, parallelism, isometry, geodesics, and area on surfaces. Gauss-Bonnet Theorem. Minimal surfaces.

450. Advanced Mathematics for Engineers I. Math. 216 or 286. No credit granted to those who have completed 305. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics in advanced calculus including vector analysis, improper integrals, line integrals, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, and infinite series. Emphasis on applications. Text: Kaplan's Advanced Calculus (Second Edition).

451. Advanced Calculus I. Math. 215 and one course beyond Math. 215; or Math. 285. Intended for concentrators; other students should elect Math. 450. (3). (N.Excl).

Single variable calculus from a rigorous standpoint. A fundamental course for further work in mathematics.

452. Advanced Calculus II. Math. 451 and 417, or Math. 513; Math. 417 or 513 may be elected concurrently. (3). (N.Excl).

Multi-variable calculus, topics in differential equations and further topics.

454. Fourier Series and Applications. Math. 216 or 286. Students with credit for Math. 455 or 554 can elect Math. 454 for 1 credit. (3). (N.Excl).

Othogonal functions. Fourier series, Bessel function, Legendre polynomials and their applications to boundary value problems in mathematical physics. The text will probably be Churchill's Fourier Series and Boundary Value Problems, Third Edition.

455. Boundary-Value Problems and Complex Variables. Math. 450. Intended primarily for undergraduates; graduate students by permission of adviser. No credit granted to those who have completed 454 or 555. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics in advanced calculus include functions of a complex variable, separation of variables techniques to solve boundary value problems, special functions, and orthogonal series. Complex variables are used to evaluate residue integrals arising from Fourier integrals, calculate asymptotic behavior of Bessel functions, etc. The most recently used texts were Complex Variables by Brown and Churchill, and Fourier Series by Brown and Churchill.

462. Mathematical Models. Math. 216 and 417. (3). (N.Excl).

This course will discuss the principles and techniques of mathematical modeling in the social, life, and decision sciences. The mathematical techniques used will include such concepts as probability, Markov chains, utility theory, linear programming, graphs, game theory, and difference and differential equations. Among the applications we will consider are risk and insurance, decision theory, conflict resolution, the growth of populations, epidemics, queues, motion of particles and planets, and games. Toward the end of the course, students will work on individual projects that arise out of "real world problems." The prerequisites for this course are a course on matrices (e.g., Math 417), a course on differential equations (e.g., Math 216), and an elementary computer course. If in doubt about prerequisites, contact Prof. Simon at 763-5048 or 764-9476. (Simon)

471. Introduction to Numerical Methods. Math. 216 or 286 and some knowledge of computer programming. (3). (N.Excl).

Basic mathematical methods used in computing. Polynomial interpolation. Numerical integration. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. Linear systems. Monte Carlo Techniques. Round-off error. Students will use a digital computer to solve problems. The text is Burden, Faires, and Reynolds Numerical Analysis.

475. Elementary Number Theory. (3). (N.Excl).

Theory of congruences, Euler's phi-function, Diophantine equations, quadratic domains. Intended primarily for students interested in secondary and collegiate teaching.

480. Topics in Mathematics. Math. 417, 412, or 451, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course on topics in mathematics has a lecture component and a writing component. See department for specific topics.

481. Introduction to Mathematical Logic. Math. 412 or 451; or permission of instructor. (3). (N.Excl).

The course covers the syntax and semantics of the languages of propositional and first-order predicate logic. In the first third of the course, the notion of a formal language is introduced and propositional connectives, tautologies, and the notion of tautological consequence is studied. The heart of the course is the study of first-order predicate languages and their models. The completeness and compactness theorems are proved and applications such as non-standard analysis will be covered. No background in logic is required, but a student should be familiar with some abstract mathematics and have experience in constructing proofs. Evaluation is by problem sets and exams, either take-home or in-class. The usual text is A Mathematical Introduction to Logic by H.B. Enderton.

526/Stat. 526/C.I.C.E. 516. Discrete State Stochastic Processes. Math. 525; or Stat 510; or C.I.C.E. 512. (3). (N.Excl).

See Statistics 526.

lsa logo

University of Michigan | College of LS&A | Student Academic Affairs | LS&A Bulletin Index

This page maintained by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, 1228 Angell Hall

The Regents of the University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA +1 734 764-1817

Trademarks of the University of Michigan may not be electronically or otherwise altered or separated from this document or used for any non-University purpose.