Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

The course will present students with some fundamental texts of Western political philosophy, Plato to Marx. The aim of the course is to make students acquainted with a tradition that develops a specific mode of inquiry-political philosophy-in the attempt to answer the question: How can human beings live together peacefully? How can we harmonize individual and collective good? The course includes two lecture sessions (one hour each) and a two-hour discussion session each week. Students will be required to prepare readings in advance of classes to participate in discussions, and to write papers showing their grasping of the material covered in the course. (Gobetti)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as an intensive exploration of the fundamentals of American government: its function in political thought, its structures and the functions they perform separately and collectively, the role of the individual in the system, the policy output it generates. As a survey course we will explore a broad range of topics, including political development, public opinion, political socialization, political participation, voting and elections, the news media, political parties, interest groups, Congress, the presidency and the executive branch, the court system, and foreign and domestic policy. This may seem very abstract, but in fact we'll come to see American government as a concrete entity which affects all of us, composed of human beings making choices, created by human beings making choices. Lectures will be interactive and will complement TA-led discussion sections, so there will be more opportunity for participation than one normally expects in large intro classes. Grading will consist of a midterm, final exam, term paper, section work and attendance. Knowledge of American government at the high school level is assumed. (Kerbel)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems work and to familiarize them with concepts used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence political life; political parties and political competition; leadership succession; the role of political institutions; and the analysis of contemporary political conflicts. The course will offer two lectures per week, plus two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of communication. (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the basic approaches to the study of international politics. Material on the theories underlying these approaches is grounded in case studies of events from World War I to the present. The object is twofold: to familiarize students with the ways in which analysts have tried to understand international politics; and to equip students with both substantive knowledge of, and a grasp of the underlying theoretical issues concerning contemporary international problems. Students will be evaluated on the basis of both examinations and several writing assignments. All students are expected to attend discussion sections as well as the regular lectures for the course. (Lieberthal)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.

This is a course in feminist political theory, but the texts and approach are interdisciplinary. After examining some major feminist political writings, we will turn to material from psychology, economics, and sociology. This course will concentrate on the particular constellation of issues facing women within a contemporary liberal political order. This is a discussion class; the basis of evaluation will include participation as well as papers and an exam. There are no course prerequisites, but students will find previous background in political philosophy, American politics, or women's studies helpful. (Peters)

320. Latino Politics and the Latino Community. (4). (SS).

This course, which focuses on Latinos in the U.S., begins by evaluating whether this diverse group can be identified by a single label. What do terms like "Latino," "Hispanic," or "Spanish" mean for these people and for the rest of the population? Is place of origin a powerful dividing force in American politics? Emphasis will be placed on the three largest groups of Hispanic Americans Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. We will examine the circumstances surrounding each groups' immigration to the U.S., the settlement and development of their different communities, their demographic characteristics, and their political preferences and behavior. The most important objective is to determine whether Hispanic political attitudes are determined more by place of origin than by other factors and whether this relationship is more striking than for other groups of Americans. The course will conclude by evaluating the efficacy of Hispanics in American politics and the factors that limit their political effectiveness. Classes will be a combination of lecture and discussion. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, and three exams. (Calvo)

353. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4). (SS).

This course analyzes the origins, evolution, and present dimensions of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The first part of the course will be devoted to the historical origins of the conflict; the second to an understanding of its current dimensions. The emphasis will be on the regional context of the conflict. This will include the motivations, perceptions, and domestic constraints of the local actors, the regional rivalries that frame the conflict, and the impact of great power interventions. The course will be organized both chronologically and topically. Historical analysis will thus provide a solid foundation for what should be lively discussion of contemporary problems. The format of the course includes lectures, discussion sections, and a computer-based simulation involving role playing. The course concludes with a review of the present configuration of the factors and forces involving the Arab-Israeli conflict. No previous special knowledge of the Middle East is required. (Crystal)

361. Current Issues in World Politics. (2). (SS).

This course will examine world politics partly from a cultural perspective. The impact of values upon the behavior of nations, the cultural causes of war, the cultural foundations of power, and the role of such ideological movements as socialism, nationalism and Zionism are some of the issues to be examined. (Mazrui)

391. Introductory Internship in Political Science. One 100-level course in political science, permission of supervising instructor before the internship period, and review by Department's internship adviser. Intended for non-concentrators. (2-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). All internship courses may be elected for a maximum total of 8 credits.

Supervised internship, primarily for non-concentrators. Requires the approval of the instructor and review by the department's internship coordinator. (2-4 each)

396/Econ. 396/REES 396/Slavic 396/Hist. 333/Soc. 393. Survey of Eastern Europe. (4). (SS).

See REES 396. (Meyer)

403. Development of Political Thought: Modern and Recent. Political Science 402 or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

We will focus on the major works of political philosophy from the seventeenth century to the end of the nineteenth century. In the process we will be concerned with the theoretical foundations of liberalism (the political philosophy which focuses on individual rights and equality within the political structure), its transformation over three centuries, and the critiques which have been offered of it by such authors as Marx and Nietzsche. We will read only the primary texts. Among the authors who will be discussed are Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, Bentham, Mill, Marx and Nietzsche. This course is a continuation of Political Science 402; although this and/or other courses in political theory would be helpful, they are not required. There will be two exams during the term, as well as a final. (Saxonhouse)

405. American Political Thought. Junior standing. (4). (SS).

The ambiguities of liberalism and the challenges it has faced: federalism, constitutionism, slavery, war, social Darwinism, and so on. Emphasis on the founders and the period up to the Civil War. Our focus will be on political argument, and students will participate in four debates (one per student) over the term. Readings will include Franklin, Paine, Jefferson, THE FEDERALIST, the Antifederalist papers, Calhoun, Emerson, Thoreau, and more. (Herzog)

407. Selected Topics in Political Theory. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

SOCIETY and SELF in 20th CENTURY POLITICAL THOUGHT. This course is a general examination of 20th century political thought that concentrates on conceptions of individual consciousness of self and their relations to concepts of society, culture, civilization, and language in the writings of Durkheim, Freud, Merleau-Ponty, Gadamer, Kristeva, and others. It seeks to make students aware of the historical and inter-disciplinary context within which 20th century theory develops, the ways in which 20th century thinkers use their frameworks to reflect on industrial capitalism, fascism, and communism, and the difficulties raised for political thought by 20th century frameworks. The course will consist of lecture and discussion and will be graded on the basis of papers and exams. A background in political, sociological, or psychological theory is helpful but not required. (Northrup)

409/CAAS 456. Comparative Black Political Thought. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a comparative analysis of Black political thought with the following themes: Africa and the Black Diaspora; A Vortex of Ideas; Pan-African and Pan-Black Movements; African Thought and the Legacy of Slavery; The Warrior Tradition in Black Political Cultures. Other topics include: Negritude, Nostalgia and Sacred Origins; Religion and Black Political Thought; Language, Literature, and Black Political Thought. Select Black thinkers, chosen from African, Caribbean and Black American writers and ideological leaders will be studied.

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This course examines the formulation and implementation of public programs, mainly those of the U.S. central government, and mainly welfare-state in character. Lectures and readings concentrate on the contribution of political culture, institutional structure, and strategic choice to policy outcomes. The course proceeds by lectures and class discussion.

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

COURSE OBJECTIVES: 1) Provide an understanding of American mass politics, especially electoral politics, from both normative and empirical points of view and from the perspectives of the individual voter and the candidate for office. 2) Explore the extent, causes, and consequences of recent changes (or alleged changes) in public attitudes toward politics. 3) Introduce the modes of thinking and the analytical tools employed in the systematic study of American political behavior. COURSE REQUIREMENTS: Midterm and final examinations, plus a term paper. The paper will involve original computer analysis of national election survey data. NO PRIOR STATISTICAL OR COMPUTER EXPERIENCE IS ASSUMED. (Markus)

412. The Legal Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Drawing loosely upon literature from political science, social psychology, law and sociology, we will attempt to paint a generalized and empathic portrait of criminal justice as it is conceptualized and practiced. Along the way, we'll be discussing the uneasy role of criminal justice in a purportedly democratic society, as well as the different environments, attitudes and behaviors of the important actors in criminal justice (including, for example, criminals, the police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges, jurors, prisoners and prison administration). Most discussions and materials will focus upon the United States, though comparisons to other political systems will be made where appropriate or possible. At present, a course paper (not just a research paper, but rather a research design), two or three midterm examinations and a comprehensive final examination are contemplated as the means by which grades will be determined. (Warr)

414. The Politics of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the law of civil rights and liberties as it is derived from American constitutional interpretation. Attention will be devoted to 1) theories of civil liberty appropriate to a liberal democracy, with 2) application of such theories to specific areas of civil rights law drawn from the following: freedom of expression, political participation, and religion; equal protection and rights of the accused; privacy "life-style" issues, and control of personal information; as well as issues like access to the news media and private abridgment of freedoms.

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Many of us have opinions about Congress and images of what we think it does, but perhaps only a few have taken the time to look closely at the institution, its functions, and the people who make it run. This course is intended to help you make intelligent judgments about one of our most political institutions. It will revolve around eleven questions about Congress and legislative behavior, which will address such issues as leadership and accountability, the organization of Congress and the role it plays in the policy system, how congressmen perform their jobs, and the necessity of institutional reform. Evaluating these questions requires thought and your active involvement despite the rather high enrollment limit, this class will feel more like a seminar than a lecture, and is recommended only for people who like to participate. The method of grading is to be determined, but will likely include both in-class and take-home exams, along with participation. (Kerbel)

418. Women and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will analyze the participation of women in political life and will investigate barriers to their participation. The role of women as activists, candidates, and participants in the political process will not be limited to American women, although the emphasis will be on the American political system. Cross-national comparisons will be made in order to develop a comparative perspective. The course will also include a section devoted to the collective, organized efforts of women who want to have an impact on the policy-making process.

419/CAAS 418. Black Americans and the Political System. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See CAAS 418. (Dawson)

420/Comm. 420. Politics and the Mass Media. Pol. Sci. 111, 300, 410, or 411. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to expose students to the way the news is made and the consequences for the operation of the political system. The central theme will be shifting roles of the media as objective reporter of events and as public agenda setter. (Semetko)

428/Phil. 428/Econ. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who seek an introduction on the subject. There are no prior course requirements for the course, and the lectures and readings avoid jargon or esoteric concepts. This is a classic area studies course. The immediate purpose is simple: to convey a preliminary understanding of the Chinese communist revolution, China's recent political history, its emergence into the world scene in the past few years, and its current social, cultural, political, and economic conditions. The larger purpose is to awaken a life-long interest among students in following developments in China, with the assumption that the rise of this nation is one of the major developments of our lifetime. Mr. Oksenberg will deliver approximately half the lectures, and the remaining lectures will be given by professors from UM's leading Center for Chinese Studies. This is a genuinely inter-disciplinary course. Requirements are an hour exam, a short research paper, and either a written or oral final examination. (Oksenberg)

438/Amer. Inst. 438. Ethics and Public Policy. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 438. (Chamberlin)

441. Comparative Politics of Advanced Industrial Democracies. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course examines the politics in the democracies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan. The focus is on political parties, elections, patterns of participation, public policy, and political economy. It should not be elected by students without a course in Political Science, or by students who have taken Political Science 440 or 442. Students will be evaluated by midterm and final examinations and by a paper. Lecture and discussion. (Barnes)

450. Political Modernization in the Developing World. Any 100-level course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will have a double purpose. It will cover some of the key conceptions of political development and explore how such large scale transformations affect other sectors of national life. Moreover, the course will review briefly how national development and the resulting mobilization of resources will affect the structure of international power. The method of instruction will be lecture, and each student will be required to make reports. (Organski)

452. Israeli Society and Politics. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the political and social development of the state of Israel. It includes an examination of Zionist ideology, the political culture and institutional structure of Israel, the party system, and political leadership. Political behavior and socialization, national integration and ethnicity, and religion and politics are among the other topics examined. A final examination and a midterm or term paper are required. (Gitelman)

453. Governments and Politics of the Middle East. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to introduce students to politics and political change in the Arab Middle East and North Africa. Its approach is comparative, and its primary concern is with understanding and explaining domestic politics in the Arab states of the region. The first part of the course focuses on the historical evolution of regimes in the into-and postwar eras; the second part of the course is devoted to understanding the processes and structures that account for that evolution.

454. Governments and Politics of Southeast Asia. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is an introductory course concerned with the ten nations of Southeast Asia. Major points of interest will be the political culture, religions, militaries, and economics of these countries. The subject matter of this course will be almost exclusively domestic policies, with little coverage of the international relations of the region. Grading will be based on short papers, a final exam, and in-class discussions. (Hawes)

455. Government and Politics of China. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to offer students a way of understanding the politics of China as a process of grappling with long-standing political and social issues the country continues to confront. We will do this by looking at various aspects and styles of politics, policy-making, and state-populace relations, and by reviewing the major episodes and periods in the political history of post-1949 China and the events since the death of Mao Zedong in 1976.

459/CAAS 449. Africa: Development and Dependence. Prior or concurrent study of the Third World; Pol. Sci. 465 is recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This class will investigate in what ways the concepts of development and dependency apply to the African experience. Political, economic and social change in Africa will be measured by criteria of development, modernization, dependency and decay. The issues covered will include distortions of African economies, political instability, the quest for political order, and Africa's incorporation into the international capitalist system. Strategies of decolonization will also be examined. (Mazrui)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This is an undergraduate course designed to introduce students to a number of important foreign policy issues which confront policy makers in the international system. In the first half of the course issues related to national security and defense policy will be examined conventional and nuclear deterrence, nuclear proliferation, and the economic consequences of defense spending. In the second half of the course issues related to international political economy will be examined the impact of multinational corporations on economic development in the Third World, U.S. foreign economic policy and trade relations with Japan, economic sanctions, and East-West trade. Introductory courses in international relations are recommended but not required. Students are graded on the basis of a midterm and final exam. The course will be conducted largely as a lecture. (Huth)

465. Political Development and Dependence. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to review the major theories of political development. The course is divided into five parts: 1) Major approaches to political development; 2) Agrarian movements; 3) Revolutions left and right; 4) Varieties of Authoritarianism; and 5) International dependence. The work for the course involves writing three papers each of about 10 to 15 pages. They are due at regular intervals during the term. (McDonough)

469. Politics of International Economic Relations. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course will deal with the interplay of political and economic considerations in international relations.

470. Comparative Foreign Policy. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This course explores the sources of differences in foreign policy processes and outcomes between and within states. One school of thought holds that differences in the characteristics of the countries in question (large versus small, democratic versus authoritarian, industrialized versus developing, etc.) leads to differences in their foreign policies. Another argues that the important differences are not so much between countries as between "issue-areas," for example, military policy versus trade policy. In this course, students will evaluate the competing explanations by looking at a number of aspects of foreign policy including diplomacy, strategy, economic policy in several areas and historical cases: the World Wars, the Cold War, arms control and the arms race, North-South political and economic relations, foreign economic policies of advanced industrial states, and economic relations in Eastern Europe. (Evangelista)

471. The American Foreign Policy Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course concerns U.S.-Soviet relations and conflicts in which the U.S. has been a party in the Third World. A field trip to Washington, D.C. may be planned with visits to the White House, State Department and the Department of Defense. A simulation of American foreign policy will be conducted using computer terminals for interacting among participants. (Tanter)

472. International Security Affairs. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the key issues in U.S. security policy. Topics in nuclear weapons policy include deterrence theory, including questions of limited nuclear war and extended deterrence; the evolution of U.S. strategic nuclear doctrine and forces; Soviet strategic doctrine and forces; the effects of nuclear weapons; debates over U.S. nuclear force posture and doctrine, including counterforce weapons (MX), strategic defenses (SDI), arms control, and no-first-use. In addition, we will examine the role of conventional forces in maintaining U.S. security. Topics include NATO conventional force requirements and the debate over the Navy's maritime strategy. (Glaser)

478. International Relations of the Far East. Pol. Sci. 160 or Asian Studies 122 or Hist. 111 or equivalent. (4). (SS).

This course examines the interplay of the Great Powers in East and Southeast Asia China, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the United States from the 1840's to the present. The course is rooted in the assumption that contemporary international relations can only be understood through a sound knowledge of history. We will examine how the Great Powers repeatedly have competed for influence in Tibet, Sinkiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam. We will trace the complicated linkages between shifts in the balance of power in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East and developments in East and Southeast Asia. We will trace continuities and changes in the nature of interstate relations in the region over the past 150 years. Our approach will be chronological. This is a demanding course aimed at the serious and mature student of world affairs. The required readings are considerable. Grades will be based on a final exam and a research paper. (Oksenberg)

483. American Political Parties and Electoral Problems. Political Science 111, 140, 410, or 411; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course examines American political parties within a comparative context. After a brief discussion of the historical development of the American party system the following topics are considered: party organization, party leadership, campaigns and party finance, leadership recruitment, nominations and the national presidential convention and primary systems, elections and voting behavior, and party leadership in the policy process and in government. Much time is spent in analyzing the system from the standpoint of (1) where is it going is realignment taking place? (2) how "democratic" and responsive is it? and (3) what is the impact of the party system and its activities on the public and on society? The distinctive features of the American system in contrast to other systems are discussed as well as the factors responsible for producing the American system. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the system, to discuss its defects as well as its strong points, and to suggest types of reforms that might be introduced.

486. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Pressure Groups. One course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course is about the influence "the people" have on the decisions and actions taken by those in official governmental positions. Several channels for that influence will be considered: how aggregate public opinion is (or is not) relevant as a device for swaying governmental action; how far people's involvement in different modes of political participation can be considered effective; how political organizations, including interest groups, are created and maintained, and how they typically wield "influence." A background of at least one course in American politics is strongly recommended. (Mebane)

487. Psychological Perspectives on Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Explanations of political phenomena often rest on psychological assumptions. Studies of leadership, decision-making, socialization, public opinion and voting, violence and revolution, propaganda and persuasion all have a psychological base. The purpose of this lecture course is to survey major currents of theoretical and empirical work in the psychological analysis of politics. Extensive background in political science and psychology courses is NOT required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. Grades will be based on examinations and at least one paper. (Kinder)

490. Political Socialization. One course in political science. (4). (SS).

Course focuses on the influence of early learning, the family, peer groups, school, work place, military service and other adult organizations on the political attitudes and behavior of the mass public and political elites. We examine selected learning models as a means of organizing and understanding the literature and its relevance to adult political behavior. Method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Student evaluation is based on midterm and final exams and optional term paper. (Langton)

492. Directed Studies. Two courses in political science and permission of instructor and the Director of Undergraduate Studies. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). Political Science 491 and 492 may be elected for a total of eight credits. No more than four hours of directed study credit may be elected as part of a concentration program in Political Science.

A directed study on any subject agreed upon by a student and an advising instructor that does not duplicate a regular course offering. May be elected for 1-6 hours; a maximum of 4 credits may be applied toward the concentration core in political science. Students wishing to enroll for a directed study course are urged to work out the details of the course before the start of the term.

494. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). No more than four hours of Honors credit may be elected as part of a concentration plan in Political Science.

Open to seniors with Honors concentration in Political Science. Thesis writing course.

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 UNDERGRADUATE SEMINAR in POLITICAL THEORY. The Seminar will give students the opportunity to read and discuss in depth classical texts of 18th century British moral and political thinkers, especially Mandeville, Hume, Smith, Burke, and Ferguson. The debate over the nature of modern society, the relationship between the self-centered individual and society, and the analysis of history and time as crucial to the understanding of modernity are the main themes of the seminar. Prerequisites are a good background in the history of political thought, and the history of England from the 17th century onward. Students will be required to offer in-class presentations, and write a review essay analyzing one of the authors read in the seminar and the more recent literature about him. (Gobetti)

Section 002 UNDERGRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL THEORY. This undergraduate seminar will deal with REVISIONISM, i. e., with various schools of unorthodox Marxism, and with the reasons for the recurrent efforts to "revise" orthodox Marxist doctrine and practice. Familiarity with the general outline of Marxist theory is assumed; students who are not sure whether they meet this prerequisite are encouraged to see the instructor. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation and written work, including a major term paper. No final examination. (Meyer)

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 ISSUES IN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW. The course will examine alternative means by which we conceptualize and attempt to protect those "civil liberties" which are contained in the United States Constitution. We will focus most particularly upon liberties of political and personal expression, personal autonomy or dignity, and equal protection under the laws. Students will assume principal responsibility for reading, summarizing and critiquing prevailing views on these issues, both before their colleagues in classroom discussion, and in a major term paper. Grades will be based upon performance in classroom discussions for which students are responsible, the term paper and an essay style final examination which will be designed to test students' analytical skills as well as their organizational skills. (Warr)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 This seminar is designed for those who have had some background in Soviet or East European politics. It examines the nationalities of the USSR, policies which affect them, the ideology which informs those policies, and the reactions of the nationalities to state policies. We examine the historical and ideological development of Soviet nationality policy and then analyze several aspects of ethnopolitics: language and personnel policies, resource allocation, ethnicity and religion, ethnic relations, and demography. The course emphasizes reading and the writing of papers, including a major research paper. There are no examinations. (Gitelman)

Section 002 Within the framework of democratic theory, electoral practices in France and the U.S. will be analyzed from the perspectives of the voters and the candidates. Both presidential and legislative elections will be considered, but inasmuch as 1988 will be a presidential election year in both countries, we will give greater attention to presidential elections, in particular by monitoring the run-up to the French presidential election (to be held in the spring of 1988) and comparing it with U.S. practice. Discussion will focus on such factors in electoral choice; nomination of candidates and campaign strategies; the impact of differing party systems and electoral laws on popular political behavior and electoral results; the role of the media; and the character of governance that emerges. Each student will write two short papers and a longer research paper, making brief oral reports on the shorter ones and a fuller report on the research paper toward the end of the term. Students will perform computer analysis of sample survey data, but no prior statistical or computer experience is required or assumed. A reading knowledge of French is recommended but not required. (Pierce)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001 UNDERGRADUATE SEMINAR IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS. The seminar will review selected approaches and ideas in the study of large scale transformations of national states which we have come to call national development. The emphasis of this seminar will be on the growth of the political system and the mobilization of human and material resources through political networks. The seminar meetings will be taken up by discussions and reports by students on assigned readings. (Organski)

Section 002 STAR WARS AND ARMS CONTROL. The course concerns the relationship between ballistic missile defense and arms control. The course provides students with an overview of technologies, such as kinetic-energy and directed-energy weapons, in relation to strategic arms and limitation. (Tanter)

Section 003 INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY. This course will be an in-depth, detailed introduction to the major issues and theories of North-South relations, including: the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, international indebtedness, foreign investment, international trade and aid. A major goal will be to understand the economic links between the industrialized nations and the Third World, as well as the political impact of those economic linkages. The course will be conducted as a seminar with weekly class discussions of assigned readings. Grading will be based on a midterm, class discussions, and a major research paper. (Hawes)

Section 004 THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. This is an undergraduate seminar designed to introduce students to a number of alternative theoretical approaches to analyzing and results of empirical research on international conflict. Three basic questions will be addressed in the seminar: 1) Why do militarized disputes and crises develop among states? 2) Under what conditions are crises and disputes resolved through negotiations and when do they escalate to war? 3) Under what conditions will wars be terminated? Recommended courses include US and European diplomatic history and/or political science courses in international relations. The students will be graded on the basis of class participation, one short paper, and a final exam. The class will be conducted as a discussion of weekly readings with heavy emphasis on student participation. (Huth)

586/IPPS 586. Organizational Design. Pol. Sci. 585 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on daily life in bureaucratic organizations. To set the stage, we will first look at what a bureaucracy is. We will compare it with markets as ways of organizing work. We will then look at several features of life in a bureaucratic organization. Among the features will be authority, goals, routines, communication and learning. The main objectives of the course will be to allow the student to view life in a bureaucratic organization and to provide the student with some ways of understanding what they see. (Feldman)

592. Advanced Internship in Political Science. Two courses in political science at the 400 level or above and concentration in political science; or graduate standing. Permission of supervising instructor and review by the Department's internship advisor. No more than 4 credits of internship may be included as part of a concentration plan in political science. (2-6). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). All internship courses may be elected for a maximum total of 8 credits.

Advanced Internship requires careful, individual planning between senior students in Political Science and individual faculty members who approve the internship and provide instruction. To register for the course, the student must complete the internship form and obtain an override to enter the course. The form is available in 6619 Haven Hall.

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