Biological Sciences

Additional descriptions for many 400 and 500 level Biological Sciences courses may be found in Room 2083 Natural Sciences Building.

Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to concentrators in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. It can be taken to satisfy distribution requirements under Patterns I, II, or III. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to general principles of biology, ranging from the level of cells to ecological communities. Course topics include: the molecular basis of life, metabolic systems, heredity, diversity of living organisms, physiological processes, behavior, ecology, and evolution. The basic biological knowledge in these areas will be applied to current and relevant issues such as: recombinant DNA, cancer, human genetics, nutrition, disease, the human population explosion, pollution, and sociobiology. This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the sciences. Students who have had no science can survive this course, but some exposure to biology in high school is helpful. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants from the Division of Biological Sciences. In the discussion sections students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, observe and perform experiments which reinforce lecture material, participate in group discussions of various ethical and social issues raised by course material, and view a variety of films. Performance will be evaluated on the basis of three hour exams, quizzes, and a term paper. (Bach, Blumer, and Getty)

105. Introduction to Biology. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). Students who elect Biol. 105 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (5). (NS).

This is a one-term, fast-paced alternative to the Biology 112/114 sequence, covering essentially the same material. It is open to students who have completed at least one term of introductory college chemistry (Chem. 123 or equivalent) and have a strong background in high school biology. Biology 105 may be substituted whenever Biology 112/114 are prerequisites, but it is closed to students who have completed Biology 112 or 114. Reading, writing, and verbal skills play important roles in this course; students who are weak in these skills or who are not motivated to rapid, self-disciplined study habits are advised against taking the course. Biology 105 differs from Biology 112/114 sequence not only in the fast pace of study, but in the format of course offering. It is run on a self-instructional format with a strong emphasis on students' initiative to study material from assigned readings and to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, of Organisms, and of Populations). Assigned readings, laboratory material, and a study guide are given for each unit. The entire class meets twice a week, once during the two-hour lecture period for lectures and examinations and once for an hour-long discussion to introduce the laboratory exercises and integrate the lab and lecture material. The laboratories (3043, 3032 NR) are open for 18 hours weekly during which each student spends approximately a 3-hour block of time. Students meet once a week for two hours in small recitation sections after their laboratory work to analyze and discuss laboratory results and the readings. Three 2-hour examinations (including the final) are given to test students' understanding of both reading and laboratory material. These examinations cover each unit of the course at several levels of complexity and each of three levels is graded on a 0-100 basis. In addition, each student is required to submit two written laboratory reports which are graded on a 0-100 basis. The final grade is based on Teaching Assistants' evaluations for a total of 1200 points. The textbook for this course is Biological Science (3rd edition, 1980) by W.T. Keeton. A Xeroxed laboratory manual must also be purchased. A laboratory kit must be purchased at the Chemistry Store. For more information see the laboratory coordinator, 3064 NR (phone 30495). (Yocum et al.)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 112 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable prerequisites are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be two course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students should not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course.

An Honors laboratory section is available (see Time Schedule); enrollment for Honors work will entail laboratory and discussion time and effort beyond the regular course material; times for additional meetings will be announced.

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is required, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course are acceptable. (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). High school chemistry is not suitable as a prerequisite unless a student has obtained Advanced Placement credit for Chemistry 123, or has obtained other certification of college-level equivalency in general chemistry. Students who have completed Chemistry 123 with a grade below C- are to repeat the course before electing Biology 112, or repeat it concurrently with Biology 112. Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1570 C.C. Little Building.)(Wynne, Gay, Shappirio)

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 114 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. For information concerning the textbook and laboratory manual, contact bookstores. Further information about this course can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office in Room 1570 C.C. Little Building.

222. Energy and Ecology. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (2). (NS).

This study of the use of energy and its impact on the world ecosystems and climate treats the basic question of how to supply the energy needs of mankind while maintaining ecological integrity. The following sources of energy are considered: solar, biomass, wind, tidal, ocean thermal, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear, including their mining and manufacture, transport, utilization, and ecological principles and conservation practices that are essential for a healthful and stable world. (Gates)

291/Micro. 291. Microbiology Laboratory. Micro. 101 or Biol. 105 or 112-114; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

Laboratory experience with microbes helps form an adequate foundation for all of the biological sciences. This course consists of one orientation lecture and two laboratory sessions each week. Topics covered include an introduction to microbial variety, methods of study, some specific techniques, and general consideration of microbes in the world around us. The course is required in the microbiology concentration program, and is an appropriate adjunct for both biology and cell biology concentration programs. Evaluation is based on performance on three exams, and a variable number of quizzes, practical exams, and written reports. There is no required text; a variety of general microbiology texts is placed on reserve in the Natural Sciences Library. (Douthit)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. (Allen)

392. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (3). (NS).

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of developmental biology. Emphasis is placed on new discoveries in molecular and cellular biology and how they relate to classical observations on developing systems. Morphological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects of both vertebrate and invertebrate development are considered although the approach is selective rather than exhaustive. Particular stress is on the integration of cellular and morphological observation with the underlying molecular mechanisms. Lecture material includes: genome organization, chromatin structure, RNA synthesis and processing, models of genetic control mechanisms, gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, induction, organogenesis, and regeneration. This course is intended for juniors and seniors although it is open to sophomores. There are three one hour lectures per week. Three one hour exams are given. Readings are from Developmental Biology by Leon Browder. (Moore, Carlson)

393. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 392. (2). (NS).

This course provides students with the opportunity to study firsthand the development of a number of live vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. In addition to observation of normal embryogenesis, students perform several of the experimental analyses which have contributed to a basic understanding of developmental processes. Exercises focus on fertilization, developmental morphology, nuclear function, cytoplasmic determinants, induction, and enzyme regulation. In addition to one scheduled three-hour laboratory session each week, students are expected to spend about three additional hours in the laboratory each week. Short lectures are presented to introduce aspects of basic morphological areas of investigation. Formal reports on a number of exercises are required. There are at least three laboratory tests. (Jeyabalan)

401/Micro. 401. General Microbiology. Biochemistry (Biol. 411 or Biol. Chem. 415); preceded or accompanied by Biol. 305. (3). (NS).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to microbiology. Lectures cover cellular structures, physiology, genetics, taxonomy, and ecology. Medical microbiology and immunology are included in the context of microbial ecology. Eukaryotic micro-organisms and cells in culture are discussed, but emphasis is placed on prokaryotes and viruses. (Helling, Douthit, and Neidhardt)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exams. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, proctors each provide two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

413/Nat. Res. 413. Biophysical Ecology. General physics. (3). (NS).

This course deals with the thermodynamics of plants and animals, including energy exchange by radiation, convection, and evaporation. Chemical kinetics of photosynthesis and gas exchange processes are included. Basically the course is an analytical description of the interaction of plants and animals with their environment. Particular emphasis is given to a discussion of radiation (including light), its quantum properties, spectral character, geometrical relations, and time dependence. A model of primary productivity is described. The climates in which animals must live as a result of their inherent thermodynamic properties are discussed. The fundamentals of ecology are analyzed in terms of sound biochemical and biophysical principles. (Gates)

415. Lectures in Cell and Molecular Biology. Eight credits of biology, Biol. 411 or the equivalent, and organic chemistry; or permission of instructor. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This lecture course provides in-depth analysis of the molecular basis of function in living cells. Topics covered will include: transcription, gene expression, chromatin structure, DNA replication, and cell cycle; ribosomes and translation; intracellular transport and secretion; membrane structure and function; bioenergetics in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and prokaryotes; lysosomes and peroxisomes; organelle biogenesis; cytoskeleton, motility; and a survey of methods for studying these topics. Emphasis on the interpretation of experimental data is heavy. There will be two exams (TH 7-9) and a final exam. Questions should be addressed to Ms. Crandall, 2083 Nat. Sci. (Bender, Jones, Frasch)

416. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 415 and permission of instructor. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. (3). (NS).

To familiarize the student with modern laboratory technique involved in the analysis of cell structure and function is the course objective. The course deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of subcellular analysis. Specific experiments have been selected to coordinate with the lectures of Biology 415. The course illustrates certain techniques: cell fractionation, enzyme assay, identification of subcellular functional units, RNA and protein synthesis, mitochondrial and chloroplast function. There will be short lab quizzes and problem sets given. Course grades will be determined based on three major lab reports (written in a format typical of manuscripts submitted for publication in scientific journals), five short reports and two quizzes. For permission, inquire in room 2083 Natural Science.

418. Introduction to Population Genetics. Biol. 305 and Stat. 402; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course will introduce the field of population genetics and its relationship to population ecology, emphasizing the experimental aspects of population genetics. About 25% of the course will be devoted to population genetic theory necessary for understanding the experimental approaches used in the field. Experiments and data on plant, animal, and human populations will be used to illustrate the various principles of population genetics. Course outline: (a) the factors of evolution, mutation, migration, selection, in-breeding, small population size; (b) the concept of fitness, concepts of genetic load, estimation of the rate of evolutionary change; (c) population variation and adaptation; (d) organization of the population genotype, two locus models, coadaptation, intergenotypic interactions; (e) demography and population genetics. Evaluation of student progress in the course will be based on: (1) a midterm which will be scheduled if the majority of students desire it; (2) a term paper which should be a concise, critical exposition of one aspect of the course of particular interest to the student, the title to be chosen by the student after consultation with the instructor; (3) one final exam; and (4) three or four problem sets which will be given out through the term. (Smouse)

424. Cell and Developmental Genetics. Biol. 305; a course in developmental biology is helpful but not required. (2-3). (NS).

This course is an in-depth analysis of current information on gene control of developmental processes in multicellular organisms. The format includes lectures on meiosis, gene amplification, sex determination, pattern formation, temperature-sensitive mutations, polytene chromosomes, and structural and functional organization of genes in relation to development. Stress is placed on reading articles in scientific journals; no textbook is used. For each topic covered, an up-to-date list of references including one or two key review papers is provided. Students are encouraged to read one or more of these scientific papers. No examinations; student evaluation is based on two term papers, one being an extensive analysis of a topic covered in the lectures and the other a compilation of short summaries of the papers read during the term. Students electing the course for 3 credits are required to present a seminar on a topic of their choice. (Rizki)

471. Population and Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3).

Current ecological theory and research is examined in depth. Topics include the logic of hypothesis testing, the maintenance of species diversity, the roles of competition, predation, mutualism, and environmental heterogeneity in ecological systems, and the analysis of population growth and fluctuations. A general background in ecology is required. This course complements Biology 470, Evolutionary Ecology. Short papers and a term paper are required. Readings are from current literature. There are two 1-hour lectures and one 2-hour discussion per week. (Rathcke)

493. Biochemical Ecology. Organic chemistry; prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (NS).

Biology 493 explores the relationships between the various components of an organism's overall life history strategy (what it eats, how it protects itself, how much energy it uses) and the design of certain major biochemical systems (such as the organization of its energy metabolism, the character of its digestive machinery, or the nature of its detoxification systems). Stated more succinctly, the course analyzes the biochemical bases for the adaptations of organisms to their environments. Specific topics likely to be considered include (1) nutrition and digestive biochemistry, (2) detoxification mechanisms and chemical defenses, (3) adaptations to specialized or nutritionally unbalanced diets, (4) the biochemistry of symbiotic associations, (5) energy metabolism in diverse types of muscle, (6) the adaptive significance of different metabolic fuels, (7) anaerobic and aerobic activity patterns in vertebrates, (8) anaerobiosis in invertebrates, and (9) the enzymatic basis for tolerance of extreme or fluctuating temperatures. The course is of potential interest to students in biochemistry, physiology, ecology and natural resources. The class meetings are lecture-discussion sessions, and the readings are mainly from the primary and review literature. Considerable emphasis is placed on developing the ability to read journal articles in an analytical and critical manner. Student evaluation will probably be based upon an oral presentation, several (4-6) short written critiques of journal articles, a midterm hour exam, and a second hour exam given at the time scheduled for the course final. (Martin)

494. Biophysical Chemistry. Biol. 411 and Math. 114; or the equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to give students in the life sciences a background in physical chemistry as applied to biological systems and biological instrumentation. Particular aspects of thermodynamics and kinetics are reviewed with examples drawn from enzyme folding and catalysis. The applications of physical chemistry which are discussed include the role of non-covalent bonds in the stability and folding of proteins and nucleic acids, the role of entropy in the polymerization of proteins, the nature of specific and non-specific interactions, the energetics of cellular transport, DNA supercoiling, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, the use of fluorescence in cell biology, the principles of light and electron microscopy, and the principles of the detection of radiation by photographic and scintillation techniques. Five graded problem sets and five examinations will be given. (Langmore)

502. Regulation of Cellular Metabolism. Biol. 411 and 415, or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students who wish to pursue the study of biochemical regulation beyond the levels of introductory biochemistry and cell biology. The course is aimed at gaining insight into underlying biochemical mechanisms for highly orderly activities of the cell. Heavy emphasis is given to mammalian cellular metabolism. The course starts with general discussion of basic regulatory mechanisms of cellular metabolism, and progresses to specific discussion of various modes of regulation of several representative metabolic pathways. The last 4-5 weeks will be used for discussion of special topics by guest lecturers. There is no assigned textbook for this course. A list of references is given for each topic. Students are asked to read major references in the library. The course grade is based on two take-home examinations, one term paper, and a critique. (Ikuma)

505/Micro. 505. Pathogenic Microorganisms. A course in general microbiology and biological chemistry. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. (3). (NS).

See Microbiology 505. (Freter, Harvie, Jones)

513/Micro. 513. Microbial Genetics. Microbiology, genetics, biochemistry. (4). (NS).

Lecture and discussion focus on analysis of original papers dealing with the genetics of E. coli and other prokaryotes. Topics include plasmid structure, function and evolution; restriction and modification; transposable elements, recombinant DNA methodology; the molecular bases of recombination and selected aspects of the control of gene function. A limited laboratory experience will supplement lecture and discussion. (Helling)

527. Experimental Limnology. Biol. 443 or permission of instructor. (3).

Experimental Limnology is our main advanced limnology course. Its primary purpose is to explore modern limnology with the aid of the current literature published in scientific journals. This year the course will focus on the structure of aquatic ecosystems. We will discuss food chains, community structure, and trophic-dynamics. Weekly lectures and discussions will treat the ecological relationships of organisms at each trophic level from Decomposers (bacteria) to Top Carnivores (insects, fish). Each meeting will consist of a lecture (informal) designed to introduce the topic that will be discussed the following week and a discussion related to the topic introduced the previous week. Students are expected to spend the week prior to each discussion reading relevant papers that will be placed on reserve in the library and any other useful materials. (Kilham)

575. Biological Electron Microscopy. Sixteen credits of biology or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (4).

The objective of this course is to teach basic techniques applied in biological electron microscopy. The following topics are taught: tissue exposure, fixation and fixatives, embedding and embedding media, sectioning, staining methods, the use of the transmission electron microscope, taking photographs with the electron microscope, and printing and dark-room techniques. The theoretical aspects of these topics are covered in lectures. The practical part is taught in the laboratory and there are discussions of electron micrographs taken by students. The students are required to do some additional practicing in the laboratory (about 14 hours a week). There is a midterm laboratory practical exam and a lecture exam on the use of the electron microscope and its theory. At the end of the term students submit a report of the project they were working on and a 10x14" high quality electron micrograph of their own material. These assignments form the basis for student evaluation. There is no special background necessary, although some knowledge of electronics and histology is helpful. Two textbooks are used in the course: Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists; and Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Volume I. (Baic)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

This course aims to teach the techniques for successfully growing and propagating plants and the principles of botanical science upon which they are based. The environmental factors important in plant growth, particularly light, temperature, water, and soil will be studied. Students will gain practical experience in such applied botanical techniques as the following: preparation of soils and artificial growth media; use of fertilizers; propagation of plants by cuttings, layering, division, bulbs, grafting, and seed; methods of pruning, plant breeding, pest and disease control; preparation of terraria, hanging baskets, and bonsai; the use of plants in landscaping, and the ecology and management of natural areas; the care and development of living plant collections. Students will be expected to learn to recognize a selected group of indoor and outdoor garden plants, edible wild plants, and common poisonous species. Field trips will include a visit to a commercial greenhouse and an estate garden. Two lecture-discussion periods, and six hours of laboratory per week. Discussions and laboratories are held at the Botanical Gardens, with bus service provided. (Steiner)

190. Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. (3). (NS).

Botany 190 is divided into three basic sections: (1) plants, their way of life, and uses by people; (2) probing the ecological nature of our environment in natural, agricultural, and urban ecosystems; and (3) solutions to and constructive action for our environmental problems. We cover such topics as wild edible foods, the pros and cons of the green revolution, growing and maintaining your own plants, drug and medicinal plants, alternative means of pest control, alternative energy sources, new ideas for home and urban landscapes, natural areas and their preservation, and wild and endangered species of plants. We have a natural foods dinner prepared by the students. Throughout the course, students present oral environmental alerts on specific environmental problems and solutions to them. Grade evaluation is based on three midterms and one environmental alert (written or oral). (Kaufman)

207. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (4). (NS).

The biology of plants as organisms, emphasizing individuals, populations, and communities. The course treats the evolution and adaptations of the groups of plants, introducing principles of plant morphology, systematics, ecology, geography, and ethnobotany. The laboratory includes a study of plant diversity (bacteria through flowering plants), culture work and field trips. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. The course is a prerequisite for the Professional Concentration Program in Botany. (Fogel)

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 105 or 112; or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

For students interested in how plants grow, this course presents an integrated structural and functional approach to plant development. Topics studied include cell biology and cellular mechanics of plant growth, organogenesis and differentiation with emphasis on controls, particularly hormonal and environmental. The course will provide a basis for understanding the natural history and some practical aspects of plant life. Students attend two one-hour lectures, a one-hour discussion session, and three hours of laboratory each week. The lab will provide experience with both whole plants and axenic tissue cultures. (Nooden)

422. Systematic Botany. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), or Bot. 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The diversity of higher plants is taught with lectures, color projection slides, specimens, living plants, and laboratory discussions. Emphasis is on the level of orders, families and genera, temperate as well as tropical, so that students can make themselves familiar with plants in any part of the world. The course focuses mainly on the flowering plants because of their dominant role on the earth, but gymnosperms and pteridophytes are studied too. The phylogeny of vascular plants provides the framework. In angiosperms hypothetical ancestral types are discussed and various lines are analysed, e.g., the pinks (Caryophillidae), roses (Rosidae), wind-pollinated trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae), and so on. Related subjects, such as habitats of plants, geography, biosystematics, cladistics and floral biology are presented in special lectures. A major component of the science of botany, systematics is considered essential to training plant scientists and botany majors. However, the course is also elected by biology majors, zoologists, foresters, ecologists and ethnobotanists. Some individuals take the course merely because they enjoy plants and wish to learn about them, including students with backgrounds as diverse as engineering and city planning. The methods of instruction include lecture and laboratory, the latter including demonstrations and discussions. There are two midterms, a final, and numerous small lab quizzes. Various texts are recommended for students with special interests, but only two are required. They are Davis, P.H. and J. Cullen, The Identification of Flowering Plant Families (Cambridge University Press) and Wood, C.E., Jr . A Student's Atlas of Flowering Plants (Harper and Row). (Wagner)

456/Geol. 456. Paleobotany. An introductory course in botany or biology; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The course covers the morphology, classification, and evolution of the major groups of fossil plants, and the stratigraphic and paleoecological significance of fossil plant assemblages. Beginning with fossils nearly three billion years old from the Precambrian - the earliest evidence of living cells we shall proceed to study forms of plant life, and the evolutionary changes reflected in the fossil record, through geological time to the present. There are no prerequisites beyond general botany or general biology, but an introductory course in physical geology and Botany 207, or the equivalent, would be beneficial. Instruction will be by lecture and laboratory, and will include a midterm and a final examination. Lecture and laboratory topics will be coordinated and in laboratory we shall study beautiful fossil specimens from the extensive paleobotanical collections of the Museum of Paleontology. Required text: Paleobotany: An Introduction to Fossil Plant Biology by T.N. Taylor (McGraw-Hill). (Beck)

479. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. Eight hours in biology; at least junior standing. (4). (NS).

This course deals with contemporary methods and results of studies on plant protoplast, cell and tissue cultures. The lectures cover such topics as (1) how plant cells, tissues, and organs are cultured, (2) induction of roots and shoots in tissue cultures, (3) regeneration of whole plants from single cells, (4) protoplast isolation and fusion of protoplasts, (5) somatic cell hybridization in plants, (6) genetic engineering with plant protoplasts, cell, and tissue cultures, (7) applications of plant cell and tissue culture in plant breeding, forestry, crop production, and horticulture, (8) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to produce secondary compounds of interest in medicine and pharmacology, (9) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures in the U.S. Space Biology Program under NASA, and (10) uses of plant cell and tissue cultures to save threatened and endangered plant species from extinction. The lab deals with the primary techniques of plant cell and tissue culture isolation of protoplasts, mericloning, establishing tissue cultures and cell suspension cultures, somatic embryogenesis, somatic cell hybridization, anther and pollen cultures to get haploids, production of secondary metabolites in cell cultures, quantitation of tissue culture procedures, induction of vascular differentiation in tissue cultures, and sterile techniques and media preparation. Students will have an opportunity to do an independent project in the lab for extra credit. (Kaufman)

491/Geol. 491. Quaternary Paleoecology. A course in ecology or in Pleistocene geology. (2). (NS).

This course presents the principles and techniques of reconstructing biotic communities and environments of the Pleistocene and Holocene (or the Ice Ages and the present interglacial, the past two million years). Evidence from plant and animal fossils, geology, and archaeology is used in syntheses of interpretations of life and environments (especially climates) of this period. Topics include the fossil pollen record, microfossils in deep sea sediments, and geochemistry of glacial ice cores. Prerequisite will be satisfied by college course in general ecology or Pleistocene geology or by permission of the instructor. Lectures, discussions of readings, one term paper, midterm hour examination, and final examination. (Benninghoff)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

252. Pattern Analysis of Chordate Structure. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

Zoology 252 teaches the comparative method of science, and it is applied to a wide variety of structural and functional characteristics of vertebrate animals. The course begins with a description of the comparative method and several lectures on evolutionary, speciation, and phylogenetic theories. The remaining two-thirds of the course are devoted to examples. This format has prepared pre-professional students in the medical sciences for many years. There are three lectures and one laboratory per week. The laboratory is a practical experience in either the theory developed in lecture or a real life example. A good introductory biology course is the only requirement. There are several lecture examinations and at least one final laboratory examination. (Kluge)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (NS).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Zoology 421, 422, or 428 - these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. Zoology concentrators must take Zoology 326 concurrently. Non-Zoology concentrators may take Zoology 325 alone. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Doneen, Hume)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Zool. 325. (1). (NS).

The exercises in laboratory deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. A report on every exercise is required. Most reports are short (two to three pages) and attempt to answer specific questions. Two full-length reports are also required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Zoology 326 must be taken concurrently with Zoology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Zoology 325 will not be admitted to Zoology 326.

422. Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), one year of chemistry, and one year of physics. (3). (NS).

An introduction to neural function, including such topics as action potentials, synaptic phenomena, sensory systems, motor output, neurohormonal integration, development, memory, etc. (Oakley)

423. Laboratory in Neurobiology. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 422 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

Anatomy and physiology of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems, including examination of various sensory and motor systems. Electrophysiological techniques are routinely used. (Oakley)

452. Natural History of Vertebrates. Two laboratory courses in biology. (4). (NS).

The life history, behavior, ecology, morphology, and adaptive radiation of the vertebrates with emphasis on the local fauna. Lectures will cover general characteristics, biology, and distribution of each major group, and in greater depth different topics particularly well illustrated by special groups. Laboratories will cover identification of 200 Michigan species, adaptive radiation in the major groups, behavioral observations, and some experiments. Field trips will emphasize ecological distribution, behavior, and life history. Grades will be based on lecture and laboratory examinations and field notebooks and laboratory reports. Readings from books on reserve. The text will be Orr, R.T., Vertebrate Biology. (Storer)

476. Ethology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and one additional course in zoology. (3). (NS).

The objective of this course is to acquaint students with the subject of animal behavior. All types of behavior are considered; both vertebrate and invertebrate examples are utilized. The course approaches behavior from a zoological viewpoint; emphasis is placed on understanding the methods of investigation used in the study of animal behavior. Consideration of physiological mechanisms is given, as well as discussion of the evolutionary framework in which behavior patterns are selected. The course is divided into two sections. In the first section, the types of factors which affect behavior are discussed. During the second part of the course, functional categories of behavior (feeding, orientation, agonistic, sexual) are discussed with an emphasis on bringing together as many factors as possible in an attempt to understand the control (both proximate and ultimate) of these behaviors at all levels. Although Biology 112 and 114 or equivalent is required, it would be best to have at least one of the following three areas before taking the course: genetics, ecology, or neurophysiology. Students who wish to obtain a more complete background should plan to take Biology 470 and/or Zoology 475 either before or after taking Zoology 476. Methods of instruction: (1) lectures are the primary means of instruction; (2) a text is also utilized, as are outside readings; (3) there is a midterm lecture exam and a term paper, as well as a final exam. (Hazlett)

477. Laboratory in Animal Behavior. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 476; and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

The objective of this laboratory course is to give students first-hand experience with observing animal behavior and in measuring the behavioral effects of experimental treatment of animals. In addition, considerable attention is given to the design of experiments by the students. A variety of animals are used vertebrate, invertebrate, terrestrial, fresh-water; diurnal and nocturnal. A variety of behavior patterns are studied in the experiments, ranging from simple orientation movements to complex social behaviors. About one quarter of the course is devoted to individual research projects which the students design themselves. (Hazlett)

480. Biological Ultrastructure and Histogenesis. Eight credits of biology. (3). (NS).

The subject matter of this course is the differentiation of cells and tissues from the molecular level to the microscopic level of organization. The lectures encompass development of gametes and of the differentiating cells and cell matrices in higher organisms. Emphasis is on histogenesis in vertebrates, but relevant work on invertebrate and plant organisms is also considered. The course includes results obtained by a variety of analytical techniques, including x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, autoradiography, cytochemistry, histological staining, and light microscopy by bright-field, phase, interference, and polarization optics. The aim of this course is to integrate structural aspects of cell and molecular biology, developmental biology, and histology. The following topics are included: techniques of light and electron microscopy; synthesis of macromolecules; development of cell organelles and inclusions; secretion of cell products; cell locomotion; cell division; gametogenesis and early embryology; histogenesis of tissues: epithelium, connective and supportive, nerve, muscle, blood; and differentiation of cell and tissue types in vertebrate organ systems. Junior standing with at least eight hours of biology is required. Previous courses in development, histology, cell biology, or electron microscopy would be helpful. Course organization: three lectures per week; two midterm examinations and a final. There is no single textbook covering the subject matter in this course, but Textbook of Histology by Fawcett and Bloom is a recommended reference. Reading lists of books and published papers are provided. Lectures are illustrated with slides of electron micrographs, photomicrographs, and interpretive drawings. (Kemp)

563. Birds of the World. Sixteen credits of zoology and permission of instructor. (3).

The morphology and biology of the families of birds. Designed for graduate students conducting research on birds. Permission of instructor is required. (Storer)

580/Anatomy 715. Regeneration in Vertebrates. An introductory course in developmental biology; graduate or senior standing, and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This is a lecture-discussion course designed principally for graduate students. Its object is to cover the principles of regeneration in vertebrates. The first half of the course is devoted to an in-depth analysis of amphibian limb regeneration as a biological model system. The second half of the course is tailored according to the interests of the members of the class. Class participation consists of regular readings and discussions based upon them, a one hour student seminar and a paper. (Carlson)

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